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OUTLINES OF THE 



HISTORY OF PAINTING 



From 1200- 1900 A.D. 



BY 



EDMUND VON MACH, Ph.D. 

Author of "Greek Sculpture: Its Spirit and Pbinxiples," **A Handbook of Greek and Roman Sculpture,' 
Editor of the American Section of the "Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Kunstler'* 



GINN & COMPANY 

BOSTON • NEW YORK • CHICAGO • LONDON 






Entered at Stationers' Hall 



Copyright, 1906 
By EDMUND VON MACH 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



66.7 



etc gmtnaiim greg» 

GINN & COMPANY • PKO- 
PRIETORS . BOSTON ■ U.S.A. 



PREFACE 

Since lack of perspective often prevents students from reaping the benefit of 
their exertions, the author has endeavored to present here an arrangement which 
will assist them in obtaining a comprehensive view of the whole field of painting. 

The task of grouping and grading all the artists was one of such responsibility 
that the author submitted the proof sheets to various men, and arranged that each 
table should pass through the hands of at least one art critic, one executing artist, 
one art historian, and one director of an art school. He also availed himself of the 
kind services of specialists in preparing the pronouncing vocabulary of foreign names. 

In explanation of the general plan of the book the following points deserve mention. 

1. Artists are listed by their family names unless they are generally known by 
other names. In such cases the List of Artists contains cross references. 

2. The List of Artists gives the full names of the painters; the tables, however, 
contain generally only the family names unless it is necessary to distinguish between 
two or more men of the same or similar family names. 

3. Three kinds of tvpe are used in the tables to distinguish between the greatest 
artists, the important painters, and the less conspicuous men. These last are grouped 
alphabetically below partition lines. Above the lines the names are arranged chron- 
ologically. In groups of the nineteenth century heavy type is not used. 

4. Dates are given without question marks, if they are generally believed to be 
correct. Often the only information obtainable is that a man was of a certain age 
when he died. In such cases the date of his birth has been calculated by subtracting 
the number of his years from the known year of his death. The dates of many 
living artists were unascertainable. 

5. On Table 23, American painting of the nineteenth century, more names are 
given than the scope of the book may seem to warrant, because the natural interest 
in this period seemed to demand it. Space forbade including the names of all Amer- 
ican painters of note. They can be found in the American Art Annual, edited by 
Miss Florence N. Levy, and the Artists Year Book, edited by Mr. Arthur Nicholas 
Hosking. 

6. The tables are arranged with a view of serving also as a means of classifying 
photographs, stereopticon slides, or books. For example, Giotto belongs to the first 
division of the first group of Italian painting. The first letter of his name, printed 
separately, distinguishes him from other men of the same division. Photographs of 



IV PREFACE 

works by Giotto may, therefore, be designated as It. I. i. G. In order to facilitate 
such a use of the tables, the group designations are printed in the upper left-hand 
corners and are repeated as headings of the groups if there are several on one table. 
The columns represent divisions, and are numbered accordingly. The letters desig- 
nating the various artists are given chronologically above the partition lines and 
alphabetically below them. In arranging photographs the alphabetical order should 
be followed throughout. 

In preparing this larger book for the press the author pleasantly remembers its 
modest predecessor, which was privately printed three years ago for the benefit of 
the seniors of Bradford Academy, to whom, "in appreciation of good work and as a 

sign of friendship," they were dedicated. 

EDMUND VON MACH 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 
June, 1906 



CONTENTS 



Art Map of Europe and Key 



Page 



PART ONE — TABLES 



Tables 


2_ 


-6 


7- 


-9 


IO-12 


13- 


-16 


17 




18- 


-20 


21 




22- 


-23 


24 




25 




25 




26 




27- 


-28 


28 





Great Painters of all Countries 
Italian Painting .... 
German Painting . . . . 
Fle.mish Painting .... 
Dutch Painting . . . . 

Spanish Painting .... 
French Painting . . . . 
British Painting .... 
American Painting . . . . 
Russian Painting .... 
Swedish Painting . . . . 
Norwegian and Finnish Painting 
Danish Painting . . . . 
Japanese Painting 
Chinese Painting . . . . 



2 
4 
14 
20 
26 
34 
36 
42 

44 
48 

5° 
51 
52 
54 
57 



PART TWO — LIST OF ARTISTS 



Key to the Pronouncing Vocabulary of the List of Artists 
List of Artists .......... 



60 
61 



PART THREE — A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 

Chapters 

I Introduction 

II Italian Painting 

III German Painting 

IV Fle.mish Painting .............. 

V Dutch Painting . . • 

VI Spanish Painting 

VII French Painting 

VIII British Painting 

IX American Painting 

X Russian Painting 

XI Scandinavian Painting 

XII Japanese Painting 



Index to Part Three 



183 



KEY TO ART MAP OF EUROPE 

All important places for the study of art, and those which are of peculiar interest to the student of the history of painting, are marked on this map. The names of countries 
are printed as they are known in English; the names of towns, however, are printed as they are known and spelled in the various countries themselves. Greek, Russian, and 
similar names are exceptions, because it was impossible to retain their national and individual appearance owing to the necessary transliteration of foreign characters into those 
of the English alphabet. The inset map in the upper left-hand corner shows the localities where tlie three great early German schools of painting originated. 



Aachen 

Agrigentum . . . 

Aix 

Aix-la-Chapelle, scy 
Aachen 

Albany 

Alby 

Alcala de Henarcs . 

Alenyon 

Amiens 

Amstertiam . . . 

Ancona 

Angers 

Angerville .... 
Angouleme . . . 
Antwerp, Antwerpeii, 

jcv Anvers 

Anvers 

Aranjuez .... 

Arezzo 

Argos 

Aries 

Aschaffenbuig . . 

Assist 

Assos 

Athens 

Athos, Mt 

Augsburg .... 

Autun 

Au.xerre 

Avignon 

Bale 

Bamberg .... 
Barbizon .... 
Barcelona .... 
Basle, Sit Bale 

Bayeu.x 

Bayonne .... 

Beaune 

Beauvais .... 

Belfast 

Belgrade .... 
Bergamo .... 

Bergen 

Berlin 

Bern 

Blaubeuren . . . 
Blenheim .... 

Blois 

Bologna 

Bonn 

Bordeaux .... 

Bourges 

Braunschweig . . . 

Breda 

Bremen 

Brescia .... 

Brieg 

Bristol 

Broadway .... 

Brou 

Bruges (Brugge) . . 

Briihl 

Bruxelles (Brussel, 

Brussels) .... 
Budapest .... 
Bukharest .... 

Burgos 

Bushey 

C, sc-e also under K 

Cadiz 

Caen 

Cagli 

Cahors 

Cambridge .... 

Candia 

Capri 

Capua 



G 12 

P 14 
L II 



C 8 
K II 

M 6 
H 9 
G 10 

F II 
M 14 

J 8 
11 10 
K 9 



O 20 
P 19 

N 19 

J 13 

J 10 

J 10 

L 10 

J 12 

H13 

H 10 

M 9 

G 9 
L 8 
J II 

G 10 

D 7 
L17 

K13 
A 12 

F14 

J 12 
H13 

H 13 



J 

L13 
G 12 
K S 
J 10 

F13 
F II 

F13 
K1.3 
G 16 
F 8 
F 8 
II 9 
F 10 
G 12 

G II 

J 17 
L 20 
L 6 
F 9 

O 4 
G 9 
M 14 
K 9 
F 9 
Q20 
N 15 
N 15 



5 

19 
13 

8 

13 



Carpi L 13 

Caserta ^^ '5 

Castelfranco . . . K 14 

Castiglione d'Olona K 12 

Chalons H 1 1 

Chambord .... J 9 

Chantilly .... H 10 

Chartres ^^ 9 

Chenonceaux ... J 9 

Chichester . . . F 9 

Chios O 20 

Chiswick .... F 9 
Christiania, sc'e Kristiania 

Clermont .... K 10 

Cluny Ill 

Coblenz G 12 

Cologne, scv Koln 

Como K 13 

Constantinople . . N 22 
Copenhagen, see Kjoben- 
havn 

Cordova O 

Corinth P 

Corneto M 

Coutances . . . . G 
Cracow, sec Krakau 

Crema K 

Crete Q 20 

Danzig E 16 

Darmstadt . . . . H 12 

Delft (Delf) ... F 1 1 

Deles P 20 

Delphi O 19 

Dieppe G 9 

Dijon J 1 1 

Dordrecht .... F 1 1 

Dresden G 15 

Dublin D 7 

Durham D 9 

ficouen H 10 

Edinburgh .... C g 

Eleusis P 19 

Ely F 9 

Empoli L 13 

Ephesos P 21 

Epidauros .... P 19 

Escorial, El . . . M 6 

Exeter F 8 

Faenza L 14 

Falmouth .... F 7 

Ferrara L 13 

Fiesole L 13 

Firenze L 13 

Florence, .V£V Firenze 

Fontainebleau . . H 10 

Fontevrault ... J g 

Forli L 14 

Frankfurt am Main . G 1 2 

Freiberg G 14 

Freiburg J 12 

Gand G 1 1 

Genova (Genoa) . L 12 
Gent (Ghent), sec Gand 

Gibraltar .... P 5 

Girgenti P 14 

Glasgow C 8 

Gloucester .... F 8 

Goslar F 13 

Granada O 6 

Gravenhage, 'S . . F 11 

Gries J 13 

Groppoli .... L 13 

Grossgmain ... J 14 

Grottaferrata ... N 14 

Gubbio M 14 

Haarlem F 1 1 

Hague, The, see Gra- 
venhage, 'S 



Halberstadt . . . F 13 

Halikarnassos . . P 21 

Hal Gil 

Hamburg . . . . E 13 
Harlem, see Haarlem 

Hechingen .... J 12 

Heidelberg . . . . H 12 

Heilbronn . . . . H 13 

Hereford .... E 8 

Hildesheim ... F 13 

Innsbruck .... J 13 

Ithaca P 18 

Jaen O 6 

Jeperen, see Ypres 

Kalkar F 12 

Kjobenhavn ... D 14 

Knossos Q 20 

Koln G 12 

Konigsberg . . . D 1 7 

Krakau G 17 

Kristiania . . . A 14 

Kulmbach .... G 14 

Landshut . . . . H 14 

Langres ..... J 1 1 

Laon G 10 

Leau G 1 1 

Le Mans .... H 9 

Leon L 6 

Leuven, see Louvain 

Levadia P 19 

Leyden (Leiden) . F 11 

Lichfield .... Eg 

Lichtenstein ... G 14 

Liege G 1 1 

Lille G 10 

Limoges K 9 

Linlithgow .... C 8 

Lisbon N 3 

Lisieux H 9 

Liverpool .... E 8 

London F 9 

Loreto M 14 

Louvain G 1 1 

Lowen, see Louvain 

Lijbeck E 13 

Lucca L 13 

Lugano K 12 

Liineburg .... E 1 1 

Luxembourg . . . H 1 1 

Lyon K 10 

Madrid M 6 

Magdeburg . . . F 14 

Mainz G 12 

Malaga P 5 

Malines G 1 1 

Manchester ...Eg 

Mantinea .... P ig 

Mantova (Mantua) . L 13 

Marathon .... P 19 

Marienwerder . . E 16 

Marseilles .... L 1 1 
Mayence, see Mainz 

Meaux H 10 

Mecheln, see Malines 

Mei.ssen G 14 

Melos Q 20 

Messina P 15 

Metz H 1 1 

Milano (Milan) . . K 12 

Miletus P 21 

Modena L 13 

Monreale . . . . P 14 

Mont St. Michel . . H 8 

Montefalco . . . M 14 

Montepulciano . . M 14 

Moscow (Moskva) . C 23 

Moulins J 10 

Miinchen .... J 14 



Munich, see Miinchen 
Miinnerstadt . . . 

Miinster 

Murano 

Mycenae 

Nancy 

Nantes 

Napoli (Naples) . . 
Narbonne .... 

Nauplia 

Naxos 

Newlyn 

Niederwildungen 

Nimes 

Nordlingen . . . 
Norwich .... 

Noyon 

Niirnberg .... 
Nymphenburg . . 
Ober-Vellach . . . 

Olympia 

Oporto, see I'orto 

Orange 

Orchomenos . . . 

Orieans 

Orvieto 

Oxford 

Padova (Padua) . . 

Psstum 

Palermo 

Pales 

Paris 

Parma 

Patras 

Pavia 

Penzance .... 
Pergamon .... 

Perugia 

Pesaro 

Peterborough . . . 

Phasstos 

Phigalia 

Piacenza .... 

Pienza 

Piraeus 

Pisa 

Pistoia 

Poitiers 

Pompeii 

Porto 

Potsdam .... 
Prag (Prague) . . 

Prato 

Priene 

Ravello 

Ravenna .... 
Regensburg . . . 

Reggio 

Reims 

Riga 

Rimini 

Rochester .... 
Roma (Rome) . . 
Rolhenburg . . . 
Rotterdam .... 

Rouen 

St. Denis .... 
St. Gilles .... 

St. Ives 

St. Michel, see Mont 

St. Michel 
St. Petersburg 
St. Remi . . 
Salisbury . . 
Samos . . . 
Sampierdarena 
San <Iimignano 
San Ildefonso 



Sanssouci . . . . F 
G 13 Saragossa, .ftv Zaragoza 

F 12 Saronno K 

K 14 Schleissheim ... J 

P 19 Schonbrunn ... J 

H 1 1 Segovia M 

J 8 Selinus P 

N 15 Sens H 

L 9 Sevilla (Seville) . . O 
P 19 'S Gravenhage, see Gra- 
P 20 venhage, 'S 

F 7 Siena M 

G 13 Sikyon P 

L 10 Siracusa Q 

H 14 Soest F 

E 10 Soissons . . . . H 

G 10 Sparta P 

H 13 Speyer H 

J 13 Spoleto M 

J 14 Sterzing J 

P 18 Stockholm . . . . B 

Stolp E 

L 10 Strassburg . . . . H 

P 19 Stuttgart . . . . H 
H 9 Syracuse, see Siracusa 

M 14 Tegea P 

F 9 Thasos N 

K 14 Thebes P 

N 15 Tiefenbronn . . . H 

P 14 Tiryns P 

O 4 Todi M 

H 10 Toledo N 

L 13 Torgau G 

P 1 8 Torino K 

K 1 2 Toulon Mil 

F 7 Toulouse .... L 9 

O 21 Trier (Treves) . . H 11 

M 14 Troy N 20 

L 14 Troyes H 10 

E 9 Turin, see Torino 

Q 20 Ulm H 13 

P 18 Upsala A 16 

L 13 Uibino L 14 

M 13 Utrecht F 11 

P 19 Valencia N 8 

L 13 Valladolid .... M 6 

L 13 Vaphio P ig 

J 9 Varallo K 12 

N 1 5 Varsovie, see Warsaw 

L 4 Vendome ....Kg 

F 14 Venezia (Venice) . K 14 

G 15 Verneuil H 9 

L 13 Verona K '3 

P 21 Versailles . . . . H 10 

N 15 Vezelay J 10 

L 14 Vicenza R^ '3 

H 14 Vienna, see Wien 

L 13 Vincennes .... H 10 

H 10 Viterbo M 14 

C 18 Volterra M 13 

L 14 Warsaw F 17 

F 9 Warschau, see Warsaw 

N 14 Wartburg, The . . H 13 

G 15 Wells F 8 

F II Wien J 16 

G g W'inchester . . . F g 

H 10 Windsor .... F 9 

L 10 Wismar E 14 

F 7 Wolfenbiittel . . . F 13 

Worcester .... F 9 

Worms H 12 

A 20 Wurzburg .... H 13 

L 10 Xanten F 12 

F 8 York D 9 

P 21 Ypres (Ypeni) . . G 10 

L 12 Zaragoza .... M 8 

M 13 Zurich J 12 

M 6 Zwickau G 14 




Copyright, 1906, by Edmund von Mach 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 

Part One 
TABLES 



GREAT PAINTERS 

With the Exclusion of those 



The Xlllth and XlVth 
Centuries and earlier 



ITALY 



Cimabue 
Giotto 



1 240-1302 
1 266-1337 



GERMANY 



Meister Wilheltn fl. 



'370 



THE NETHERLANDS 



The XVth Century 



Fra Angelico 
Mantegna 
Botticelli -rl 



Giovanni Bellini 
Carpaccio V^ 
Perugino 



i '{J-i 



13S7-1455 

1431-1506 

1446-1510 

'-1428-1516 

440-1522 

446-1523 



H. van Eyck/ Cjj 9^^ ?-i426 
J. van Eyck v'J^" 1 381- 1440 

Bosch -^ -^ 1460-1516 



Diiret= 



1471 'S^ S 



The XVIth Century 



The XVIIth Century 



Giorgione 
da Vinci 
Raphael 



1477-1511 
1452-1519 
1483-1520 



Correggio / tiA^tv\.<X^ 1494-1 534 

Michelangelo^ ""1475-1564 
X 1477-1576 



Titian V.:- 
Veronese <■< 
Tintoretto 



/ V /'■ 



Holbein the Younger 1497-1543 
Lucas Cranach the 

Elder 147 2-1 553 



Massys 



1 528-1 588 
1518-1594 



Score! 
Mor 



Pourbus 



n:>^^ 



^-^ 



o o 



1 460- 1 530 



I495-I562 



V* 



Caravaggio 1 569- 1 609 

Ludovico Carracci > 555-1619 



Lo Spagnoletto 

(Ribera) I588-1656 



-Rubens 1577- 

- van Dyck 1 599- 
Potter 1625- 
Snyders . " 1579- 
Frans Hals 1584 

- Rembrandt 1607- 

■ Gerard Dou 1613- 
Jordaens 1 593- 

- de Hooghe 1632- 

- Ruysdael ■>■ • i625- 
Teniers the Younger 1610 

■ Hobbema 1638- 
Huysmans - -)■■. . ';. 164S 



-1640I 
-1641I 
■1654 
-1657 
•1666^ 
1669 I 



16S2 
1600 



The XVIIIth Century 



Tiepolo 



Guardi 



1 696-1 770 



1712-1793 



Mengs 



172S-1779 



OF ALL COUNTRIES 



Table i 







Of the XlXth 


Century 




SPAIN 


FRANCE 


GREAT BRITAIN AND 
AMERICA 


OTHER COUNTRIES 


( 






Kanaoka fl. 850 a.d 






• ■ 


Cho Densu 1351-1427 

Sesshiu 1421-1507 
Shiu-bun fl. xvth century 


• 


- 




Moto-nobu 1477-1559 
Tan-yu 1602- 1674 


Ribalta 

Velasquez 

Murillo 


1550-162S 
1599-1660 
1618-1682 


Poussin 1 593-1665 
Claude Lorrain 1600-1682 




Moro-nobu ?-i7ii 
K5 rin 1660-1716 


Goya 


1746-1S28 


Watteau 1684-1721 

Chardin 1699-1779 
Vemet 1712-1789 

Greuze 1725-1805 


Hogarth 1 697-1 764 
-Ramsay 17 13-1784 
Gainsborough 1 727-1 788 
Reynolds 1723-1792 
Copley 1 737-181 5 
Stuart 1755-182S 


Okie 1 733-1 795 
Abilgard [Danish] 1742-1809 
Levltzky [Russian] 1735-1822 
Gan-ku 1749-1838 



/ 



It. I. 



ITALIAN 



Gothic Period and 





FLORENTraE SCHOOL 


, 




SI£NESE SCHOOL 




c 


Cimabue 


1240-1302 








G 


Giotto 


1266-1337 










--; ,. 




D 


Duccio 


1260-1339 








L 


Pietro Lorenzetti 


?-l350 


O 


Orcagna (Andrea di Clone) 


1308-1368 


u 


Ambroggio Lorenzetti 


fl, 1342 


G2 


Giottino (Tommaso di Stefano) 


1324-1369 








S 


Spinello Aretino 


1333-1410 














B 


Taddeo Bartoli (di Bartolo) 


1363-1422 


A 


Andrea da Firenze 


fl. 1380 


Bj 


Bartolo di Fredi 


1330-1409 


Aj 


Antonio Veneziano 


1312-138S 


G 


Guido da Siena 


fl. 1275 


D 


Daddi 


?-i38o 


M 


Memmi 


?-i356 


Gs 


Gaddi, Agnolo 


I 333-' 396 


S 


Simone di Martino 


1 284-1 344 


G4 


Gaddi, Gaddo 


1239-1312 








G5 


Gaddi, Taddeo 


1 300- 1 366 








Go 


Giovanni da Milano 


fl. 1370 








J 


Jacopo da Casentino 


fl. 1350 








L 


Lorenzo Monacco, Don 


1370-1422 








N 


Niccolo di Pietro (Gerini) 


fl. 1380 








S2 


Stamina 


1354-1413 








T 


Traini 


fl. 1350 








V 


Volterra, Francesco da 


fl. 1350 









PAINTING 



Table 2 







Trecento. 


XlVth Century 


3 






VARIOUS SCHOOLS 


PAINTERS OF TRANSITION 








Note. These three painters are often called the painters of 
transition. In reality there was an unbroken develop- 








ment of art. The names of these artists, therefore, are 
again listed where the)" properly belong, as indicated 
by the designations in brackets. 

Stamina [It. I. i. So] 1354-1413 
Gentile da Fabriano [It. 11. 3. F] 1 360-1428 
Fra Angelico (Giovanni da Fiesole) [It. II. i. A] I387-1455 




Bologna 






A 


Avanzii, Jacopo degli 

Tuscany at large 


fl- '375 




M 


Margaritone 

Umbria 


1 2 16-1290 




L 


Lorenzo da San Severino 

Venice 


1 374-? 




S 


Semitecolo 

Verona and Padua 


1351-1400 




Ao 


Altichiero da Zevio 


fl. 1350 




A3 


Avanzi, Jacopo d' 


fl- >375 





It. II. 



ITALIAN 



Quattrocento. XVth Century 
2 3 



FLORENCE 


SIENA 


UMBRIA AND PERUGIA 


FERRARA AND BOLOGNA 


M 


Masaccio 1401-142S 








F 


Gentile da Fa- 

briano 1360- 1428 






A 


Fra Angelico 1387-1455 
















L 


Fra Filippo 

Lippi 1 406- 1 469 
















V 


Verrochio 1 435- 1 488 








S 


Giovanni Santi 1435-1494 


T 


Cosimo Tura 1430-1495 


G 


Ghirlandajo, 

Domenico 1449- 1494 








M 

N 


Melozzo da 

Forli 143S-1494 
Niccolo da 






B 


Botticelli 1446-15 10 










Foligno 1 430- 1 502 






u 


Filippino Lippi 1457-1504 








So 
P 


Signorelli 144 1-1523 
Perugino 1446-1523 


F 


Francia, Fran- 
cesco 1450-1 517 - 


C 


Piero di Co- 

simo 1 462- 1 52 1 








P-2 

S3 


Pinturicchio 1 4 5 4- 1 5 1 3 
Lo Spagna ?-iS3° 






Cs 


Lorenzo di 

Credi i459-'537 












C 


Lorenzo Costa 1460-1535 


B2 


Baldovinetti 1427-1499 


A 


Ansano di Pietro 


1405-1481 


B 


Bonfiglio 1425-1496 


B 


Bianchi 1447-1510 


B3 


Botticini 1446-1497 


D 


Domenico di 




C 


Camevale, Fra fl. 1456 


C2 


Cossa fl. 1450-1470 


Cs 


Castagno 1 390-1 457 




Bartolo 


?-l444 


Fo 


Fiorenzo di Lo- 


G 


Grandi, Ercole di 


D 


Diamante, Fra 1430-1492 


F 


Fungai 


1460-1516 




renzo 1444-1521 




Giulio 1 462-1 531 


D2 


Domenico Vene- 


G 


Giorgio di Mar- 




F3 


Francesca 1420-1492 


Go 


Grandi, Ercole di 




ziano 1390- 1 46 1 




tini 


I439-I5°2 


G 


Genga 1476-155' 




Roberti fl. 1475-1496 


G2 


Garbo, Raffaelino 


M 


Matteo di Gio- 




I 


Ingegno, L' fl. 1480 


M 


Mazzuola (lived in ' 




del 1466-1524 




vanni 


1435-1495 


N2 


Nelli, Ottaviano ■''-1444 




Parma) ?-I50S 


G3 


Ghirlandajo, 


S 


Stefano di Gio- 




Ps 


Palmezzano 1456-1527 


P 


Panetti 1460-1512 




Benedetto 1458-1497 




vanni (Sas- 




P4 


Pellegrino da 


Z 


ZaganelU ?-i5i8 


G4 


Ghirlandajo, 

Davide 1452-1525 


V 


salta) fl. 
Vecchietta 


1436 
1412-1480 




Modena 146S-1524 






G5 


GozzoH, Benozzo 1424-1498 
















Mo 


Mainardi ■'- ' 5 1 3 
















Ms 


Masolino 1383-1440 
















P 


Pesellino 1422-1457 
















P2 


Pollajuolo, An- 
tonio I 433- I 498 
















P3 


Pollajuolo, 

Pietro 1 443- 1 496 
















R 


Rosselli, Cosimo 1439-1507 
















U 


Ucello, Paolo 1397-1475 

















PAINTING 



Table 3 



Early Renaissance 

6 7 



LOMBARDY 



PADUA 



VERONA AND VICENZA 



VENICE 



Vincenzo Foppa 

the Elder 1455-1492 



Ambroggio 1445-1523 



-1500 

?-iS26 
1460-15 18 
1450-1526 
1436-1507 

"-1473 



Bembo, Bonifazio 

Bembo, Gian 
Francesco 

Boccaccino 

Bramantino 

Buttinone 

Galassi 

GiovenoneT Piede- 

Macrino i- mont fl. 1500 
d'AlbaJ Branch .'-152S 

Melone fl. 1490 

Sacchi, Pier-Fran- 
cesco (lived in 
Genoa) fl. I 51 2-1 526 

Zenale 1436-1526 



M 



Uantegna 



1431-1506 



Montagnana 
Pizzolo 
Squarcione 
Zoppo, Marco 



1 450-1499 
1470 

1 394-1 474 
1445-1498 



Vittore Pisano 

(Pisanello) I3S0-1456 



Morando (Cavaz- 

zola) 1486-1522 

Bartolommeo 

Montagna 1450-1523 



Bonsignore 

Caroto 

Falconetto 

Liberate da Ve- 
rona 

Morone, Dome- 
nico 

Morone, Fran- 
cesco 

Speranza 

Stefano da Zevio 1393-1450 



1455-1519 
1470-1546 
'45S-1534 

■451-1536 

1 44 2- 1 508 

1474-15-9 
fl. 1500 



Aa 

B3 
B4 

B5 
Be 
B7 
Bs 
C4 

D 
F 
G 

M 
Ms 
P 
R 

V 

V2 

Vs 



Jacopo Bellini 1400- 1464 



Carlo Crivelli 1430-1493 
Antonello da 

Messina 1444-1493 



Giovanni Bel- 
lini 1428-1516 
Carpaccio 1440-1522 



Catena 



1465-1531 



i444-'45> 

1490 

1 440-1 516 



Alemannus, Gio- 
vanni fl. 
Antonello da 

Saliba fl, 
Barbari 
Bartolommeo 

Veneto fl. xvth century 
Basaiti 1 450-1 521 

Bastiani 1450-1508 

Bellini, Gentile 1 426-1 507 
Bissolo 1464-152S 

Cima da Cone- 

gliano 1460-1517 

Diana .'-1500 

Flore, del fl. 1400-1439 

Giovanni di Mar- 
tini da Udine '-1535 
Mansueti fl. 1500 

Marziale fl. 1492-1507 

Previtali 1480-1528 

Rondiiiello fl. 1425-1500 

The Vivarini 

Antonio da Murano ?-i470 
Bartolommeo da 

Murano fl. 1450-1499 
Luigi (AKise) the 

Elder fl. 1414 
Luigi the Younger .'-1503 



It. III. 



ITALIAN 



Cinquecento. 



XVIth Century 
2 



A 
B 
V 
R 



G 

M 



F 

Pa 
Ps 
Ro 



FLORENCE AND ROME, ALSO UMBRIA 



SIENA 



Albertinelli 
Fra Bartolommeo 
Leonardo da Vinci 
Raphael 

Andrea del Sarto 



Giulio Romano 
Michelangelo Buonarrotti 



Followers of Albertinelli and 
Fra Bartolommeo 



B2 
G2 

Gs 
P 



Bugiardini 
Ghirlandajo, Ri- 

dolfo 
Granacci 
Paolino, Fra 
Sogliani 



1475-1554 

1483-1561 

1477-1543 
1490-1547 
1492-1544 



Followers of Andrea del Sarto 



Bacchiacca, II 
Franciabigio 

(Bigio) 
Pontormo 
Puligo 
Rosso de' Rossi 

(II Rosso) 
Ubertini 



1494-1557 

1482-1525 

I 494-1 557 
1 492-1 527 

H94-1541 
1494-1557 



1474-1515 
1475-1517 
1452-1519 
14S3-1520 

14S6-1531 



1 492- 1 546 

1475-1564 



Followers of Michelangelo 

Venusti i5'5-'5'55 

Volterra, Daniele 

da 1 509-1666 

See also Piombo It. III. 6. P2 

Followers of Raphael 

Andrea da Saler- 
no (Sabbatini) 1480-1545 

Carravaggio, Poli- 

dore da i 490-1 543 

Giovanni da 

Udine 1487-1564 

Penni (II Fattore) 1488-1528 

Vaga, del 1 500-1 547 

Vincenzo da San 

Gimignano 1492-1529 

Vite 1 469- 1 523 

See also Bagnaca- 

vallo It. III. 3. B 

Imola It. III. 3. 1 

Primaticcio It. III. 3. P 



P2 
P3 



II Sodoma 



1477-1549 



Beccafumi 14S6-1551 

Girolamo di Ben- 

venuto 1470-1524 

Pacchia '477-1535 

Pacchiarotti 1474-1550 

Peruzzi 14S1-1537 



FERRARA AND BOLOGK 



Dosso Dossi 1479-15J 



Aspertini 
Bagnacavallo 
Ferrari, Defend- 

ente fl. 

Fontana, Lavinia 
Francia, Giacomo 
Francia, Giovam- 

battista 
Francia, Giulio 
Garofalo 
Imola 
Mazzolino 
MazzuoU 
Ortolano, L' 
Passerotti 
Primaticcio 
Procaccini, Ca- 

millo 
Procaccini, Ercole 

the Elder ' 
Procaccini, Giulio 

Cesare 
See also Calvaert 



1475- 
1484- 

1525 

1552- 

1486- 

•533- 
14S7- 
1481- 
1494- 
147? 

1467- 
1520 
1504- 



.55 = 

154=1 



1614 
'557 



■i57f 



Fl 



9 
>7 

326 
vitl 

.ry 

644 



PAINTING 



Table 4 



High Renaissance 

5 6 





LOMBARDY 




PARMA 






VENICE 




Under Venetian Influence 


.1 








i 




BRESCIA, VERONA, VICENZA, etc. 












G 


Giorgione 1477-151 1 
















P 


Palma II Vec- 
ellio (i.e. the 






■* 


Luini 1475-1533 


C 


CorreggiO (Anto- 
nio AUegri) 


1494-1534 




Elder) 1480-I528 














P2 


Seba.stiano del 


















Piombo 14S5-1547 


M 


11 Moretto 1498-1555 












T 


Titian (Tiziano 

Vecellio) I 47 7- 1 5 76 










G 


Gatti 


1490-1575 |b 

1 


Paris Bordoiie 1500-1570 


M, 


Moroni 1520-1578 












V 
T2 


Paolo Veronese 1 5 28- 1 5 88 
Tintoretto, 








Lo Scarsellino 1551-1621 


A 






Bo 


Jacopo 1518-1594 


B 






Abbate 1512-1570 


Allegri, Pompo- 




Bassano, Fran- 


Badile 15 16-1560 


^2 


Aleni(Il Fadino) fl. i 500-1 515 




nio 


1521-1593 




cesco '55°-' 591 


B2 


Brusasorci the 


^3 


Anguisciola 


A2 


Anselmi 


1491-1554 


B3 


Bassano, Giovan-i fl. xvith 




Elder (Domen- 




Sofonisba 1 535-1625 


B 


Bartolotti 


1450-1527' 




ni Battista ) century 




ico Riccio) 1494-1567 




Beltraffio 1467-1516 


C2 


Caselli fl. 


14S9-1507 IB4 


Bassano, Girola- \ fl. xvith 


B3 


Brusasorci the 




Campi, Bernard- 


M 


Mazzola, Giro- 




mo \ century 




Younger 




ino 1 522-1 590 




lamo 


1 520-1 580 


B5 


Bassano, Jacopo 




( Felice Riccio) 1 540- 1 605 


2 


Campi, Galeazzo 1477-1536 


P 


Parmigianino 






the Elder 1510-1592 


B4 


Buonconsiglio (II 


3 


Campi, Giulio 1500-1572 




(Francesco 




Be 


Bassano, Leandro 155S-1623 




Marescalco) fl. I497-1530 




Cesare da Sesto 1485-1523 




Mazzola) 


1504-1540 


B7 


Beccaruzzi fl. 1527-1544 


F 


Farinati, Battista 1 532-1 592 


Civerchio 1470-1540 


R 


Rondani 


.'-.548 


Bs 


Eonifazio I (Vero- 


F2 


Farinati, Paolo 1524-1606 


Conti, Bernardino 

dei fl. 1490 










nese the El- 
der) 1 490-1 540 


Fa 


„ ,. 1 fl. early 
Foeolmo, ! . , 

° ) xvith century 


'^errari, Gauden- 








B9 


Bonifazio II (Vero- 


G 


Girolamo dai 


zio 14S1-1547 










nese the 




Libri 1474-1555 


^ f oppa, Vincenzo fl. xvith 










Younger) ?-I53j 


M3 


Montagna, ) fl. early 


the Younger century 








Bio 


Bonifazio III (Ve- 




Benedetto) xvith century 


'olamo, da 










neziano) fl. I 555-1 579 


R 


Romanino 1485-1566 


' Capri 1 501-1 561 








C 


Cagliari, Benedet- 


S 


Savoldo 1480-1548 


P\,_ 1510-1578 










to (Veronese) 153S-1598 


T 


Torbido (11 Moro) .1486-1546 


Ri " d'Oggione 1470-1530 








C2 


Cagliari, Carletto 






Rj ni (Giam- 
■^ petrino) fl. 1520-1550 
laino (Salai) 14S3-1520 








c„ 


(Veronese) I570-1596 
Cagliari, Gabriele 

(Veronese) 1568-1631 




6 [continued^ 








^-•3 


P4 


Pellegrino da San 


^jlario 1458-1530 








Ci 


Campagnola 1490-1564 




Daniele 1460-1547 




libaldi 1 532-1 592 








Co 
F 

Go 

K 

L 
M 
P3 


Cariani 1480-1541 
Contarini 1 549-1 605 
Francesco da San- 

tacroce fl. 1 504-1 541 
Girolamo da San- 

tacroce fl. 1 520-1 549 
Kalkar, Giovanni 

di 1510-1546 
Lotto, Lorenzo 14S0-1554 
Marconi fl. 1 505-1 520 
Palma 11 Giovane 

(i.e. the Younger)! 544-1 62S 


Ps 

Po 

S 
T3 

Vo 

Vs 
V4 
Z 


Pordenone, Ber- 
nardino •''-1541 

Pordenone, Gio- 
vanni 1483-1539 

Schiavone, Andrea 1 522-1 582 

Tintoretto, Do- 

menico 1 562-1637 

Vecellio, Fran- 
cesco 1475-1560 

Vecellio, Marco 1545-1611 

Vecellio, Orazio 1515-1576 

Zeloti 1 532-1 592 



It. 


IV. 












ITALIAN 1 ^ 




The XVIIth and XVIIIth Centuries and in the ^ 


1 


2 


3 ^ 


THE MANNERISTS 


THE ECLECTICS 


THE NATURALISTS 

1 "^ 


B 


Bronzino 


1502-1572 










1 


V 


Vasari 


1511-1574 










H 








C 


Annibale Carraci 


1560-1609 


C 


Michelangelo da Caravag- 








C2 


Ludovico Carraci 


1555-1619 




gio, I56g-i6q 








D 


Domenichino (Domenico 
Zanipieri) 


1581-1641 












G 


Guido Reni 


iS7S-'642 


s 

R 


11 

Lo SpagnolettO (Giuseppe 

Ribera) I588-l6sf 
Salvator Rosa 161 5-1673 








D2 


Carlo Dolci 


1616-1686 




1 

See also Elzheimer G. III. E 


A 


AUori, Alessandro 


1535-1607 


A 


Albani 


1578-1660 


Co 


Cambiaso, of Genoa 1527-1585 


B2 


Baroccio 


1528-1612 


A2 


Allori, Cristofano 


1577-1621 [Ca 


Castello, Bernardo, of Genoa 1557-16291 


C 


Carducci 


1 560-1608 


B 


Badalocchio 


1 581-1647 iCi 


Castello, Castellino 1579-16^ 


C2 


Cesare, Giuseppe (Cavaliere 




Bo 


Berettini da Cortona, Pietro 


1 596-1669 ; L 


Lissandrino (Alessandro Mag- M 




d'Arpino) 


1 568-1640 


B3 


Bonone (Carracci of Ferrara) 


1 569-1632 




nasco) 1661-' ■ 


S 


Salviati 


1510-1563 


C3 


Cagnacci 


1601-1681 


p 


Pomarance, Cristoforo delle f 


S2 


Santi di Tito 


1 563- 1 603 


C4 


Carracci, Agostino 


1557-1602 




(Roncalli) 1 552-* 16 


z 


Zucchero, Federigo 


1543-1609 


C5 


Carracci, Francesco 


1 595-1622 


P2 


Pomarance, Niccolo delle fl. end jih 


Z2 


Zucchero, Taddeo 


1 529-1 566 


C6 


Cavedone 


1577-1660 




(Roncalli) centif 








C7 


Crespi 


1590-1630 


S2 


Strozzi, Bernardo (11 Capuc- 1 








G2 


Guercino, 11 (Barbieri) 


1 591-1666 




cino) 1581^144 








L 


Lanfranco 


1 580-1647 




V 








M 


Maratti (Maratta) 


1625-1713 












R 


RomanelU 


1610-1662 












S 


Sassoferrato, 11 


1605-1685 












S2 


Schidone 


1570-1615 












S3 


Solimena 


1657-1747 










S4 


Stanzione 


1 585-1656 










T 


Tiarini 


1 577-1668 










V 


Vaccaro 


1 598-1670 







PAINTING 



Table 5 



XVIth Century the Forerunners of the Late Styles 

5 



THE LATE VENETIANS 



OTHER ARTISTS 



II Padovanino 



Pietro Liberi 



1 590-1650 



1605-1687 



II CanalettO (Antonio da 

Canale) 1697-I768 

Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista 1696- 17 70 
BelottO (II CanalettO the 

nephew) 1720-1780 

Guardi 1 712-1793 



Amalteo 
'vmigoni 
!;arriera 
• an ,:anl 

irini 

deli (Vincentino) 

^ziano 
:azza 
Piazzetta 
Ricci, Marco 
Ricci, Sebastiano 
Tiepolo, Domenico 
Turchi (L'Orbetto) 



1 505-1 584 
1675-1752 
i675-'757 
1515-1565 

1657-1735 
1539-1614 

i530-'592 ' F 

?-i56i 
16S2-1754 
1679-1729 

1 659-1 734 

1727-1S04 
15S2-1650 



Schools of Bologna, Florence, Genoa 



Benedetto Cavaliere Luti, 

of Florence 1666- 1724 



School of Bologna 
Cignani 

Procaccini, Ercole the Younger 
Spada 



1628-1719 
1 596-1676 
1576-1622 



Schools of Naples, Perugia, Rome, Siena 



School of Florence 



Furini 

Gentileschi 

Manozzi 

Passignano 

Rosselii, Matteo 

Zuccarelli 

School of Genoa 
Carloni, Giambattista 
Carloni, Giovanni 
Castiglione 
Piola 



I 600- I 649 
1562-1647 
1 590-1636 
1550-160S 
157S-1650 
1702-17SS 



1 5 94- 1 680 
1591-1630 
1616-1670 
162S-1703 



Vincenzo Aniemolo, of 
Naples 



?_i 



540 



Luca Giordano (Fa-Presto), 

of Naples 1632-1705 

Giovanni Paolo Pannini, 

of Rome 169 5- 1768 

Francesco Appiani, of 

Perugia 1 704-1 792 



School of Naples 




Conca 


1679-1764 


School of Rome 




Batoni 


1708-17S7 


Ferri 


1634-16S9 


Pietro da Cortona 


1596-1669 


Sacchi, Andrea 


1600-1661 


Vanvitelli (van Wittel) 


1647-1736 


School of Siena 




Salimbeni 


1557-1613 


Vanni 


1 563-1 609 



It. V. 



ITALIAN 



L 

u 

N 
R 
T 
Z2 



B 

M2 



The XlXth 

2 



VENICE 





Genre 




F 


Favretto 

Landscape 


1849-1887 


C 


Ciardi 


- 


Fo 


Fragiacomo 

See also Boldini [of Fer- 


1856- 




rara] 


Fr. IV. 13 B 




History 




M 


Molmenti 


1819- 


S 


Schiavone, Felice 


1803-1S68 


So 


Schiavone, Natale 


1777-1858 


z 


Zona 

Genre 


1S13- 


Co 


Conti, Tito 


1847- 


D 


Dall' Oca Bianca 


- 



Lancerotto 

Lonza 

Mion, Luigi 

Nono, Luigi 

Rotta 

Tito 

Zessos 



Bezzi 
Laurent! 

Mainella 



Landscape 



1848- 
1846- 

1850- 
1828- 
1859- 



185.- 
1854- 
1858- 



H 



M 



MILAN 



Classicist 



TURIN 



A Appiani 



1754-1S17 



Romanticist 
Hayez 1 791-1 882 



Landscape 

Pasini 1 826-1 899 

Segantini 185 8- 1899 

Architecture 

Migliara 1 785-1 S37 



Genre 

Bertini 

Bianchi 

Cremona 

Induno, Domenico 

Induno, Girolamo 

Mentessi 

Mose 

Muzzioli 

Pagliano 

Previati 

Landscape 

Bazzaro 

Carcano 

Ferragutti 

Filippini, [of Brescia] 

Gola 

Mariani, Cesare 

Marian:, Pompeo 

Sartori 

12 



1825-1899 
1840- 

-1878 
1815-1878 
1827-1890 

1835- 

1854-1S94 

1826- 



1853- 
1840- 
1862- 

1S53- 

1S52- 

1826-I9OI 

1857- 

1863- 



1895 



Figure 



Gastaldi 



1819-1889 







Landscape 




A 


Azeglio 




1 798-1 866 


D 


Delleani 




1840- 


G2 


Gamba 




183 I -I 883 


M 


Mosso 




1849-1877 


Q 


Q uadrone 




1 844-1 898 


V 


Viotti 




1845-1877 



PAINTING 



Century 

5 



Table 6 





TUSCANY 






ROME 




NAPLES 












Eclectic 














C 


Camuccini 1 775-1 844 














M 


Minardi 1 787-1 87 1 










History 














F 


Fattori 


1828- 




History 




Genre 




M 


Mussini, Luigi 


I Si 3-1 888 


B 


Barabino [of Genoa] 1832-1S91 


M 


Michetti 


1852- 












Mj 


Morelli 


1826- 




Portrait 






Genre 


P 


Palizzi 


1818-I888 


G 


Gordigiani 


1828- 


S 


Sartorio, Aristide [Famous 
also for his landscape 
studies in pastels] 1861- 


B 
V 


Landscape 
Brancaccio 
Vertunni 


1 826- 1 897 










See also Fortuny Sp. III. 2. F 




See also Fortuny Sp. III. 2. F 










Pradilla Sp. III. i. P 




Nittis, de Fr 


IV. 13. N 










ViUegas Sp. III. 2. V 










Classicist 






Romanticist 








B 


Benvenuti, Pietro 


1769-1S44 


C2 


Coghetti 1804-1875 










History 




P 


Podesti 1S00-1S95 








Ba 


Berzuoli 


17S4-1855 












B, 


Bruzzi 


- 












C 


Cassioli 


1832-1891 












-2 


Ciseri 


i82i-:S9i 












fj 


Franchi 


183S- 








Genre 




Ws 


Maccari 


1840- 






C 


Campriani 


1848- 


Via 


Martinetti 


- 






Ci 


Celentano 


I 835-1 863 


NU 


Mussini, Cesare 


1808- 




Genre 


Cs 


Chirico, di 


1845- 


P 


PoUastrini 


1817-1876 


B2 


Bompiani 1821- 


D 


Dalbono 


1843- 


s 


Signorini 


'S35 


C3 


Chierici 1S38- 


Ms 


Mancinelli, Giuseppe 


1813-1875 


J 


Ussi 


1S22- 


C4 


Corelli 1855- 


M4 


Marinelli 


I 820-1 892 








F 


Fracassini 1838-1868 


Ms 


Miola 


1840- 




Genre 




J 


Jocavacci 183S- 


N 


Netti 


183 2- I 894 


\ 


Andreotti 


1847- 


h 


Joris 1843- 


N2 


Nigris 


1812- 


J"2 


Gelli 


1852- 


S 


Sanctis, de 1829- 


S 


Saporetti 


1832- 


V 


Vinea 


1S46- 


T 


Tiratelli ' 1842- 


S2 


Sciuti 


1S35- 








V 


Vanutelli 1834- 
Landscape 


S3 


Simoni 

Landscape 


1846- 










See above, Tiratelli It. V. 5. T 


C4 


Carlandi 

Cortese 

Sassi 


1848- 
1829- 












S5 


Simonetti 


- 


























Military Picture 




Animals 










R 


Rossi Scotti 1S48- 


Co 


Chialiva [studio in France] 


~ 



'3 



G. I. and II. 



GERMAN 



The XlVth, XVth, 



I. — BEGINNING OF THE FOURTEENTH AND THE FIFTEENTH CENTURIES 
2 3 



SCHOOL OF COLOGNE 
Niederrheinische Schule 



SCHOOL OF WESTPHALIA 
including Frankfort and Mayence 



SCHOOL OF SUABIA 
AUemannisch-Schwabische Schule 



SCHOOL OF BOHEMIA 



M 



M2 



Ma 
M4 

Ms 

Me 

M7 
Ms 

M9 



Meister Wil- 

helm fl. 1370 



Meister Stephan 
Lochner fl. 1450 



Master of the Altar 
of St. George 

Master of the Bar- 
tholomew and 
Thomas Al- 
tar fl. 

Master of the Glori- 
fication of 
Mary 

Master of the 
Holy Kith 
and-Kin 

Master of the Life 
of Mary fl. 

Master of the 
Lyversberg 
Passion fl 

Master of St. 
Severin 

Meister (Master) 
Berthold fl 



fl. xivth F 
century K 
L 
M 



[500 

1 fl. XVth 
[century 

end xivth 
century 

1463-1492 



1 463- 1 480 
~1 fl. XVth 
/century 

1425 



FyoU, Konrad fl. 1466-1498 
Korbecke fl. xivth century 
Lon, Gert von fl. 1505-1521 
Master of the 

Amsterdam 

Cabinet (des 

Wolfegger 

Hausbuchs) 
Master of 

Liesbom fl. 1465 
Soest, Konrad 

von fl. 1400 



fl. xivth 
century 



Isenmann, Kaspar ?-l466 

Justus de 

AUamagna fl. 1451 

Moser, Lucas fl. 1 431 

,;r , u u ~l fl-xvth 

Multscher, Hans )■ 

J century 

Witz, Konrad fl. 1 430-1 450 



W 



Theodorich of 

Prague fl. 1348-137! 



Wurmser, 
Nicolaus 



fl. I 



348-i3<. 



14 



PAINTING 



Table 7 



and XVIth Centuries 



II. — THE GREAT PERIOD — THE LATE FIFTEENTH AND THE SIXTEENTH CENTURIES 
12 3 4 



^ FRANCONIAN 


SCHOOL SCHOOL OF WESTPHALIA SUABIAN SCHOOL 


SAXON SCHOOL 






and the Lower Rhine 


including Countries South of Suabia 






> 


Hans Pleydenwurff ?-i472 


























S 


Martin Schon- 

gauer 1446- 1488 


















P 


Michel Packer 1430-1498 








N 


Michel Wolge- 

mut 
Albrecht Durer 


1434-1519 
1471-1528 


A 


Heinrich Alde- 

grever i 502-1 558 


H 
B 
H2 

A 
R 


Hans Holbein 

the Elder 1460- 1524 
Hans Burck- 

mair 1473-1531 
Hans Holbein the 

Younger i 497-1 543 

Hans von Aachen 

(Achen) 1562-1615 

Johann Rotten- 
hammer 1 564-1623 


C 
Co 


Lucas Cranach the 
Elder 1472- 

Lucas Cranach the 
Younger 1 5 1 5- 


■553 
1586 


A 


Altdorfer 


14S0-153S 


B 


Bruyn, Arnold fl. 1550 


Aj 


Amberger fl.i 530-1 561 


G 


Griinewald ?- 


-1529 


B 


Baldung 


1476-1545 B2 


Bruyn, Barthel the 


A3 


Apt, Ulrich fi. 14S6-1532 








B2 


Beham, Barthel 


1 502-1 540 


Elder (Bar- 


A4 


Asper 1499-1571 








Bs 


Beham, Sebald 


1 500-1 550 


tholomaus) I494-I557 


Bo 


Bocksberger 1 540-? 








B4 


Binck 


I49t>-i569 Bg 


Bruyn, Barthel the 


B3 


Breu ?->536 








Dj 


Diirer, Hans 


1490-? 


Younger fl. 1550 


B4 


Burckmair, 








F 


Feselen 


?-i538 D 


Diinwegge, 




Toman fl. 1 460-1 523 








K 


Kulmbach 


?-IS22 


Heinrich fl. 1520 


F 


Frass, Leo [Perhaps 








M 


Mielich- 


1516-1573! D2 


Diinwegge, 




identical with 








Pa 


Pencz 


1 500-1550 


Victor fl. 1520 




artist signing 








Ps 


Pleydenwurff, 


F 


Fries 1 465-1 520 




L. F.] fl. 1502 










Wilhelm 


1450-1494 M 


Master of the 


G 


GiltUnger 1460-1522 








S 


Schaufelin 


1490-1540 


Death of 


H3 


Herbst fl. 1500 








S2 


Springinklee 


?-i54o 


Mar)-* fl. 1 530-1 550 Hi 


Herlin ?-i499 








U 


Uffenbach 


1 570-1 640 


R 
R2 


Ring, Hermann i H5 
tom 1521-1597 

Ring, Ludger tom, M 
the Elder 1496-1547 | S2 


Holbein, Sieg- 

mund 1465-1540 
Maurer fl. 1570 
Schaffner fl. 1 500-1 535 














R3 


Ring, Ludger tom, 

the Younger 1521-1584 


S3 
S4 


Schiichlin '-'SOS 
Schwarz 155°-' 597 














W 


Woensam fl. 152S-1561 


S5 
Ss 
Z 


Stimmer 1 534-1 582 
Strigel 1461-1528 
Zeitbloom fl. 1484-1517 

See also Witte (Candido) 










See also Neuchatel 




* Perhaps identical with 




FI. II. i.W 












Fl. II. I. N 




Joost van Cleef Fl. II. i. C 




Spranger, Barthol- 

omiius Fl. II. i.S. 









G. 


[II. and IV. 










GERMAN 




The XVIIth and 




III. — THE SEVENTEENTH 


CENTURY 


IV. —THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 
1 2 








HISTORY AND FIGURE 


LANDSCAPE 

Architecture, Animals 




E 


Adam Elzheimer 


1574-1620 


R 
D 


Georg Philipp Rugendas 1666-1742 
Balthasar Denner 1685-1749 








R 


Johann Heinrich Roos 


1631-16S5 


C 
G 


Daniel Chodowiecki 1726-1801 
Anton Graff 1736-1 81 3 








H 


Heinz, Joseph the Elder 


1 565-1 609 


K 


Kupetzki 1667-1740 


B 


Beich 


1665-1748 


H2 


Heinz, Joseph the Younger 


1 590-1655 


M 


Meytens (Mytens) (bom in Stock- 


Bo 


Brand, Christian Hilfgott 


1695-1756 


H3 


Hoffmann, Samuel 


1592-1648 




holm) 1 696- 1 7 70 


B3 


Brand, Johann Christian 


1723-1795 


K 


Kager 


1 566-1634 






F 


Feistenberger, Anton 


167S-1722 


Kj 


Konig 


fl. 1610 






F2 


Feistenberger, Joseph 


1 684-1 735 


L 


Lembke 


1631-1713 






Fs 


Fischer 


1729-1810 


U 


Loth, Karl (Carlotto) 


I 63 2- I 698 






G 


Gessner 


I 730-1 7^7 


M 


Merian, Maria Sibylla 


1647-1717 






H 


Hackert 


1 737-1807 I 


M2 


Merian, Matthaus 


1621-1687 






K 


Kobell 


1740-1799 ' 


Ms 


Mignon 


1640-1679 






M 


Morgenstem 


1738-1819 ■■ 





Owens, Jurgen 


1623-1679 






R 


Riedinger, Johann Elias 


169S-1767 i 


P 


Paudiss 


161S-1666 






R2 


Roos, Johann Melchior 


1659-173' 


R2 


Roos, Philipp Peter (Rosa di 
Tivoli) 


1655-1705 






Rs 


Roos (Rosa), Joseph 


1726-1805 


Rs 


Ruthart 


fl. 1660-1680 












S 


Sandra rt 


1606-16S8 












S2 


Scheits 


1 640- 1 700 












S3 


Soest (Zoest), Gerard 


.'-1 68 1 












T 


Tamm 


1658-1724 












W 


Weyer 


?-i690 













PAINTING 



Table 8 



XVIIIth Centuries 



IV. — THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 
4 



DECORATION 



Daniel Gran 



1694-1757 



Asam 

Knoller 

Troger 

Unterberger 

Zick 



1742 
1804 
1777 



STILL LIFE AND IMITATORS 

of Various Style 



16S6-1 

■725- 
169S- 

I695-I75S ; H 



D 



CLASSICAL REVIVAL 



■733-1797 



H., 
H3 

J 

Q 

s 



Angermeyer [Still Life] 
Byss [Still Life] 
Dietiich, Christian 
Hamilton, Charles William de 
Hamilton, Jean George de 
Hamilton, Philip Ferdinand 

de fl. 

Juncker [Still Life] 
Querfurt 
Seekatz 



I 674-1 740 
1660-173S 
1712-1774 
1 670-1 754 
1666-1740 

1 664- 1 7 50 
1 703-1 767 
1697-1761 
1719-1768 



Anton Raphael Mengs 1728-1779 
Asmus Jacob Carstens 1754-1798 

Angelica Kauffmann 1741-1807 



Koch, Joseph Anton 

Schick 

Tischbein 

Wachter 



176S-1839 

1779-1812 
1751-1829 
1762-1S52 



17 



G. 


V. 














1 

GERMAN 




The XlXth Century 




1 


2 


3 


CLASSICISTS AND PAINTERS 


ROMANTICISTS (NAZARENES) 


OLDER ARTISTS OF IMPORTANT 


OF HEROIC LANDSCAPES 


AND FRESCO PAINTERS 


a 


ART CENTERS 

b 












Diisseldorf 




Berlin 


G 


Genelli 179S-1S68 


C 


Cornelius 1 783-1 867 


A 


Achenbach, 




B 


Blechen [Land- 


P 


Preller, Friedrich 


K 


Kaulbach, Wil- 




Andreas 






scape] I 79S- I S40 




the Elder 1 804-1 S78 




helm von 1805- 1847 




[Landscape] 


1815- 


K 


Kriiger [Horses 


R 


Rottmann 1 797-1850 





Overbeck 1789-1869 


C 


Camphausen 


1818-1885 




and Portraits] 1797-1857 






S 


Schnorr von 

Carolsfeld 1 794-1 872 


K 
L 

S 


Knaus [Genre] 
Lessing [History 
and Land- 
scape] 
Schadow [The 
father of the 
Diisseldorf 
School] 


1829- 
1808- 1 880 

1 789-1 862 


R 

B2 


Hamburg 
Runge 1777-1S10 

I 

Munich 

Biirkel [Genre] 1802-I869 ; 










S2 


Schrodter 


1805-1875 


H 


Hess, H. M.von 1798-1863 










V 


Vautier 


1829-1898 


M 


Morgenstern 

[Landscape] 1805-1867 




See also Corne- 




See also Schadow G.V. 3. S 




See also Cornel- 




R2 


Riedel 1802-1883 1 


, 


lius G. V. 2. C 








ius 


G. V. 2 C 






Ps 


Preller, Friedrich 


F 


Fuhrich 1800-1876 




Diisseldorf 








the Younger 1838- 


R 


Rethel 1816-1S59 


A2 


Achenbach, 








Rs 


Robert, Leopold 1794-1835 


Ro 

S2 
S3 
V 


Richter, Ludwig 1803-1884 
Schwind, von 1804-1871 
Steinle 18 10-1 886 
Veit 1793-1877 


B 
H 

H2 

J 
S3 


Oswald 
Bendermann 

[Landscapes] 
Hasenclever 

[Genre] 
Hiibner [Genre] 
Jordan [Genre] 
Schirmer [Land- 


1S27- 

1S11-1889 

1S10-1853 
1814-1879 
1810-18S7 
















scape] 1S07-1S63 
Various Art Centers 


Ko 


Various Art Centers (continued) 




Kauffmann, Her- ' 










A3 


Adam, Albrecht 
[Battle scenes] 


1786-1862 


K3 


mann 1S08-1589 i 
Komer, Johann - ; 










A* 


Adam, Franz 


1815-18S6 


Ki 


Krafft, E. P. 1 780-1 856 










As 


Amerling 


1803-1887 


L 


Lang, H. 1S38-1891 | 










B2 


Becker, Jacob 


1810-1872 


u 


Lier [Landscape] 1827-1882 










D 


Danhauser (of 
Vienna) 


1805-1845 


M. 

Ms 


Meyer, J. G. 1813- ': 
Meyerheim, \ 










E 


Ender, Johann 


1793-1854 




Eduard 1808-1S79 1 










Eo 


Ender, Thomas 


I 793-1 87 5 


R3 


Rahl 1812-1S65 










E3 


Enhuber 


1811-1S67 


R4 


Ritter 1S16-1853 










F 


Friedrichs 


1774-1840 


R5 


Rotermund 1826-1859 










G 


Gauermann (of 
Vienna) 


1807-1S62 


S 


Schleich [Land- 
scape] 1812-1S74 1 










G-2 


Gensler, Jacob 


1 80S- 1845 


So 


Schreyer. Adolf 1828-1899 j 










G3 


Gensler, Martin 


1811-18S1 


S3 


Speckter 1806-1835 










H3 


Hess, Peter von 


1792-1871 


S4 


Spitzweg [Genre] 1808-1885 










H4 


Hildebrandt 


1804-1S74 


S5 


Steffeck 1S18-1S90 | 






1 




H5 


Hoffmann, Hein- 
rich 


1824- 


w 

Wo 


WaldmiiUer 1793-1S65 ! 
Weber, August 1S17-1873 










He 


Hoguet 


1S21-1S70 














H7 


Horschelt 


1829-1871 




















See also Tiedemann N. 2. T 



18 





PAINTING 
















Table 9 


Including Austria-Hungary and Allied Countries 






4 5 


6 


7 




COLORISTS IN MUNICH AND 




IMPRESSIONISTS 


, INDIVIDUALISTS REALISTS 






ELSEWHERE 








(Secessionists) 




Iflunich 


















J 


Makart 1 840-1 884 


B 


Bocklin [Swiss] 


1827-1901 


D 


Defregger 1835- 


K 


Kalckreuth, Graf 


■ 


Pilot)- [The first 


F 


Feuerbach 


1829-1880 


G 


Gebhardt, von 1838- 




Stanislaus 


182 1- 1 894 




great colorist] 1826- 1 886 


K 


Klinger, Max 


1857- 


Go 


Gussow 1843- 


L 


Leistikow 


IS65- 






M 


Mardes, von 


1S37-1887 


K 


Kaulbach, 
Friedrich 
August von 1S50- 


P 

S 


Liebermann 

Piglheim 

Skarbina 


1849- 

1848- I 894 
1849- 




Berlin 








L 


Leibl 1S46-1900 


So 


Stuck 


1863- 


I 


Henneberg 1S25-1876 








Lo 


Lenbach [Por- 


T 


Thoma 


1839- 


I 


Richter, Gustav 1S23-1884 








M 
Mo 

W 


trait] 1836- 
Menzel 1815-1904 
Munkacsy 

(M. Lieb) 

[Hungarian] 1846-I900 
Werner, von 1843- 


U 


Uhde, von 


1848- 


i 


Benczur [Hungarian] 


Bo 


Brandt 


1S41- 


Do 


Diez 1839- 


A 


Andri 






1844- 


F2 


Franz-Dreber 


1822-1875 


Gs 


Griitzner 1S46- 


B 


Baum 


1859- 


h 


Bracht 1S42- 


G 


Greiner 


1S7.- 


H 


Haider, Karl 


B2 


Bautzer 


- 


3s 


Brozik [A Bohemian 


P 


PidoU, von 


1847-1901 




[Independent] — 


C 


Corinth 


IS58- 




Czech] 1S51- 


S 


Sandreuter 


1850-1901 


Ko 


Kauffmann, Hugo 1S44- 


D 


Dettmann 


IS65- 


<• 


Faber du Faur 1S2S-1901 


So 


Stauffer-Bem 


1S57-1891 


K3 


Kurzbauer 1840-1879 


D2 


Dill 


1846- 


i 


Gentz 1S22-1S90 








L3 


Lofftz 1845- 


E 


Exter 


1863- 


^2 


Gysis [A Greek 








M3 


Meyer, Klaus 1856- 


F 


Firle 


IS59- 




artist] 1S42-I901 








M4 


Meyerheim, Paul 1842- 


H 


Habermann 


1849- 


«2 


Hildebrandt, E. 1817-186S 








P 


Pettenkofen 1821-18S9 


Ho 


Haug 


1857- 


;^3 


Hoffitiann, Lud- 




The Brotherhood of 


S 


Schraid 1835- 


H3 


Hocker 


1854- 




wig von 1861- 




Worpswede 


So 


Sperl [Independent] 


Ko 


Kalckreuth, Graf 




k: 


Knille 1832-1S9S 


E 


Ende, Hans am 


- 


T 


Triibner 1S51- 




Leopold 


IS55- 


tc. 


Kretzschmer 1811-1890 


M, 


Mackensen 


1866- 






K3 


Kamecke, von 


IS29-I899 


L 


LiezenMayer 


M3 


Modersohn 


1865- 






K4 


Kampf 


1864- 




[Hungarian] 1S39-1898 





Overbeck, Fritz 


1S69- 






K; 


Keller, Albert 


IS44- 


-^ 


Lindenschmit, W. 


V 


Vogeler, Heinrich 






Ke 


Klimt 


1864- I S92 




the Elder 1806-1S48 












Kt 


KUhl 


I85I- 


Ls 


Lindenschmit, W. 

the Younger 1829-1895 












M 


Mach, Miss Hilda 
gard von 


1873- 


Mo 


Matejko [A PoUsh 
painter, pupil of 
Piloty] 1S38-1S93 












Mo 

P2 
R 


Moll 

Pepino 

Reiniger 


IS6I- 
1S63- 
1863- 


Ms 


Max, Gabriel 

[Bohemian] 1840— 












S3 
S4 


Schonleber 
Schuster- Woldan 


I85I- 


M4 


Miiller, Victor 1S29-1S71 














Raffael 


- 


P2 


Plockhorst 1S25- 












So 


Schuster-Woldan 


- 


S 


Schrader, Julius 181 5- 












Sc 


Slevogt 


- 


Sj 


Spangenberg 1S43-1S74 








- 




V 

w 
z 

Zo 


Vogel 

Weisshaupt 

Zimmermann, 

Ernst 
Zugel 


185s- 
IS48- 

IS52- 
1850- 



19 



Fl. I. and 11. 



FLEMISH 



The XVth and 



I.— THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY AND EARLIER 



II.— THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 
1 



E 
E2 



W 



M 



B 

Bo 

C 

D 

G 

J 
Ms 

Ma 



Hubert van Eyck 
Jan van Eyck 



Rogier van der Weyden 



Hans Memline 



?-i426 
13S1-1440 



1 400- 1 464 



1425-1495 



Bouts, Dierick (Stuerbouts or Dick van Harlem) 

Broederlam 

Cristus, Petrus 

David, Gheeraerdt 

Goes, Hugo van der 

Justus (Jodocus) of Ghent 

Master of Flemalle 

Meire, Gerard van der 



f\. 



141&-1475 

■39° 

1400-147- 

1450-15=3 
1430-14S2 
fi. end XVth century 
fi. 1450 

1427-1474 



M 



History and Figure 

Quenten Massys (Matsys) 

Joost van Cleef (Cleve) 
Antonis Mor (Antonio Moro) 

Peeter Pourbus 



Cleef, Marten van 

Coninxlo, Jan van 

Coxcyen (Cocxie), Michiel van, the Elder 

Floris, Frans 

Francken, Ambrosius 

Francken, Frans, the Elder 

Francken, Hans or Jan 

Francken, Hieronymus, the Elder 

Francken, Hieronymus, the Younger 

Francken, Johannes (after 1550 in Naples) 

Geerarts, Marcus, the Elder 

Geldorp, Gortzius 

Heere, de 

Hehiissen, Jan van 

Key, Adriaan Thomasz 

Key, Willem 

Lombard, Lambert (Susterman) 

Mabuse, Jan (Gossaen) van 

Mander, Karel van, the Elder 

Massys, Comelis 

Massys, Jan 

"Master of the Half-figures of Women" 

Mostaert, Gillis 

Neuchatel (Nutschiedel), Nicolaus 

Orley, Bernaert (Barend van Brussel) 

Pourbus, Frans, the Elder 

Pourbus, Frans, the Younger 

Spranger, Bartholomeus 

Vermeyen (Vermay, Vermayen) 

Vos, Marten de 

Witte, Peeter de (Candido) [Died in Munich] 

See also Calvaert 

Valckenborch, Lucas 
Valckenborch, Marten 



1460-1530 



fl. I530-'5SO 

1512-1576 
1510-1584 



?- 


tS70 


1489- 




1499- 


1592 


I5I8- 


1570 


1544- 


1618 


1540- 


1616 


I58I- 


1624 


1542- 


1610 


1578- 


1623 


1500- 




?_ 


1604 


•533- 


1618 


'534- 


1584 


1500- 


1556 


1544- 


1590 


1520- 


1568 


1505- 


1566 


1470- 


1 541 


1548- 


1606 


1511- 


1580 


1509- 


■575 


3. 1520 




1534- 


1598 


1527- 


■595 


1491- 


1542 


1545- 


1581 


1570- 


1622 


154^ 


1627 


1500- 


■559 


'532- 


1603 


154S- 


1628 


Fl. II. - 


.0 


Fl. II. 3 


• Vj 


Fl. II. 3 


.Vs 



PAINTING 

XVIth Centuries 



Table lo 



II.— THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



2 






3 




Genre 






Landscape and Architecttire 




! Peeter Brueghel the Elder (Peasant Brueghel) 


1525-1570 




- 








M 


Comelis Molenaer 


154C^I59I 






C 


Denis Calvaert (called in Italy " Dionisio Fiammingo ") 


1540-1619 






B 


Jan Brueghel the Elder (Velvet Brueghel) 


1568-1625 


2 Bles, Henry (Hendrik) de 


1480-1550 


B2 


Blondeel, Lancelot [Architecture] 


I 495-1 561 


Roymerswale 


1497-1567 


B3 


Bol, Hans 


1 534-1 593 






B4 


Bril, Mattheus 


1550-1584 






B5 


Bril, Pauwel (Paul) 


1554-1626 






C2 


Cleef, Hendrik van 


?-i589 






Cs 


Conin.xlo, Gillis van 


1544-1604 






G 


Gassel 


1500-1550 






Mo 


Mostaert (Mostert), Frans 


1 534- 1 560 






P 


Patinir (Patenier), Joachim de 


1 490-1 524 






S 


Steenwyck, Hendrik van, the Elder [Aichitectiu-e] 


1550-1604 






V 


Valckenborch, Frederik van 


1570-1623 






v» 


Valckenborch, Lucas van 


1 530-1625 


- 




V3 


Valckenborch, Marten van 


1 553-? 


See also Valkenborch, Frederik 


Fl. II. 3. V 




See also Mostaert, Gillis 


Fl. II. I. Ms 


Valkenborch, Marten 


FL II. 3. V3 









Fl. III. and IV. 



FLEMISH 



The XVIIth and 





*■ 




III. 


-THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 








1 






2 


3 


RUBENS AND HIS DISCIPLES 


FLEMISH ARTISTS MORE OR LESS INDEPENDENT 










History and Figure 




Genre 


R 


Peter Paul Rubens 


I577-1640 






B 


Adriaen Brouwer 1606- 1 638 


D 


Antoon van Dyck (Sir 
Anthony) 


I 599-1641 


V 

J 
L 

C 


Comelis de Vos the Elder 1 585-1651 

Jacob Jordaens 1 593-1678 
Sir Peter Lely (Peter van der 

Faes) 1617-16S0 
Gonzales Coques (Cocx) 1618-1684 


T 


David Teniers, the Younger 1 6 1 0- 1 6go 


B 


Boschaert 


1613-1654 


B 


Bockhorst 1610-1668 


Bo 


Biset 1633-1680 


Bo 


Boyermans (Pupil of Van Dyck) 


1620-1678 


Bo 


Balen 1575-1632 


C 


Craesbecke 1606-1662 


C 


Craeyer 


1 582-1 669 


B3 


Brueghel, Peeter,the Younger 1564-1637 


D 


Duchatel 1616-1694 


D, 


Diepenbeeck 


1 596-1 675 


C2 


Cleef, Jan van 1646-1716 


H 


Huys fl. 1675 


M 


Mol 


1599-1650 


C3 


Cobergher (Coeberger) 1560-1635 


J 


Janssens, H. (Hieronymus) 1624-1693 


Q 


Quellinus 


1607-1678 


F 


Francken, Constantyn 1661-1717 


L 


Lamen 1615-1651 


s 


Schut 


1597-1655 


F. 


Francken, Frans, the Younger 1581-1642 


R 


Ryckaert, David, the Third 1612-1661 


T 


Thulden 


1606-1676 


Fa 


Francken, Frans, the Third 






To 


Thys 


1 624-1 67S 




(de Rubensche Francken) 1607-1667 






U 


Uden, Lucas van [Landscape] 


1 595-1672 


F4 


Francken, P. H. (H. P.?) fl. 1650 






w 


Wildens [Landscape] 


1586-1653 


G 
H 

h 

h 

K 
U 

M 

M2 

N 



Oo 

P 
R 
R2 
S 

So 

S3 
T 

V2 

Va 
V4 
Z 


Geerarts, Marcus, the 

Younger 1561-1635 
Huysmans, Jacob 1656-1696 
Jacobsz, Juriaen 1610-1664 
Janssens van Nuyssen, 

Abraham 1575-1632 
Jordaens, Hans (de lange Jor- 
daens) 1595-1643 
Kessel, Jan van, the Younger 1654-1 70S 
Loon, Theodorus van, the 

Younger 1595-1678 
Maes, Godfried 1649-1700 
Miel, Jan 1 599-1664 
Noort, Adam van 1562-1 641 
Oost, Jacob van, the Elder 1600-1671 
Oost, Jacob van, the Younger 1639-1713 
Pepyn 1575-1643 
Remeens ' 555-1625 
Rombouts, Theodor ' 597-1637 
Snayers, Pieter 1 592-1667 
Snellinck, Jan 1 549-1638 
Sostermans (Sustermans), JooSt 1597-16S1 
Teniers, David, the Elder 1 582-1 649 
Vaenius, Otho (Ottavio van 

Veen) 155S-1629 
Vos, Simon de 1603-1676 
Vrancx 1573-1647 
Zegers, Geeraard 1591-1651 
See also Teniers the Younger Fl. III. 3. T 




11 
i 

See also Huysmans, Jacob Fl. III. 2. H ' 
Rombouts Fl. III. 2.R: 
Teniers the Elder Fl. III. 2. T 
Zegers Fl. III. 2. Z 

■ 





PAINTING 












Table 11 


XVIIIth Centuries 








III.— THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 




IV.— THE EIGHTEENTH 


CENTURY 


4 5 












OF THE DIRECT INFLUENCE OF RUBENS 






Landscape and Architecture 




Animal and Still Lift 










A 


Denis van Alsloot (1.1599-1630 














N 


Peeter Neeffs the Elder 1 578-1656 


S 


Frans Snyders i 


579-1657 








Aj 


Jacques d'Arthois 16 13- 1684 








V 


Pierre Joseph Verhagen 


1728-1811 


H 


Cornells Huysmans 1 648- 1 727 














B 


Brueghel, Jan, the Younger 1601-1677 


C 


Coninck, David de 


I 636-1 687 


C 


Coene, Constantinus 


1 780-1841 


H, 


Huysmans, Jan Baptist 1654-1716 


F 


Fyt, Jan 


1609-1661 


G 


Geeraerts, Martin Joseph 


1707-1791 


K 


Kessel, Ferdinand van 164S-1696 


K 


Kessel, Jan van, the Elder 


1626-1679 


H 


Heemskerck, B. 


fi.1730 


M 


Millet, Francois (FransMille) 1642-1679 


M 


Monnoyer 


1 634-1 699 


J 


Janssens, Victor Honore 


1664-1739 


Mo 


Momper, Frans de ?-i66i 


S2 


Seghers (Segers, Zeghers), 




L 


Lens, Andries Comelis 


1 739-1822 


Ms 


Momper, Jodocus (Joost) de 1564-1635 




Daniel 


1590-1661 





Ommeganck, Balthazar 




M4 


Meulen, Adam Frans van der 1633-1690 


U 


Utrecht, Adriaen van 


1 599-1652 




Pauwel 


1755-1826 


Ms 


Meulener (Molenaer), Peeter 1602-1654 


V 


Vos, Paulus de 


1 590-1678 


O2 


Orley, Jan van 


1665-1735 


N2 


Neeffs, Peeter, the Younger 1620-1675 








O3 


Orley, Richard van 


1663-1732 


R 


Ryckaert, Marten 1587-1631 








S 


Snyers, Peeter 


16S1-1752 


S 


Saver)', Roelant 1 576-1639 














s» 


Siberechts, Jan 1 627-1 703 














S3 


Steenwyck, Hendrik van, the 
Younger [Painter of archi- 
tecture] 15S0-1649 










^ 




w 


Witte, Caspar de 1624-1681 

See also Francken, Frans Fl.III.2.Fj 
Snayers FI.III.2.S 
Teniers the Elder FI.III.2.T 
Teniers the Younger Fl. III.3. T 















23 



Fl. V. 



FLEMISH 



The XlXth Century 



CLASSICISTS 



COLORISTS — ROMANTICISTS 



Navez, Franqois 



1 787-1 869 



Bree, Matthias van 



i773-'839 



Braekeleer, Ferdinandus de 

Gallait, Louis 

Leys, Hendrik 

Madou, Jean Baptiste 

Wiertz, Antoine [Holds a unique position] 



Biefve, Edouard de 
Block, Eugene de 
Coene, Jean Henri de 
Decaisne, Henri 
Dillens, Adolf 
Keyser, Nicaise de 
Pauwels, Ferdinand 
Portaels, Jean Fran9ois 
Regemorter, Ignatius van 
Slingeneyer, Ernest 
Swerts, Jan 
Wappers, Gustave 
Willems, Florent 



1792-1883^ 
1810-1S87 
1S15-1S69 
1796-1877 
1 806-1 865 



1809-1S82 
18.2- j 

1798-1866 I 
1799-1S52 I 
1821-1877. ' 
1813-1SS7 
1830- 



S23- 





PAINTING 








Table 12 




Belgian Painting 

3 




THE MODERN PAINTERS 


\ 


Artan, Louis 


1837-1890 


M 


Meunier, Constantin 


1831- 


B 


Baron, Thdodore [Landscape] 


1 840- 1 899 


S 


Stevens, Alfred 


1828- 


B. 


Boulenger, Hippolyte 


1 838-1 874 


V 


Verwee, Alfred [Cattle] 


1838-189S 


Bs 


BraekeJeer, Henri de 


1 830- 1 888 








p 


Clays, Paul Jean [Marine] 


1 819-1900 








D 


Dubois, Louis 


1830-1880 








Dj 


Dyckmans ("The Belgian Gerard Dou") 


1811- 








F 


Frdd^ric, Ldon 


1856- 








G 


Groux, Charles de 


1825-1870 








H 

I 


Heymans, Adrian-Joseph 


1839- 




- 




B4 


Baertsoen, Albert 


1865- 


M, 


Martens, Charles 




B5 


Baugniet, Charles 


1814- 


M3 


Motte, fimile 


- 


C2 


Glaus, Emile 


17S1-1840 . 


N 


Nys, Carl 


1858- 


c. 


Courtens, Frans 


■853- 


R 


Rops, Felicien 


1845-189S 


E 


Evenepoel, Henri 


- 


R2 


Rosseels, Jacques 


1S2S- 


Fo 


Fourmois, Theodore 


1S14-1S71 


S2 


Schampheleer, Edmond de 


1824-1S99 


Ga 


Gilsoul, Victor 


- 


Ss 


Smits, Eugene 


- 


G, 


Guffens, Godfroid 


1823- 


S4 


Speekhaert, Leopold 


- 


Hj 


Hermans, Charles 


1839- 


Ss 


Stevens, Gustave Max 


- 


J 


Jonghe, Gustave de 


1S2S-1893 


Se 


Stevens, Joseph [Dogs] 


1822-1892 


J2 


Jonghe, Jean Baptiste de 


1785-1S44 


St 


Stobbaert, Jan 


1838- 


K 


Khnopff, Femand 


1858- 


S3 


Struys, Alexandre 


1852- 


Ks 


Kindermans, Jean Baptiste 


1S05-1S76 


Vo 


Van Hove 


- 


L 


Laermans, Eugene 


- 


V3 


Verboeckhoven, Eugene 


1799-1SS1 


U 


Leemans, figide Fran5ois [Marine] 


1S39-1876 


V4 


Verhas, Frans 


1S27- 


U 


Leempoels, Jeff 


1S67- 


V5 


Verhas. Jan 


1834- 


U 


Leemputten, Frans van 


1850- 


Vc 


Verlat, Charles 


1S24-1S90 


u 


Luyten, Henri 


1859- 


Vt 


Verstraate, Theodore 


.S52- 








W 


Wauters, Emile 


1846- 








We 


Willaert, Femand 





25 



D. I. and II. DUTCH 

The XVth and 



I.— THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 



Bosch (Hieronymus van Aeken) [History and Genre] I460-I 516 

Cornells Engelbrechtsen [Figure] 1468- 1533 

Lucas van Leyden [History and Genre] I494-I533 



Geertgen van Sint-Jans [History] fl. 1475 

Joest of Calcar, Jan [History-] 1460-1519 

Mostaert, Jan [History] I474-I55^ 

Ouwater, Albert van [History and Landscape] fl. xvth century 



26 



PAINTING 



Table 13 



XVIth Centuries 



II.— THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Jacob Comelisz (Oostsaanen van Amsterdam) [History, 

Portrait, and Landscape] 1475— 1560 

Jan Scorel (Schoreel) [History and Genre] I495-I562 



Pieter Aertszen (Lange-Pier) [History and Portrait] 1 507-15 73 



Comelis Comeliszen van Harlem [History, Portrait, 
and Landscape] 



Barentz, Dirk [History and Portrait] 



[562-1638 



534-1592 



B2 

D 
G 


Beukelaer, Joachim [Figure] 
Delft, Jacob Willemszen [Portrait] 
Goltzius, Hendrik [History, Portrait, 


and Landscape] 


?-i575 
1550-1601 
155S-1616 


H 


Heemskerk, Marten (van Veen) [Histor>-] 


149S-1574 


J 


Jacobsz, Dirk 






?-.567 


K 


Ketel, Comelis [Portrait] 






154S-1616 


U 


Utrecht, Jacob van [Portrait] 






fl. 1523 



27 



D. III. 1-4 



XVIIth Century- 
lb Ic 



DUTCH 



Id 



SCHOOL OF AMSTERDAM 



History and Portrait 



Govaert Flinck 1615-1660 

Rembrandt van 

Ryn (born in 

Leyden) 1 607- 1 669 

Bartholomeus van 

der Heist 161 3-1670 

Ferdinand Bol 1611-1680 



Bs 
E 

K2 
G 
K 

Ks, 

Ks 

L 

U 

U 

u 

u 

M 

N 



O 

V 
V 

V3 
V4 

■w 



Backer; Adriaen 
Backer, Jacob 
Eeckhout, Ger- 

brand van 
Eliasz 
Gelder 
Keyser, Thomas 

de 
Kneller 

Koninck, Salomon 
Lairesse 
Eastman 
Loo, Jacob van 
Loo, Louis van 
Lyon, Jacob 
Moyaert (Moeijaert) 
Near, Eglon Hen- 

drik van der 

(died in Diissel- 

dorf) 
Olis 

Valckert fl. 

Verkolje, Jan 
Victors, Jan 
Voort, Cornells 

van der 
Wet, Jan de 

(Johann Duwett) 



1 636-1 686 
1 608-1 65 1 

I62I-1674 
1 590-1646 

I645-I727 

1596-1679 
I646-I723 

1609-1663 

I640-I7I1 
I5S3-1649 

I6I4-I670 

164I-I7I3 
I586-I65I 
I600-I659 



I 643-1 703 

1610-1655 
I622-I627 

1650-1693 
1620-1672 

1576-1624 

16I7-? 



M 



H 



Ms 



Genre 



Gabriel Metsu 1630-1667 



Pieter de Hooghe 

(Hooch) 1632-1681 

Nicolaas Maes 1632-1693 



Boursse, Eteaias 1630-? 
Bronchorst (Bronck- 

horst), Jan van 1603-1678 
Codde, Pieter 1610-1660 

Duyster 1599-1635 

Lundens fl. 1652-1673 

Potter, Pieter [Also 

well known for 

his pictures of 

animals] 1587-1650 



H 
Ho 



28 



Landscape, Animals, and 
Architecture 

Paulus Potter 1625-1654 



Aart van der 

Neer 



I 603-1677 



Meyndert Hob- 

bema 163S-1709 

Jan van der Hey- 

den [Famous 

as painter of 

architecture] 1637-1712 



Asselyn 161 0-1660 

Beerstraaten, A. fl. after 1650 
Breenbergh (Bren- 

borch) 1599-1663 

Dujardin, Karel 1625-1678 
Hackaert (Hakkert) 1636-1699 
Hondecoeter, Gil- 

lis d' ?-i637 

Kessel 1641-1690 

Koninck, Jacob de 1616-1708 
Koninck. Philip de 1619-16SS 
Lingelbach 1622-1674 

Moucheron, F. de 1633-1686 
Moucheron, I. de 1670-1744 
Pynacker i 621-1673 

Seghers, Hercules 1589-1650 
Velde, Adriaan 

van de 1635-1672 

Witte, Emanuel de 
[Well known as 
painter of archi- 
tecture] 1607—1692 



V 



Marine 



Jan van der Ca- 
pelle 



?-i68o 



Willem van de 

Velde, the 

Younger 1633-1707 
Ludolf Back- 

huisen, 1631-1708 



Beerstraaten, Jan 1622-1687 
Dubbels 1620-1676 

Velde, Willem van 

de, the Elder 1610-1693 
Vlieger, Simon de 1600-1660 
Zeeman, Reimer 

(Remigius 

Nooms) 161 2-1663 



PAINTING 



Part I 



Table 14 



SCHOOL OF DELFT 



SCHOOL OF DORDRECHT 



SCHOOL OF THE HAGUE 



I 



Still Life, Flowers, Fruit, 
Game, etc. 



Jan Baptista 

Weenix 16:; 1-1664 



Melchior d' Hon- 
decoeter, 
[Xoted for his 
birds] 1636-1695 



Jan Weenix 1640-1719 



Hondecoeter, Gys- 1 

bert d' 1 604-1653 

Huysum, Justus 

van 1659-1716 

Kalf, Willem 1630-1693 



Karel Fabritius 

[Portrait] 1624-1654 

Jacobus Delft 

(Delff) [Por- 
trait] 1619-1661 
Jan A'emieer 

(van der Meer) 
[Portrait. Genre, 
Landscape] 1632-1675 



Aelst, Evert van 

[Dead birds and 

Weapons] 
Aelst, Willem van 

[Dead birds and 

Weapons] 
Bramer [History and 

Allegory] 
Delft, Willem Ja- 

cobsz [Portrait] 
Duck [Genre and 

Portrait] fl. 

Loo, Jan van 

[Genre] 
Mander, Karel van, 

the Younger 
Mander, Karel van, 

III 
Mierevelt, Michiel 

Janszen van 

[Portrait] 
Mierevelt, Pieter 

van [Portrait] 
Palamedez (Ste- 

vaerts) [Battle 

scenes] 
Poel [Genre and 

Landscapes] 
Vliet [Genre, Portrait 

and Architecture] 



1602-1658 

1629-1679 
I 596-1667 
1 580-1 638 
163O-1650 
I 585-1661 
I 579-1665 
161O-1672 

I 567-1641 
I 595-1623 

1 607-1 638 
162I-1664 
161I-1675 



H 



Aelbert Cu}^ 
[Landscape, 
.Animals, and 
Marines] 1620—1691 



Cuyp, Benjamin 
Gerritsz [Land- 
scape and Bibli- 
cal Subjects] 161 2-1652 

Cuyp, Jacob Ger- 
ritsz [Portrait 
and Animals] 1575— 1649 

Hoogstraaten, 
Samuel van 
[Portraits ; later 
Landscapes and 
Marines] 1627-167S 

Schalcken [Genre] 1 643- 1 706 



N 



Caspar Netscher 
[Genre and 
Portrait] 1639-16S4 



Beijeren [Still Life] 1620-1674 
Does 1623-1673 

Hagen, Joris van 

(Verhagen) 

[Landscape] ?— 1669 

Hannemann 1601-1669 

Hoecgeest fl. 1610-1615 

Mytens, Daniel, the 

Elder [Portrait] 1 590-1 658 
Mytens, Johannes 

[Portrait] ?-l67I 

Porcellis, Jan [Marine] 

[.Also active in 

Harlem] 1597-1633 

Quast, Pieter [Genre]: 602- 1 646 
Ravestyn, Anthony ) fl. .xviith 

van [Portrait] ) century 
Ravestyn, Arent 

van [Portrait] 1 645-1 687 
Ravestyn, Jan van 

[Portrait] I575-1657 

Uitenbroeck [I-and- 

scapeand Figure] 1590-164S 
Venne [Landscape, 

Genre, Portrait] 15S9-1662 
Verelst [Genre and 

Portrait] fl. 1643-166S 

Vries, Abraham de, 

(bom in Rotter- 
dam) [Portrait] .'-1662 
Vries, Adriaan de 

[Portrait] 1 60 1 -1 643 



29 



D. III. 5-8 



DUTCH 



XVIIth Century 



« 





5a 




5b 






5c 




5d f 


SCHOOL OF HARLEM 




History and Portrait 




Genre 






Landscape, Animals, Archi- 
tecture, Marine 




Still Life, Flowers, Fruit, 1 

Game, etc. 1 

J 






L 


Pieter van Laer 


1590-1658 


G 


Jan van Goyen 1 596-1656 






H 


Frans Hals, the 


M 


Jan Miense 














Elder 1 584-1666 




Molenaer 


?-l66S 


W 


Philips Wouver- 

man 161 9-1668 




* 






T 


Gerard Terburg 

(Ter Boch) 


1614-1681 


R 


Salomon van 
Ruysdael 




) 









Adriaan van 
Ostade 

See also Frans 
Hals, the 
Elder 


610-1685 
D. III. 5a 


R2 


(Ruisdael) 1600-1670 

Jan Wynants 161 5-1679 
Jacob van Ruys- 
dael 1625-1682 




* 












B 


Bray, Jan de ?-i697 


B 


Bega 


1 620- 1 664 


B 


Berchem (Berghem) 1620-1683 


C 


Claasz, Pieter 


B2 


Bray, Salomon de 1 597-1664 


D 


Dusart 


1660-1704 


B2 


Berck-Heyde, 




(Claesz van \ 


E 


Everdingen, Cesar 


H 


Hals, Dirk [Also 






Gerrit 163S-1698 




Harlem) 1595-1661! 




van (of Alkmar) 1606-1679 




Portrait] 


1600-1656 


B3 


Berck-Heyde, Job, 1630-1693 


H 


Heda, Willem 


G 


Grebber, Frans 


H2 


Hals, Frans, the 




D 


Decker 1600-1678 




Claasz i594-l67fj 




Pietersz de 1579-1649 




Younger 


1617-1669 


Do 


Deelen 


M 


Meer, Barend van 


G2 


Grebber, Pieter de 1600-1665 


Hs 


Heemskerk, Egbert 




(of Arnemuyden) 1607-1673 




der 1659-.' 1 


P 


Poorter, Willem de 




van, the Eldei 


1610-16S0 


D3 


Dubois, Guillam ?-i68o 




! 




fl. 1635-1645 


H4 


Heemskerk, Egbert 


E 


Everdingen, Allart 




1 


P2 


Pynas, Jan 15S0-1621 




van, the 






van 1621-1675 




1 


S 


Soutman 1 580-1657 




Younger 


1645-1704 


H 


Hughtenburg 






V 


Verspronck (Ver- 

sprong), Jan 1597-1662 


Hs 


Hughtenburgh 

(Huclitenburg), 






(Huchtenburg), 

Jacobus van 1639-1670 




1 


w 


Wet, Jacob de fl. 1636-1671 




Jan van, 
[Best known for 
his battle scenes 


1646-1733 


L 

M 


Lys (Pan) 1600-1657 
Meer, Jan van der, 

the Elder 1 628-1 691 










O2 


Ostade, Isaac van 


1621-1649 


M. 


Meer, Jan van der. 










P 


Palamedesz 

(Stevaerts), 




Ms 


the Younger 1656-1705 
Molenaer, Nicolaas 










W 


Antonis 
Wyck, Thomas 


1601-1674 
1616-1677 


M4 


(Klaas) ?-l676 
Molyn, Pieter de, 

the Elder 1600-1661 




5 c (conti>iued) 




















s 


Saenredam • 










• 


Ms 


Molyn, Pieter de, 
the Younger 
^Pieter de Mulie- 
ribtis or 11 Cava- 
liere Tempesta) 1 63 7- 1 70 1 


V 


[Architecture] 1597-1665; 
Velde, Esaias van 
de [Entered the 
Guild at Harlem 
in 1612; in Amster- 












P 


Post [Erasilian Land- 
scapes] 1612-16S0 


V2 


dam, 1618] 1590-1630 
Velde, Jan van de 159S-? 












R3 


Romeyn 1624- 1693 


V3 


Vries, R. de, fl. xviith century 












R4 


Rombouts, J. fl. 1660 


V4 


Vroom, Comelis 1620-1661 












Rs 


Rombouts, Salo- 
mon fl. 1650 


Vs 
W3 


Vroom, Hendrik 

Comeliszen 1566-1 640 
Wouverman, Jan 1629-1666 



30 





PAINTING 














Table 15 


Part II 


6 7 8a 8b 


SCHOOL OF LEYDEN 


SCHOOL OF ROTTERDAM 


SCHOOL OF UTRECHT 












Figure 




Landscape and Still Life 










B 


Abraham 

Bloemaert 1564-1651 














H 


Gerard van 












- 




Hondiorst 1 590-1 656 


H 


Jan Davidsz de 


D 


Gerard Dou (Dov, 














Dow, Douw) 












Heem 




[Genre] 1613-1675 












(died in 


S 


Jan Steen 












Antwerp) 




[Genre] 1626-1679 


W 


Adriaen van der 








[Best known 


M 


Frans van 

Mieris, the 

Elder 

[Genre] 1635-16S1 




Werff 

[Historj-, 

Genre, 

Portrait] 1659-I722 








for his fruit 

pieces] 1606-1683 


B 


Brekelenkam 


B 


Bloot [Genre] .'-1652 


B, 


Bloemaert, 




B 


Both, Andfies fl. 1640 




(Brcklinkam) 





Oclitervelt (Uchter- 




Adriaen 




B 


Both, Jan 1610-1652 




[Genre] ?-l668 




velt) [Genre] ?-I7I0 


B3 


Bloemaert, 


fl. xviith 


G 


Glauber (died in 


F 


Fabritius, Bemart 


O2 


Ossenbeeclc [Land- 




Comelis 




Breslau) 1656-I703 




[History and 




scape] 1627-167S 




[1603-16S8] 


centurj* 


H2 


Heem, Cornells de 




Ponrail] 1620-16C9 


S 


Saitleven, Comelis, 


B4 


Bloemaert, 






(died in -Antwerp) 1631-1695 


L 


Lievens, Jan 




[Genre, Land- 




Hendrik j 




H3 


Heem, David de, 




[History and 

Portrait] 1607-1674 




scape, and 


B5 


Bylert 1 603-1 671 




the Elder i 570-1632 






Animal] 1612-1682 


D 


Drooch-Sloot ?-i666 


H4 


Heusch, Jacob de 1657-1701 


Mj 


Mieris, Jan van 

[Genre and 

Portrait] 1 660-1 690 
Moor, Karel de 


S2 


Sorgh (Zorg) 


K 


Kniipfer 1603- 1660 


H5 


Heusch,\Villemde 1638-1669 


M, 


V 


[Genre] 16U-1670 
Vershuier [Marine] 1630-16S6 


M 
P 


Morelse 1571-163S 
Poelenburg (Poelen- 


S 


Saftleven, Her- 
man, 1609-1685 


[History, Genre, 








borcli) [Known 


S2 


Swanevelt 1610-1655 




and Portrait] 1656-I738 








also for his land- 


V 


Verschuringh 


S2 


Schooten, Joris van 








scapes] '1586-1667 




[Best known for 




(Verschooten) 






T 


Terbrugghen 1588-1629 




his battle scenes] 1 62 7- 1 690 




[History] 1587-165O 






U 


Uitenwaal 






s. 


Slingeland [Genre] 1640-1691 








(Uytenwael) 1 566- 1 638 






Si 


Swanenburgii 

(First teacller of 

Rembrandt) 

[History] I5S0-1639 












See also Mignon, G. HI. M3 


T 


Toorenvliet, 

[Histor>', Genre, 

and Portrait] 164I-I719 




^ 
















3 


I 


• 






• 



D. IV. and V. 



DUTCH 



The XVIIIth and 



IV. — THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



H 



D 

M 
Ms 
N 
O 

s 

S2 

S3 

T 
V 
\V 



Huysum, Jan van 
Ruvsch, Rachel 



1682-1749 
1664-1750 



Dyck, Philip van 

Miens, Frans the Younger 

Miens, Willem van 

Netscher, Constantin 

Os, Jan van 

Spaendonck, Comelis van 

Spaendonck, Gerardus van 

Stry 

Troost 

Verkolje, Nicolaas 

Wit, Jacob de 



16S3-1 
1 689-1 
1662-1 
1 668- 1 
1744-1 
1756-1 
1746-1 
1756-1 
1 697- 1 
1673-1 
1695-1 



753 
763 
747 
722 
808 
840 
S22 
8.5 
750 
746 
54 



V.~THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 
1 2 



TRANSITION PAINTERS 



Bosboom, Jan 1817-1891 

Kate, ten 1822-1891 

Rochussen [Battle pictures] 1814-1894 

Pieneman, Nicolaas 1810-1860 



FIGURE PAINTERS 



Bles, David 

Eeckhout, Jacob Joseph 

Koekkoek 

Korff 

Offermans 

Pieneman, Jan Willem 

Sande-Bakhuysen, van 

Schendel, van 



1S2 1-1899 
1793-1861 
1S03-1862 
1824-18S2 
1796- 

1 779-1 853 
1795-1860 
I 806-1 870 



Artz [Also Landscape] 
Bisschop, Christoffel 
Blommers, Bernardus J. 
Israels, Joseph 



1837-189OJ 

1828- 

1845- 
1824- 



Henkes 
Howe 

Kaemmerer 

Neuhuys 

Sade 

Schwartze, Therese 

Trigt, van 

Waav, van der 



1844- 

1814-1867 

1850- 

1844- 

1S37- 

1851- 

1829- 

1855- 



See also Alma-Tadema 



Br. II. I. 



32 



I 



PAINTING 



XlXth Centuries 



Table i6 



v.— THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 
4 



LANDSCAPE AND ANIMAL 



Jongkind, Johan Barthold 1819-1891 



Maris, Jacob 
Maris, Willem 
Mauve, Anton 
Sclielfhout, Andreas 
Weissenbrugh 



1837-1899 

1815- 

1838-18S8 

1787-1870 

1822-1880 



Apol 1850- 

Bakhuysen, Hendrik 1 795-1860 

Bilders 1811-1S90 

Bilders-van Bosse, Mrs. 1S37-1900 

Chattel, du 1856- 

Gabriel, Paul Joseph C. 1S28- 

Haas, J. H. L. de 1832-1880 

Klinkenberg 1852- 
Meulen, F. P. ter [Also Figure] 1834- 

Nakken 1835- 
Os, Georgius Jacobus 

Johannes 17S2-1S61 

Roelofs 1S22-1897 

Ronner, Mme. Henriette 1821- 

Stortenbeker 182S- 

Valkenbuig 1 826-1 896 

VroUjk 1 845-1 894 



MARINE 



M 



Mesdag, Hendrik Willem 1831- 



Haas, W. F. de 
Schotel, Jan Christiaen 
Schotel, Pieter Jan 



1830-18S0 
1787-183S 
1808-1865 



See also De Haas, M. F. H. A. II. 2. D 



INDIVIDUALISTS 



Breitner, G. H. 1857- 

Schwartze, Johan Georg 1814-1S74 

Toorop, Jan 1860- 

Veth, Jan 1864- 



Allebe 

Bauer 

Bock, Theophile de 

Essen, van 

Haverman 

Israels, Isaac 

Josselin de Jong (or Yong), 

Pieter de 
Karpen 

Maris. Matthys 
Mavis, Willem 
Martens 

Mesdag-van Houten, Mrs. S. 
Poggenbeek 
Prikker. Thorn 
Tholen, W. B. 
Voerman, J. 
Wijsmuller. J. H. 



1767-1820 

1854- 
1857- 
1865- 

1S61- 



1835- 
.815- 
1838-1 

1853- 
1850- 



895 



33 



Sp. 


I., II., and III. 












SPANISH 


I.^THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES 


II.— THE EIGHTEENTH 


12 3 


CENTURY ; 


CASTILIAN SCHOOL 


ANDALUSIAN SCHOOL 


VALENCIAN SCHOOL 




R 


Antonio del Rin- 
con [The only 
important artist 
of the xvth cen- 
turj-] 1446-1500 


V 


Luis de Vargas 1 502-1 568 


J 


Juan de Juanes 

(Vincente) 1523-1579 






S 


Alonso Sanchez 
















Coello 1 515-1590 






R 


Francisco de 


R 


Pedro de 


P 


Juan Pantoja 








Ribalta 1550-162S 




Rodriguez de 




della Cruz 1551-1609 


H 


Francisco de 
Herrera the 




See also Lo Spag- 




Miranda 1696- 1766 


V 


Diego de Silva y 




Elder 1 576-1656 




noletto (Ribera) 


S 


Mariano Ramon 




VeUsquez 1 599-1660 


Z 


Francisco de 




[It. IV. 3. S] 1588-1656 




Sdnchez 1740-1822 


M 


Juan Bautista 
Martinez 


M 


Zurbaran 159S-1662 
Bartolom^ Esteban 








1 




Maze 16 10-1667 




Murillo 1 61 8-1 682 






G 


Francisco Goya y 


C 


Claudio Coello 1635-1693 


A 




Rs 




P 


Lucientes 1746-1S28 

1 


A 


Alfaro y Gamez 1640-1680 


Alesio 1547-1600 


Ribaha, Juan de 1597-162S 


Paret de Alcazar 1747-1799 


As 


AntoHnez 1639-1676 


C 


Campafia 1503-1580 


S 


Santa Leocadia, 






B 


Becerra 1520-1570 


Cj 


Cano 1601-1667 




Pablo de 






Bo 


Berruguete, Alonso 

1480-1561 


Cs 


Castillo, Agustln 

del 1565-1626 


Y 


Yafiez, Hernando 

ft. xvith century 






B3 


Berruguete, Pedro ?-i504 


C4 


Castillo, Juan de 1 584-1640 




, 






C2 


Carreno de 

Mlrando 1614-1685 


Cs 


Castillo y Saave- 

dra, Antonio 1603-1667 










C3 


Castello, Fabricio ?-i6i7 


Co 


Cespedes i 538-1608 








.'J 


C4 


Castello, Felix 1602-1656 


F 


Fernandez Vasco 










Cs 


Castello, Nicolas 

Granelo ?-l593 




(the Great) [of 
Portugal] 1 552-.' 










Ce 


Caxes 1577-1642 


G 


Gomez 1646-1690 










c, 


Cerezo 1635-1675 


H2 


Herrera, Francisco de, 








•; 


Cs 


Collantes 1 599-1 656 




the Younger 1622-1685 








] 


Co 


Correa, Diego 

fi. xvith century 


1 
L 


Iriarte 1620-1685 
Llanos, Sebastian 










G 


Gallegos 1 475-' 55° 




de 1602-1668 










G2 


Gonzalez 1 564-1627 


U 


Llorente 1685-1757 










L 


Leonardo 1616-1656 


M2 


Moya 1610-1666 










Mo 


Martinez, Jusepe 1612-16S2 


P 


Pacheco 1571-1654 










M3 


Morales [of Badajoz] 1 5 lO-1 586 


R 


Roelas 1558-1625 








T 


M4 


Mufioz 1654-1690 


S 


Sdnchez Cotan, 








1 


N 


Navarrete (El 

Mudo) 1 526-1 579 


So 


Fray Juan 1561-1627 
Sanchez de Castro, 








1 





Orrente 1 570-1644 




Juan ?-i5i6 








n 


P2 


Palomino de 

Castro 1653-1725 


V2 


Villavicencio 1635-1700 




• 




f 


Ps 


Pareja 1606-1670 














P4 


Pereda 1599-1669 












, 


R2 


Rizi, Francisco 1608-1685 




Here may be added 










Rs 


Rizi, Fray Juan 1595-1675 




Sequeira [An artist 








■■i 


T 


Theotocopuli 1548-1625 




of Portugal] 1768-1837 








1 


T2 


Toledo 1611-1665 












] 


T3 


Tristan 1586-1640 

See also Carducci It. IV. i.C 
ZuccheroIt.IV.i.Z, 















34 



/1.-U.^^ 



PAINTING 



Table 17 



III.— THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 
2 3 



HISTORY 



GENRE 



PORTRAITURE 



LANDSCAPE 



Alvarez, Luis 1S41-1901 

Madrazo, 

Josd de 17S1-1859 

Pradilla, Fran- 
cisco 1847- 



F Fortunj', Mar- 

1 iano 1S38-1S74 

J I Jimfeez, Luis 1S45- 

V Villegas, Josd 1848- 



Amerigo, Francisco - 
Benliure y Gil, 

Jose 'S55- 

Carbonero, Mor- 
eno I S60- 
Casado 1S32-18S6 
Casanova y Estorach, 

Antonio 1847-1896 

Checa 1 860- 

Cubello, Martinez - 

Meneses 1S20- 

Ramirez, Manuel 
Resales, Eduardo 1837-1873 
Tejedor, Alcazar 1852- 
Vera 1834- 

Villodas, Ricardo 1846- 



M 



Bastida, Joaquin 

Sorolta y 
Domingo, Fran- 
cisco 
Fernandez y Bal- 

denes 
Gonzalez, Juan 

Antonio 
Jimenez y Aranda, 

Jose 
Leczano, Angel 
Madrazo, Don Rai 

mundo de 
Mas y Fondevilla 
Sala y Frances, 

Emilio 
Viniegra y Laso 
Zamacois 
Zuloaga, Ignacio 



1863- 
1842- 



S32 



1841- 



850- 
862- 
842-1871 



Madrazo, 
Frederico 
de 1S15-1894 



R Rico, Martin 1850- 



Eguiquipa 
Pescador 



1836-1S72 



Haes, Carlos de 
Masriera, J. 
Morero y Galicia 
Urgel, Modesto 
Valdivia, de 



35 



Fr. I., II., and III. 



FRENCH 



Early Period. The XVIIth 



I. — EARLY PERIOD. THE 

FIFTEENTH AND 

SIXTEENTH 

CENTURIES 



Jehan Clouet 1485-1541 



Franf ois Clouet 1 5 00- 1 5 7 



Jean Cousin 1500-15S9 



Bourdichon 1457-1521 

Dubreuil 1561-1602 

Fouquet, Jean 141 5-1485 
Perreal, Jean (Jehan 

de Paris) I455-I528 

Rene of Anjou 140S-1480 



V4 



II.— THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 
2 



HISTORY AND FIGURE 



Martin Fr6ninet 



1567-1619 



Simon Vouet 1590-1649 



Eustache Le 
Sueur 



i6i6,-i655 



Jacques Courtois 

(Le Bourguignon 

or II Borgognone) 

[Painter of battle 

scenes] 1 62 1- 1 676 

Charles Le Brun 16 19-1690 
Pierre Mignard 

(Le Remain) 1610-1695 

Josepli Vivien 1657-1735 
Hyacintlie 

Rigaud 1 659- 1 743 



Boullongne, Bon 
Boullongne, Louis, 

the Elder 
Boullongne, Louis, 

the Younger 
Bourdon 
Champaigne [of 

Flemish origin] 
Coypel, Antoine 
Coypel, Noel 
Hire, de la 
Jouvenet 
La Fosse 
Largilliere 
Lefevre, Claude 
Mignard, Nicolas 
Santerre 
Stella 

Troy, Franyois de 
Valentin, Le, 

called Jean de 

Boullongne 
Verdier 



1649-1717 
1609-1674 

1654-1733 
1616-1671 

1602-1674 
1 661-1722 
1628-1707 
1606-1656 
1644-1717 
1636-1716 
1656-1746 
1632-1675 
1606-1668 
1658-1717 
1595-1657 
1645-1730 



1591-1634 
1651-1730 



See also Louis van 

Loo D. III. la 

Romanellilt.IV. 



GENRE 



LANDSCAPE 



Callot 
Gillot 
Jeaurat 



1592-1635 
1673-1722 
1699-1789 



Le Nain, Antoine 1588-1648 
Le Nain, Louis 1593-1648 
Le Nain, Matthieu 1607-1677 



Nicolas Poussin 

[Also figure 

painter] I 5 93- 1 665 



Claude Lorrain 

(Gellee) 1600-1682 j 



1625 



Patel, Pierre, the 
father fl. 

Patel, Pierre, the 

son 1605- 

Poussin, Gaspard 

(Dughet) 1613- 



1676 
1675 



36 



PAINTING 



and XVIIIth Centuries 



Table i8 



III.— THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 
2 3 



HISTORY AND FIGURE 



GENRE AND DECORATION 



LANDSCAPE, MARINE, 
ANIMALS, etc. 



PASTEL 



Antoine Pesne 16S3-1757 



Callet I 

Casanova, Fran9ois 
I 
Coypel, Charles 

Antoine 1 

Doyen i 

Drouais, F. H. i 
Lefevre. Robert i 
Loo, Charles 

Amedee 

Philippe van 
Loo, Charles Andre 

van (Carle \'an 

Loo) I 

Loo, Jean Baptiste 

van I 

Nattier , 1 

Ranc, Jean 1 

Restout 1 

Rivaltz [Follower of 

Poussin] I 

Silvestre, Louis 
Subleyras [Follower 

oi Poussin] 



74I-1S23 

727-1S05 

694-1752 
726-1S06 
727-1775 
756-1830 



I7I9-I790 



705-1765 

684-1745 
685-1766 

674-1735 
692-1768 

667-1735 
675-1760 

699-1749 



Antoine Watteau 1 684- 1 72 1 

Jean Baptiste 

Pater [Pupil 

of Watteau] 1695-1736 
Frangois Le- 

moyne 1688- 1737 

Nicholas Lan- 
cret [Pupil of 
Watteau] 1 690- 1 743 

Frangois Boucher 

[Prolific painter 

not only of 

Genre] I 703- 1 770 

Jean Baptiste 

Simdon Char- 
din [Also famous 

for Still Life] 1 699- 1 7 79 
Jean Baptiste 

Greuze 1 725-1 805 



Baudoin [Pupil of 
Watteau] 

Fragonard 

Hutin 

Le Prince [Pupil of 
Watteau] 

Natoire 

Raoux 

Troy, Jean Fran- 
cois de 



1723- 
1732- 
1715- 

'733- 
1700- 
1677- 



-1769 
.:8o6 
-1776 

-1781 
777 
734 



1679-1752 



Jean Baptiste 

Oudry 1686-1755 



Claude Joseph 

Vernet 171 2-1 789 



Bachelier [Flowers 
Desportes [Animal 

and Still Life] 
Lantara 
Manglard 
Marne [.Animal and 

Still Life] 
Robert, Hubert 



] 1724-1806 



1661-1743 
1729-1778 
1695-1760 



1754- 



-1829 
■I 80S 



Jean Etienne 
Liotard 



1 702-1 789 



La Tour, de 



1 704-1 788 



37 



Fr. IV. 1-6 



The XlXth Century 



FRENCH 



J 



CLASSICISTS 



SEMICLASSICISTS 



ROMAHTICISTS 



D 
G 
G2 
I 



A 

A2 

As 

B 

Bo 

B3 

Do 

Gs 

Gi 

Gs 

L 

U 

u 
u 

M 

Mo 

Ms 

P 

R 

R2 

V 

Vj 

V, 

w 



David 
Gros 
Gudrin 
Ingres 



1748-1825 
1771-1835 
1774-1833 
1780-1867 



Abel de Pujol 

Aligny [Landscape] 

Aubert 

Berlin, Victor [Landscape] 

Bidault 

Bouchot 

Drouais, G. J. [Pupil of David] 

Gerard 

Girodet 

Granet 

Lami 

Leroux 

Lethiere 

Levy, fimile 

Manvoisin 

Mayer, Constance 

Michallon [Landscape] 

Picot 

Regnault, Jean B. 

Rouget 

Valenciennes 

Vien 

Vincent 

Watelet [Landscape] 



7S5-1861 

798-1871 

781-1857 

775-1842 

745-1813 

800-1 S42 

763-1788 

770-1837 

766-1824 

775-1849 

800- 

829- 

760-; 

826- 

794- 

778-1821 

796-1822 

7S6-1868 

754-1829 

784-1869 

750-1819 

716-1809 

746-1S16 

7S0-1866 



1900 
1832 

1870 



Baudrj- 
Bouguereau 
Cabanel 
G^rome 



1828-1886 
1825-1905 
1823-1889 
1824-1904 



Hebert 
Henner 
Lefebvre 



18 17- 

1829-1905 

1834- 



Boulanger, Louis 
Decamps [First to visit the 

Orient] 
DelacroLx [Leader of t he 

Movement] 
Delaroche 
Fromentin 
Scheffer 



See also Pasini 



Barrias 

Berlin, Edouard 

Champmartin 

Cogniet 

Deveria 

Dore, Gustave 

Frere, Edouard 

Frere, Theodore 

Gendron 

Gericault 

Gigoux 

Guillaumet 

Herbsthoffer 

Huet 

Hugo, Victor 

Isabey 

Jalabert 

Levy, Leopold 

Marilhat 

Philippoteaux 

Robert-Fleury 

Roqueplan 

Sigalon 

Ziem 



See also Bonington 



1806-1867 
1803-1860 |1 






i7<} f )-iR( i^ 

1797-1856 -T 
1820-1876 
1797-1858 ! 



It. V. 2. P. 



1] 



1822-I905 

I797-187I 

,797-1883 

1794-1880 I, 

1805-1865! 

1833-1883 I 

1819- 

181 5-1888 

1817-1881 

I79I-1824 

1806- 

1840- 

182I-1876 

1745-lSn 

1802-1885 

1804-1886 

1819- 

1840- 

181I-1847 

181 5-1884 

1 797-1 890 
1800-1855 
17S8-1837 
1821- 



B. IL 3. B 



38 






PAINTING 



Part I 



Table 19 



.INFLUENCED BY DRAWING OF CLASSI- 
CISTS AND COLOR OF 
ROMANTICISTS 



PAINTERS OF HISTORICAL MANNERS, 
HUMOROUS ANECDOTES, AND PIC- 
TURES WITH A SOCIAL PURPOSE 



MILITARY PICTURE AND GENRE 



Couture 181 5-1 879 

Michel, Georges [Landscape] 1 763-1843 



Aubert 

Benouville 

Berge, de la 

Boulanger, Gustave 

Cabat 

Chasseriau 

Chenavard 

Curzon 

Flandrin [Religious painter] 

Gleyre 

Hamon 

Picou 

Schnetz 



See also Gerome 



1824- 

1S15- 

1S07- 

1824- 

1812- 

1819-: 

iSoS- 

1820- 

1S09 

1S06- 

1821 



1842 
1 888 

1893 
856 
1S95 
1S95 
1864 
1874 
1874 



1788-1870 



Fr. IV. 2. G 



Antigna 

Biard 

Jeanron 

Leleux 

Tassaert 



See also Jules Breton 
Delacroix 
Meissonier 



1818-1878 
1801-18S2 
1810-1877 
1818-1S85 
1800-1874 



Fr. IV. II. B 
Fr. N. 3. Do 
Fr. IV. 6. M 



Charlet 
Meissonier 
Neuville, de 
Raffet 
Regamey 
Vemet, Horace 



1792-1845 
1815-1891 
1836-1885 
1804-1S60 
1837-1876 
1 789-1 863 



Baader, Louis Marie [Genre] 

Bargue [Genre] 

Bellange, Eugene ( j-ji;,;. ~j 

Bellange, Hippolytej tary !- 

Beme-Bellecour [ Genre] J 

Brillouin f [Followers of 1 

Chavet [ Meissonier] j 

Detaille [Military Genre] 

Fauvelet [Follower of Meissonier] 

Leloir [Genre] 

Morot, Aime- [ 

Pils I t'l'"'''^ 

GenreJ 
Protais [ 

Toulmouche [Genre] 

Vibert [Follower of Meissonier 

Yvon [Military Genre] 



1S28- 

.'-1883 
1837-1895 
1S00-1866 
I 838- I 898 
1817- 
1822- 
1848- 
1S18- 
1S43-18S4 
1850- 
1S15-1S75 
1 826-1 890 
1829-1890 
1840- 
1817- 



39 



Fr. IV. 7-14 



FRENCH 



The XlXth Century 
8 9 



10 



PORTRAIT AND FIGURE 

(Artists holding Independent 

Positions and therefore 

not easily classified) 



REALISTS 



INFLUENCED BY THE SCHOOLS OF BARBIZON 



LANDSCAPE 



ANIMAL PAINTERS 



D 
L 

U 

P 

R 



Delaunay 1828-1892 

Laurens 1838- 

M™= Lebrun 1755-1842 
Prud'hon 175S-1823 

Regnault, Henri 

1 843- 1 87 1 
Rochegrosse 1859- 



Benjamin- 

Constant 
Cormon 
Luminals 

Sylvestre 



1845- 
1845- 
1822- 
1847- 



Bonnat 1833- 

Courbet 1819-1878 

Carolus Duran 1837- 
Ribot 1823-1891 

VoUon [Still Life] 

1833-1900 



See also Stevens, A. 

Fl. V. 3. S 



Bonvin 

Chaplin 

Dubois 

Dupre, Julien 

Hanoteau 

Lansyer 

Mettling 

Ricard 

Rousseau, 

Philippe 
Roybet 
Tissot 



1817- 

.825- 

1829-1 

1851- 

1823- 

■835- 
I 847-1 
1S23- 

1S16-1 
1S40- 
I 836-1 



887 
8gi 
905 



904 
872 

887 

902 



Corot 
Daubigny 
Diaz 
Dupr^ 
Rousseau, 
Theodore 



Archard 

Brascassat 

Breton, fimile 

Chintreuil 

Debrosses 

Fran^ais 

Harpignies 

Lacroix 

Pelouse 

Yon 



1796-1875 

1817-1878 
1 80S- 1 876 
1812-1889 

1812-1867 



1807- 
1805-1867 
1831- 
1814-1873 

1835- 
1814-1897 

18.9- 

I 810-1878 

1845-1891 

1836-1897 



Bonheur, Rosa 1 822-1 899 

Jacque 1813-1894 

Troyon i 810-1865 

Van Marcke 1 827-1 890 



Bonheur, 

Auguste 
Jadin 
Lambert, L. E. 

Veyrassat 



1 824-1 884 
1805- 
1825- 
1828-1893 



See also Palizzi It. V. 6. P 



40 



PAINTING 



11 



Table 20 



Part II 



12 



13 



14 



AND FONTAINEBLEAU 



PAINTERS OF PEASANT LIFE 



Breton, Jules 1827- 
Millet 1S14-1875 



PIONEERS OF "IMPRESSION- 
ISM "—" LUMINISTS " 



Billet 

Brion 

Legros 

Lerolle 

Marchal, Charles 



1836- 
1824-1877 

1837- 
1851- 

182 5-1 877 



Boudin [Marine] 1825-1898 



Degas 

Manet 

Monet [Land- 
scape] 

Montenard 
[Marine] 

Pissarro, 
Camilla 

Sisley [Land- 
scape] 



1834- 
1833-1883 

1840- 

1849- 

1831- 

1840- 1 899 



Brown, 

John Lewis 
Caillebotte 
Ce^nne 1 •■ ' 

Forain 
Renoir 



1829-1890 

1 - 

1841- 



See also Cassatt, 

Miss Mary Am.III. 1.C4 



INDIVIDUALISTS 

(Largely under Influence of 

Impressionism) 



A3 
Bs 
B4 

Bs 
Be 
B7 
Bs 
B9 
D2 
D3 
D4 

De 

F 

F2 

G 

G2 

H 

M 

N 

P 

P2 
R2 
R3 
R4 

S2 



Bastien-Lepage 1848-1884 



Boldini 
Dagnan- 

Bouveret 
L'hermitte 
Raffaeli 
Seurat 



1844- 

1852- 

1844- 
1850- 
1859-1891 



Angrand [Land- 
scape] 

Anquetin [Land- 
scape] 

Aublet 

Barau 

Baskirtscheff, 
Miss Marie 

Beraud 

Billote 

Binet 

Blanche 

Butin 

Damoye 

Dantan 

Dauphin 

Duez 

DumouHn 

Fantin-Latour 

Fiant 

Gervez 

Goeneutte 

Heilbuth 

Monchablon 

Nittis, de 

Pissarro, Lucien 
[Landscape] 

Pointelin 

Renouard 

Roll 

Rosset-Granget 
Signac [Landscape] 



1854- 



1851- 
1S51- 

1860- 1 884 

1S49- 

1846- 

1849- 

1861- 

1S38-1883 

1847- 

184S-1897 

1857- 

1S43-1896 

1S36- 
1S63- 
1852- 

1S29-1S89 
1854- 
1846- I 8S4 



1S39- 
1845- 
1847- 

■853- 
1S65- 



NEW IDEALISTS 



Aman-Jean 
Besnard 
Carri&re 
Cazin 

Monticelli 
Moreau 
Puvis de 

Chavannes i 



856- 
849- 

849- 
841-1901 

824-1886 

826-1 89S 

824-1898 



Agache 

Cazin, M""= 

Denis 

Gandara 

Martin 

Picard, Louis 

Redon 

Renan 

Schwabe 



1843- 

1855- 
1862- 

1850- 
1862- 
1855- 1 900 



41 



Br 


I. and II. 












BRITISH 


The Early Period and the 




I. — THE EARLY PERIOD 


II. — THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES 
12 3 








PRE-RAPHAELITE BROTHER- 








HISTORY AND FIGURE 


HOOD AND ARTISTS 


LANDSCAPE AND 


MARINE 






INFLUENCED BY IT 






See the following foreign 


A 


Alma-Tadema [4th period] 


B 


Brown, Ford 


B 


Bonington 


1801-1828 




artists who painted in 




1836- 




Madox 1S21-1893 


C 


Constable 


1 7 76- 1 837 




England. 


B 


Blake [ist period] 1757-1S27 


Bj 


Bume-Jones, 


C2 


Cotman [Pupil of 








E 


Eastlake [2d period] 




Sir Edward 1S33-1898 




Old Crome] 


1782-1842 




Mabuse [Fl.II. i. M,] 




1 793-1865 


C 


Crane, Walter 1845- 


C3 


Cox, David, of 






I470-I54I 


G 


Gainsborough [ist period] 


H 


Hunt, Holman 1827- 




Birmingham 


1 783- 1 859 




Holbein the Younger 




1 727-1 788 


M 


Millais 1829-1896 


C4 


Crome, John, the 






[G.II.j.H,] 1497-1543 


H 


Herkomer [4th period] 


R 


Rossetti 1828-1882 




Elder (Old Crome) 




Mor (Moro) [Fl. II. i. Mj 




1849- 








[Founder of Nor- 




1512-1576 


H2 


Hogarth [ist period] 








wich School] 


I 769-1821 




Rubens [Fl. ill. i. R] 




1 697- 1 764 






T 


Turner,]. M.W. 


1775-1851 , 




1577-1640 


L 


Lawrence [ist period] 






W 


Wilson, Richard 


1713-1782 • 




Van Dyck [Fl. HI. i. D] 




1 769- 1 830 














1599-1641 


U 


Leighton [4th period] 




See also Watts Br.ILi.W 










Hannemann [D. III. 4. H J 




1830-1896 




Albert Moore 




See also Gainsborough 




1601-1669 


M 


Mason [4th period] 




Br. IL l.M„ 






Br. II. I. G 




Sir Peter Leiy 




1818-1872 








Graham, 


Peter 




[Fl.III. 2. L] 161 7-1680 


M2 


Moore, Albert [4th period] 








Br. II. 6b. G ; 




Soest [G. III. S3] .?-i68i 




1841-1892 








Mason Br. II. i. M 




Heemskerk, E.van, 





Ouless [4th period] 














the Younger 




1848- 














[D. III. 5 b. H3] 


P 


Po)Tlter [4th period] 










t 




1645-1704 




1836- 














Kneller [D. III. i a. K J 


R 


Raeburn [ist period] 


















1646-1723 




1756-1823 


A 


Ansdell 181 5-1885 






, 




Ricci, Marco 

[It. IV. 4. R] 1679-I729 
Ricci, Sebastiano 


R2 


Reynolds [ist period] 

1 723-1 792 

Romney [ist period] 


Ho 
Hs 

Ms 
R2 


Hohday 1839- 
Hughes 1832- 
Morris, William 1834- 
Richmond 1843- 










[It.IV.4. R3] 1659-1734 




1734-1802 


S 


Shaw, Byam 










Zuccarelli [It. IV. 5. Z] 


w 


Watts [4th period] 1S17-1904 


S2 


Spartali-Stillman, 










1702-1788 




See also Shannon 

Am. in. I.S„ 
Millais Br. n.2. M 


Ss 
S4 


Mrs. 1844- 
Stanhope - 
Strudwick 1849- 






1 






Ao 




W 


Wateihouse 1849- 


A 






O 


Oliver, Isaac 1556-1617 


Armitage 181 7-1 896 


Aumonier 


O2 


Oliver, Peter 1601-1660 


B2 


Barry 1741-1806 




See also Dyce Br. II. 6. D 


Bo 


Brett 


1S30- 


T 


Thornhill, Sir 


Bs 


Beechey i753-'839 






C5 


Callcott 


1779-1844 




James 1676-1734 


Bi 


Boughton 1834-1905 






Ce 


Cole, Vicat 


1S33-1893: 






B5 


Bramley, Frank 






C7 


Cooke 


1811-1880 






Be 


Butler, Elizabeth 1844- 




I {continued) 


Cg 


Corbett 


-1902 






c 


Calderon 1833-1898 
Clausen 1852- 




Co 


Creswick 


1811-1869 
179--1S42 






Co 


Le 


Long, Edwin 1829- 


Cio 


Crome, John B. jr. 






D 


Devis 1 763-1822 


Ms 


Maclise 1806-1870 I D 


Dawson 


1811-1878) 






E., 


Etty 17S7-1849 


M4 


MacNee 1S06-18S2 E 


East 


1849- 






F 


Forbes 1837- 


Ms 


Morris, P. R. 1S38- 


F 


Fixter 








F2 


Furse 1 868- 1904 


N 


Northcote 1746-1831 


G 


Goodall 


1822- 






Fs 


Fuseli 1741-1825 


O2 


Opie 1761-1S07 


H 


Hook 


1S19- 






Hs 


Haydon 17S6-1846 


O3 


Owen, William 1769-1825 


Ho 


Hunter 


.842- j 






H4 


Herbert 18 10- 


P2 


Prinsep 1S36- 


I 


Ibbetson 


1759-1817 






Hj 


Holl 1845-1888 


R4 


Reid. J. R. 1851- 


lo 


Inchbold 


1S30-188S 






He 


Hoppner 1758-1810 


R5 


Russei 1744-1806 


L 


Ladbroke 


175S-184C 






H, 


Horsley 1817- 


S 


Sant 1820- 


L2 


Lawson 


1851-188! 






J 


Jackson 1778-1831 


S» 


Shee 1769-1850 


La 


Leader 


1831- 






K 


Knight, John 


S3 


Stone 1840- 


L4 


Linnell 


1792-1885 








Prescott 1803-1881 


T 


Tenniel 1820- 


M 


Moore, Henry 


1831-189C 






L3 


Lance [Famed also for 


T2 


Tuke 1S58- 


Mo 


Miiller, William 


17S6-1S6- 








his pictures of 


W, 


Wright, Ethel 


P 


Parsons, Alfred 


1847- .■"' 








Still Life] 1802-1864 




See also the artists listed 


S 


Stantield 


1 793- 1 867! 






L4 


La Thangue 1860- 




under Am. I. 1. and 


So 


Stark 


1794-185C 






Lb 


Leslie, G. D. 1835- 




Br. II. 5. Figure 


V 


Vincent 


1796-1S51 



PAINTING 



Table 21 



XVIIIth and XlXth Centuries 



II. — THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES 

5 6 



GENRE AND ANIHALS 




Landseer, Sir 

Edwin 1S02-1S73 

Morland 1 736-1 804 

Riviere, Briton 1S40- 

Wilkie 178 5- 1 84 1 



Barker 


1 769-1847 


Collins 


17S8-1847 


Douglas 


1822-1891 


Frith 


1819- 


Herring 


I 795-1865 


Landseer, Charles 


1799-1S79 


Leslie, Charles R. 


1794-1859 


Mulready 


1786-1S63 


Stubbs 


1724-1806 


Ward, James 


1769-1S59 


\\ ebster 


1800-1886 


Wootton 


•'-1765 


See also Walker, 




Frederick Br. 


II. 5. \\\ 



3 {contijiited) 



Walker, Frederick 1840-1S75 
Walton 1S35-1S67 

I See also Dewint Br. II. 5. D 
I Wylie Am.II. i.Wi 



Co.x, David, of 

London 1809-18S5 
Cozens 
Fielding 
H Hunt, Wm. 
Henry 
Owen, Samuel 
Prout 



1 752-1 799 
1787-1855 



1 790- 1 864 
1783-1852 



THE SCOTCH SCHOOL 



See also Co.\, David 

Br. II. 3. C3 
Turner Br. II. 3. T 



C.3 I Clennel 
C4 I Cottermole 



Dewint 

Edridge 

Girtin 

Heaphy 

Hills, Robert 

Howitt 

Lewis 

Ruskin 

Stothard 

Westall 



1781-1840 
1S00-186S 
17S4-1S49 
1769-1821 
1775-1802 
1775-1S35 
1 769- 1 844 
1765-1822 
1805-1876 
18 19-1900 
1755-1834 
1765-1836 



Figure 
Allan, Sir William 



Cameron, D. 

Chalmers 

Harvey 

Melville 

Orchardson 

Parton 

Pettie 

Phillip 

Ramsay 



Y. 



1836-1878 
1S06-1876 

•83s- 
1845- 
1839- 1 893 
1817-1867 
1713-1784 



See also Raeburn Br.II.i.R 
Wilkie Br. 1 1. 4. W 



.Allan, David 

Archer, James 

Dyce 

Faed, John 

Faed, Thomas 

Good 

Henry 

Homell 

Lauder 

Lavery 

Xicol, Erskine 

Roche 

Runciman, 

Alexander 
Runciman, John 
Scott 
Wilson, P. MacG. 



'744-1796 

1S24- 

1806-1864 

1820- 

1826-1900 

1789-1872 



1S03-1S69 



i8;S- 



1863- 



1736-1785 
1 744-1 766 
1 806- 1 849 



Landscape, Marine, Animals 
Crawford, 

Edmund Th. - 
Graham, Peter 1S36- 
Guthrie 1859- 

Macallum 1 841-1896 

Nasmvth, Patrick 

17S7-1831 
Reid, Sir George 

1842- 



See also Cameron 



Br. II. 6a. 



Adam, Denovan 


1842-1896 


Brown, T. Austen 


_ 


Cameron, Hugh 


1835 


Crawhall 


i86o- 


Gauld, David 


1866- 


Graham, Thomas 


_ 


Kennedy 


1S60- 


Macbeth 


184S- 


Macgregor 


- 


MacWhirter 


1839- 


Nasmyth, 




Ale.xander 


1758-1814 


Paterson 


1S54- 


Paton 


.82.- 


Stevenson 


1S64- 



43 













Am. I. and II. 


AMERICAN 




First Period — The Early Painters 


1 


2 


FIGURE 


LANDSCAPE, MARINE, etc. 1 


C 


Copley 


1737-1815 






W 


West 


1738-1820 






S 


Stuart 


1755-182S 






T 


Trumbull 


1756-1843 






A 


Allston 


1 779-1 843 




[ 


S2 


Sully 


1 783-1 872 






M 


Malbone [Miniatures] 


1 787-1 807 




( 


B 


Blackburn, J. B. 


1 700-1 760 


B 


Birch, Thomas 1779-1851; 


E 


Earl, Ralph 


1751-1801 




1 


F 


Feke, Robert 


1724-1769 






F2 


Frothingham, James 


1786-1S64 






G 


Greenwood, John 


1726- 






J 


Jarvis 


I 780-1 S34 




See also Leslie, Charles Robert Br. II. 4. Lj 


h 


Jouett, Matthew Harris 


178S-1827 






N 


Newton, Gilbert Stuart 


i795-'835l 









Otis, Bass 


1 784-1 861 






P 


Peale, C. W. 


1741-1827 






P2 


Peale, Rembrandt 


1 787- 1 860 






Pa 


Pine, R. E. 


1742-1790 






P4 


Pratt, M. 


1 734- 1 805 






Q 


Quidor, John 


-ca. 1875 






S3 


Savage, Edward 


1761-1817 






Si 


Sharpless, James 


1751-1811 






Ss 
V 


Smibert 
Vanderlyn, John 


1684-1751 
1775-1852 




i 


W2 


Watson 


■1685-1768 




f 


Ws 


White, John Blake 


1781-1859 




;; 


W4 


Wright, Joseph 


1756-1793 




a 

,1 

"1 
1 

i 



44 



PAINTING 



Table 22 



Second Period — From about 1825 to 1876 
1 2 





FIGURE 




LANDSCAPE, MARINE, etc. 


H 


Harding 


1 792- 1 866 


C 


Cole, Thomas 


1801-1848 


H2 


Hunt, William Morris 


1 824-1 879 


K 


Kensett 


1818-1872 


F 


Fuller, George 


1822-1884 


G 


Gifford, Sandford R. 


1 823-1 880 








W 


Wyant 


1836-1892 








I 


Inness 


1 825-1 894 








Co 


Chtjrch, Frederick Edwin 


1826-1900 








B 


Bierstadt 

See also Enneking 
Martin 


1830-1902 

Am. III. 2. E 
Am. in. 2. M 


A 


Alexander, Francis 


1800-1880 


B2 


Bradford [Marine] 


1830-1892 


A2 


Ames, Joseph 


1816-1872 


B3 


Bristol 


1826- 


B 


Babcock, William P. 


1S25-1899 


C3 


Casilear 


1811-1893 


B2 


Baker, George A. 


1821-1880 


C4 


Cropsey, Joseph F. 


1823-1900 


E 


Elliott, Charles L. 


1812-1868 


D 


De Haas, M. F. H. [Marine] 


1832-1895 


G 


Gray, Henry P. 


1S19-1S77 


Do 


Doughty 


1 793-1 856 


Gs 


Guy, Seymour [Genre] 


1S24- 


D3 


Durand, Asher Brown 


I 796-1 886 


Hg 


Healy 


1S0S-1S94 


G2 


Gifford, R. Swain 


1S40-1905 


H4 


Henry, Edward L. 


1S41- 


H 


Hamilton, James [Marine] 


1819-1878 


He 


Hicks 


I 823-1 890 


H2 


Hart, James M. 


1828-1901 


H, 


Huntington 


i8i6- 


H3 


Haseltine 


I 83 5- I 900 


I 


Ingham 


I 796-1863 


H4 


Hill, Thomas 


1829- 


I2 


Inman 


1801-1846 


H5 


Hubbard 


1817-1888' 


I» 


Irving, John B. 


1826-1877 


J 


Johnson, David 


1827- 


J 


Jewett, W. S. 


1795-1873 


M 


Moran, Edward [Marine] 


I 829-1 901 


J2 


Johnson, Eastman 


1824- 


Mo 


Moran, Thomas 


1837- 


L 


Lawson 


1807- 1 888 


N 


Norton, W. E. [Marine] 


1843- 


I^ 


Lazarus 


1S23-1891 


Q 


Quartley, Arthur [Marine] 


1839-18S6 


Ls 


Leutze 


1816-1868 


R 


Richards, W. T. [Marine] 


i833-i9°5 


L4 


Linen, George 


1802-1888 


Wo 


Whittredge, Worthington 


1820- 


M 


May, Edward Harrison 


1824-1887 








Ms 


Mooney, Edward 


1813- 




See also Haas, J. H. L. de 


D. V. 3. H 


M, 


Morse, S. F. B. 


1791-1872 




Haas, Wm. F. de 


D. V. 4. H 


M4 


Mount, \V. S. 


1807-1868 








N 


Neagle 


1 799-1865 








P 


Page, William 


1811-1885 








P2 


Perry, E. Wood 


1831- 




I (continued^ 




P» 


Powell. Wm. H. 


1824-1879 












R 


Read, Th. B. 


1822-1872 


T 


Thompson, C. G. 


1809-1888 


R2 


Rothermel 


1817-1895 


W 


Waldo 


1783-1861 


S 


Schuessle 


1 824-1 879 


Wo 


Weir, R. W. 


I 803-1 889 


S2 


Staigg 


1820-1881 


W3 


White, Edwin 


1817-1877 


Ss 


Stone, Wm. O. 


1S30-1875 

45 


W^ 


WyUe, Robert 


1839-1877 



Am. III. 



Third Period — 
1 



AMERICAN 



FIGURE 



A 
Ao 



B 
B2 
B3 
B4 

C 

C2 

C3 



B5 

Be 

B7 

Bg 

B9 

Bio 

Bu 

B12 

C4 
C5 
Ce 
C7 
Cs 

Ds 

De 

D, 

De 

E 

E2 

E3 

F 
F2 

G 

G2 
Gs 
G4 

Hi 
H5 

He 

H7 
Hs 

Hg 

Hio 
I 



Abbey 
Alexancfer, 
John W. 



1852- 
1856- 



Beaux, Cecilia 

Benson i 862- 

Blashfield 1848- 

Brush 185s- 

Chase 1 849- 

Cox, Kenyon 1856- 
Currier, J. 

Frank 1843- 



Barse, G. R. 1861- 

Beckwith 1852- 

Blum 1857-1903 

Bohm 1868- 

Boughton, G. H. 1834-1905 
Brandegee, Robert - 

Bridgman, F. A. 1847- 

Brown, J. G. 1831- 

Cassatt, Miss Mary 
Church, F. S. 1842- 

Couse, E. In'ing 1866- 
Curran, C. C. 1861- 

Cutler, C. G. 1S73- 

Daingerfield 1859- 

Dickson, Miss M. E. - 
Dodge, W. de L. 1S67- 
Du Mond, F. V. 1S65- 

Eakins, Thomas 1844- 
Eaton, Wyatt 1 849-1 S96 
Emmet, Miss Ellen 

Fromuth 1861- 

Fuller, Henry B. 1867- 

Gardner, Miss (Mme. 

Eouguereau) 1851 — 
Gaugengigl 1855- 

Gauley, R. D. 1875- 
George, Vesper L. 1865- 

Hallowell, G. H. 1872- 
Hamilton, 

Hamilton 1S47- 
Hamilton, J. 

McClure 1853- 

Hazard 1872- 

Henri, R. 1865- 

Herter, Albert 1871- 

Hovenden 1840- 

Isham '855- 



895 



J I Johnston, John H. 1857- 



K 
K2 

K, 

K4 
Kc 
Ke 

K, 

u 
u 
L4 
u 

M, 

Ms 

Me 

M, 

Ms 

Ms 

Mio 

M„ 

M12 



P 

Po 

Ps 

P4 
P5 

Pe 
P7 
Ps 
Pi. 

Pio 



Dannat, 

\Vm. T. 
De Camp 
Dewing 
Duveneck 

Gay, Walter 

Hassam 
Hills, Miss 

Laura C. 
Hitchcock, G. 

La Farge 



1853- 
1S5S- 
1851- 
1848- 

1856- 

1859- 

1859- 
1850- 

•835- 



Kappes 

Kendall, Wm. Ser- 
geant 

Klumpke, Miss 

Knight, D. R. 

Kohler, Robert 

Koopman, 
Augustus 

Kronberg, Louis 



1850-1894 

1869- 
1856- 

1S45- 
1S50- 

1869- 
1872- 



Lathrop, Francis 1849- 

Lockwood, W. 1861- 

Loeb, Louis 1866- 

Low, W. H. 1853- 



McChesney, Clara 
Macomber, Miss 

M. L. 
Marsh, F. D. 
Maynard, G. W. 
Merrit, Mrs. A. L. 
Millet, Francis D. 
Mosler, Henry 
Mowbray 
Murphy, 

Herman D. 

Nourse, Miss 
Elizabeth 

Pape, Eric 
Parrish, Maxfield 
Paxton 

Pearce, Chas. S. 
Pepper, Chas. H. 
Perry, Mrs. L. C. 
Peters, Clinton 
Porter, B. C. 
Prendergast 
Pyle, Howard 



1861- 

1861- 
1872- 

1S43- 
1S44- 
1846- 
1841- 
1858- 

1867- 



1870- 
1S70- 
1869- 
1S5.- 
1864- 

1865- 
1845- 

1853- 



S 
S2 

T 
T2 

V 
V2 

W 
W2 



R2 

Rs 

R4 

R5 

S3 
S4 
S5 

Se 

S7 

Ss 

So 

Sio 

Sii 

S12 

Si3 

T3 
T4 
T5 

Tc 



McEwen, 
Walter 

Marr, Carl 
Melchers 



1860- 



1860- 



Reid, Robert 1863- 



Sargent 
Shannon 

Tarbell 
Thayer 

V'edder, Elihu 
Vinton 

Weir, Julian 

Alden 
Whistler 



1856- 
1863- 

1862- 
1S49- 

1838- 
1846- 



1852- 
1834-1903 



Reinhart, B. F. 
Rolshoven, Julius 
Ross, Denman 
Ryder, Albert P. 

Sartain, Wm. 
Schmitt, Albert F. 
Sears, Sarah C. 
Shirlaw 

Simmons, Edward 
Smedley, \V. T. 
Smith, J. Lindon 
Stetson, Chas. W. 
Stewart, Julius L. 
Stor)-, G. H. 
Story, Julian 



1829-1885 
1858- 

1S53- 
1S47- 

1S43- 
1873- 
185S- 
1S3S- 
.852- 
1858- 
1863- 
1858- 
1855- 

1835- 
1857- 



Tanner, H. O. - 

Thomas, S. S. 1868- 

Tompkins, F. H. 1847- 

Tumer, C. Y. 1850- 

Ulrich, Chas. F. 1858- 

Volk, Douglas 1856- 

Vonnoh, R. W. 1858- 



W3 
W4 
W5 

We 
W, 

Ws 
W9 
Wio 

W„ 

W,2 

W,3 
Wi4 

Wj5 



w 



Walden, L. 
Walker, HenrjO. 
Ward, Edgar M. 
Waterman, Marcus 
Watrous, H. W. 
Weeks, E. Lord 
Weir, J. F. 
Wentworth, 

Mrs. C. de 
Whitmore, 

Wm. R. 
Whittemore, 

Wm. J. 
Wiles, Irving R. 
Wilmarth, L. E. 
Wood, 

Thomas W. 
Woodburj', Marcia 

(Mrs. Chas. H.) 



1862- 

1843- 

1849- 

1834- 

1857- 

1849-1903 

1841- 



1861- 

1860- 
1861- 
'83s- 

1823-1903; 
1S65- 



46 





PAINTING 












Table 23 




From 1876 to the Present 






2 


3 


LANDSCAPE, etc. 


MARINE 


B 


Bisbing i S49- 


M 


Martin, Homer 1836-1897 


T 


Trj'on, D. W. 1849- 


H 


Harrison, Thomas 


Ba 


Bogert 1864- 


M2 


Minor 1840-1904 


T2 


Twachtman 1853-1902 




Ale.\ander 1853- 






M3 


Murphy, J. F. 1853- 






Hj 


Homer, 


D 


Davis, Chas. H. 1S56- 


R 


Ranger, H. W. 1S58- 


W 


Walker, 

Horatio 1858^ 




Winslow 1S36- 


E 


Eaton, Chas. 

Warren 1857- 










W 


Woodbury, 

Chas. H. 1S64- 


E2 


Enneking 1841- 














A 


Allen, Thomas 1S49- 


H 


Harrison, L. Birge 1S54- 


R^ 


Redfield 1868- 


B 


Bunce, W. G. 1840- 






H2 


Hayden, Chas. H. 1S56-1901 


Rs 


Ri.x 1851-1903 






Bs 


Barlow, J. N. 1S61- 


H3 


Howe, W. H. 1S46- 


R4 


Robinson, Theo- 


C 


Chapman, C. T. 1860- 


B4 


Bamard, E. H. 1855- 








dore 1852-1896 






Bs 


Bellows, Albert 1S30-1S83 


I 


Inness, George, Jr. 1854- 


Rs 


Robinson, Thomas 1835-1888 


D 


Dana, W. P. W. 1833- 


Be 


Blakelock 1S47- 






Ro 


Rogers, Frank W. 1854- 






B7 


Brow-n, J. 


J 


Johnston, John B. 1847-18S6 






F 


Fitzgerald, H. 1S47- 




Appleton 1844-1902 


J2 


Jones, Francis C. 1S57- 


S 


Schofield, W. 






Bg 


Bumier, Andrew F. 1841-1897 


h 


Jones, Hugh 




Elmer 1S67- 


L 


Lee, Homer 1856- 


B9 


Butler, Howard R. 1856- 




Bolton 1848- 


So 


Shurtleff, R. M. 1838- 


R 


Rehn 184S- 


C 


Carlsen 1S4S- 


K 


Kaula 1S71- 


T3 


Taber, Edward M. 1S63- 






Ca 


Coffin, W. A. 1855- 


K. 


Kost 1861- 


T4 


Taber, I. \V. 


S 


Snell, H. B. 185S- 


Cs 


Cole, J. Foxcroft 1837-1892 






Ts 


Talcott, Allen 1867- 






C4 


Coleman, C. C. 

[lives in Italy] 1S40- 


L 
L2 


Lathrop, W. L. 1859- 
Lie, Jonas 1S80- 


Te 


Tiffany, Louis C. 1848- 


T 


Tuckerman, S. S. 1830-1904 


Cs 


Colman, Samuel 1S33- 






V 


Vail, Eugene 1S56- 






Ce 


Crane, R. Bruce 1S57- 


M4 


McKnight, Dodge 1860- 


V2 


Van Boskerck 1S55- 










Ms 


MacMonnies, Mrs. 


V3 


Van der Weyden 186S- 




See also Butler Am. IIL 2.B3 


D2 


Davies 




Mary F. 


V4 


Van Laer, A. T. 1857- 




Kost Am. IIL 2. Ko 


Da 


Dearth 1863- 


Me 


Metcalf, W. L. 1858- 










D4 


De Haven, Frank 1856- 


M, 


Monks, J. A. S. 1850- 


W2 


Wendel, Theodore 1857- 






D5 


De Longpre 


Ms 


Moran, Peter 1S41- 


W3 


Wiggins, Carleton 1848- 








[Flowers] 1855- 


M9 


Muhrman 1S54- 


W4 


Wiles, Lemuel 1826-1905 






De 


Dessar 1867- 














D, 


Dewey, CM. 1851- 


N 


Needham, 










Ds 


Donoho 1857- 


N2 


Chas. A. 1844- 
Nichols, Mrs. 










F 


Fisher, Mark 1841- 




Rhoda H. 










Fs 


Foster, Ben 182J-1899 





Ochtman, L. 1854- 










G 


Gallison 1S50- 


P 

P2 

P3 

P4 

Ps 


Palmer, W. L. 1854- 
Peirce, H. W. 1850- 
Picknell, Wm. L. 1852-1897 
Piatt, Chas. A. 1861- 
Poore, H. R. 1S59- 

4 


7 









RUSSIAN 



3 '. 



EARLY FIGURE PAINTERS 



LANDSCAPE AND MARINE 



ACADE- 



Kiprenski 
Levitski 
Orlovski 
Tolstoy, Count 
Venetsianov 



A 


Akimov 


A2 


Antropov 


B 


Borovikovsky, Vladimir 


C 


Chistyakov 


I 


Ivanov, Andrey 


Is 


Ivanov, Mikhail 


U 


Losenko 


M 


Moschkov 


R 


Rokotov 


V 


Ugryumov 


z 


Zaryanko 



1783-1836 

I735-I822 

I777-I832 
I783-I828 
1779-1845 



1764 

171^ 
1758- 
1832- 

1775- 
1748- 

1737- 

1732- 
1764- 



1814 

1795 
1826 



823 
1773 
1839 
iSio 
1823 
1870 



Ayvazovski 
Shchedrin, Silvestr 



1 81 7-1900 
1791-1830 



Aleksyeev 
Klodt, Baron 
Prichetnikov 
Shchedrin, Semen 
Shishkin 
Vasilev 



1755-1 

1832- 

1767-1 

I74S-I 

1831-. 

I 850- I 



;24 



804 



S73 



Bruni, Fidelio 



V3 Vorobev 



Beidemann 

Lebedev 

Markov 

Neff, von 

Rabus, Karl 

Semiradski 

Tropinin 

Varnek 

Villevalde 



48 



PAINTING 



Table 24 



mCIANS 



1 800-1875 



1826-1869 
1815-1S37 
1802-187S 
1805-1877 
1800-1857 

'843- 

1780-1S57 

17S2-1843 

1818- 

1787-1855 



ROMANTICISTS 



Bryullov 



1799-1852 



Bogolyubov [Marine] 
Bronnikov 
Lagorio 
Meshcherski 



1S24- 
1827- 
1S26- 
1834- 



896 



REALISTS 



F 


Fedotov 


1815-1852 


I 


Ivanov, Aleksander 


1806-1858 


P 


Perov 


1833-1882 


R 


Ryepin 


1844- 


S 


Syerov 


1865- 


V 


Vereshchagin 


1842- I 904 



See also Baskirtsheff, Miss Marie Fr. IV. 1 3. B^ 



K Kramskoy 

M Makovski, Konstantin 

Mo' Makovski, Vladimir 

Fi Pelenov 

S2 Sternberg 



1837-1887 

1839- 
1846- 

1818-1845 



49 



Sw. and N 



SWEDISH, NORVS^EGIAN, 



SWEDISH PAINTING 
3 



1 



THE PIONEERS 



UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 
DUSSELDORF 



ACQUIRERS OF AN ARTISTIC 

STYLE IN PARIS AND 

MUNICH 



NATIONAL 



Landscape, Animals, Marine 



Blommdr, Nils 

Johan 1816-185S 



B2 

F 

L 

u 

R 



Breda 
Fahlkrantz 



i759-i8iS 
1 774-1 861 



Lindholm 1 8 1 9- 

Lundgren 1815-1875 

Roslin 1 718-1793 



See also Peter 

Krafft G. V. 3. K^ 



A 

B3 

D 

H 

L3 

L4 

U 

M 

M2 

P 



P2 

S 

S2 

w 



Anderson 

Brandelius 

Dahlstiom 

Hillestrom 

Lafrensen 

Lindegreen 

Lundberg 

Marees, de 

Martin, Elias 

Palm, Gustav Wil- 
helm (also called 
Palma Vecchio) 

Plagemann 

Sandberg 

Sodermark, Olaf 

Wahlborn 

Wenneberg 

Westin 

Wickenljerg 



1817-1865 

1833-1884 

?-iS69 



Eskilson 1820-1872 

Fagerlin 1825- 

Jemberg, August 1826-1896 



I737-I808 


K 


I8I4-I89I 


N 


I695-I786 


S 


I697-I776 




I740-IS04 


u 




w 




z 


I8IO-IS90 




1805- 




1782-1854 




1790-1848 




1810-IS5S 




I 808- I 846 




G.IV. i.M 





Jemberg, Olaf 
KoskuU 
Nordenberg 
Sodermark, Johan 

Per 
Uncker, Karl d' 
Wallander, Josef 
Zoll 



1855- 
1831- 
1822- 

1822-1S89 
1828-1 866 
1821-188S 
1818-1860 



Bergh, Johan 

Edvard 1S28-1S80 
Birger 1S54-1887 

Bocklund, Johan 

Kristoffer 181 7-1 880 



Cederstrom 
Fosberg 
Gegerfelt, van 
Hagborg 
Hellquist 
Hockert, Johan 

Frederik 
Kronberg, 

Julius 
Rosen, Georg 

von 
Salmson 



1S45- 

1842- 

1844- 

1852-1875 

1S51-1890 

1826-1S66 

1850- 

1843- 

1 84 3- 1894 



Larsson, Marcus 

Malmstrom 

Rydberg 

Skanberg 

Wahlberg i 

Winge 



825-1864 
829- 

835- 
850-1883 

S34- 
825- 



Arsenius 

[Animals] 1 8 I 8- 

Eckstrom, Per 
Eugen, Prince 

of Sweden 1865- 
Kriiger, Nils 
Nordstrom, Karl 1855- 



Johansson, Karl 

Kindborg 

Krouthen 

Liljefors [Animals] 

Lindmann 

Lundstrom 

Nordling 

Thegerstrom 

Thome 

Tiren 



1861- 
1858- I 
i860- I 
1848- 

1853- 
1840- 1 888 

1S54- 
1850- 

1853- 



50 



AND FINNISH PAINTING 



Table 25 



NORWEGIAN AND FINNISH PAINTING 
2 



ART 



THE PIONEERS 



Figure 



TRAINED m FOREIGN 
LANDS 



FOUNDERS OF A NATIONAL 
ART 



Bergh, Richard 185S- 
Larsson, Carl 1855- 
Zom, Andreas 1S60- 



D 



Borg 

Bjorck, Oscar 
Josephson 
Kulle 
Nyberg 
Oesterlind 
Pauli 
Wallander, Alf 



1847- 
1860- 
1851- 
1846- 
1855- 

1853- 
1855- 
1862- 



Dahl, Johan 

Christian 178S-1857 



Baade 
Feamley 
Frich 
Gorbitz 



1S08- 
1S02- 
iSio-i 
178 



879 
S42 
S58 
S53 



Gude, Hans 

[Landscape] 1825— 
Sinding, Otto 

[Landscape] 1 842— 
Tidemand, Adolf 

[Genre] 18 14- iS 76 



Arbo 

Benetter 

Boe 

Bjornsen-MoUer, 

Niels 
Cappelen 
Dahl, Sigvald 
Eckersberg, Johan 

Frederik 
Ekenaes, J. 
Gronvold 
Hansen, Carl 

Sundt- 
Hansteen, Aasta 
Miiller, Morten 
Munthe, Ludvig 
Normann 
Sinding, Elizabeth 
Stoltenberg- 

Lerche 



1831-1892 
1S22- 

1S20- 



1S27-1S52 
1S27- 

1S22-1870 

1847- 

1S45- 

1841- 
1824- 
1828- 
I 841-1896 

1S4S- 
1846- 

1S37-1892 



B 



P2 
R 

So 

S3 

u 
W3 



Heyerdahl 1857- 

Krohg 1852- 

Munthe, Ger- 
hard 1 849- 

Nielsen, Amal- 

dus 183S- 

Peterssen 1852- 

Skredsvig, 

Christian 1854- 

Thaulow, Fritz 1847- 

Wentzel 1 859- 

Werenskiold, 

Erik 1855- 

In Finland 

Edelfelt, Albert 1S54-1905 
Galldn, Axel 



Backer, Harriet 1845- 



Berg 

Diriks 

Dissen 

Ender, Axel 

Frithjof 

Gloersen 

Grimelund 

Hansteen, Nils 

Jorgensen 
K2I Kielland, Kitty 
K3 1 Kolstoe 
M.. Munch 



1S63-1893 

1S55- 

1844- 

1853- 

1S59- 

1852- 

1842- 

1855- 

1S61- 

1S44- 

1S60- 

186^- 



Peters 1S51- 

Ross, Christian 1S43- 

Skramstadt '855- 

Strom 1S63- 

Uckermann, Karl 1855- 

Wergeland 1844- 



S« 



Dan. 


• 




DANISH 




1 




2 








i'< 


CLASSICISTS 


CRUDE INDEPENDENTS 1 


A 


Abildgard 


1742-1809 


D 


i 

Dalsgard, Christen [Genre] 1824- 


I 


J 


Juel 


1 745-1 802 


E ■ 


Ecker.sberg, Christoffer Vilhelm 1 783-1853 | 








Eo 


Exner [Genre] 1825- 










K 


Kyhn [Landscape] 1819- 










L 


Lundbye [Animals] 1818-1848 










M 


Marstrand [Genre] 1 810-1873 










S 


Sonne [Battle and Low Life] 180I-1890 










S2 


Skovgard, Peter Kristian [Landscape] 1817-187J 










V 


Vermehren, Frederik [Genre] 1823- 






See also Carstens 


G. IV. 5. C 














B 


1 


G 


Gebauer 


1777-1831 


Bendsz 1804-1832 




L 


Lorentzen 


1749-1828 


Es 


Eddelien 1803-1852 1 




P 


Paulssen, Erik 


1749-1790 


H 

Ha 

K2 


Hansen, Constantin 1804-1880! 
Hansen, Henrik 1S21- 1 
Kobke 1810-1848 1 
Krafft, Johan August 1798-1829} 










K4 
U 
U 

M, 
Ma 
M4 
Ms 
P 


Kiichler 1 803- | 
Larsen, Emanuel [Marine] 1823-1859 : 
Lund 1826- 
Melbye, Anton [Marine] 1818-1875 | 
Melbye, Vilhelm [Marine] 1824- 
Meyer, Ernst [Genre] _ 1797-1861 
Miiller, Adam August 1811-1844; 
Petzholdt [Landscape] 1S05-1838 










R 


Rod, Jorgen iSoS- 










Ra 


Rorbye 1803-1848 j 










Rs 


Rump [Landscape] 1816-1880 j 








Ss 


Sorensen [Marine] 1818-1879 

• 





52 



PAINTING 



Table 26 



COSMOPOLITANS 






NATIONAL INDIVIDUALISTS 




Bloch, Karl [Genre] 


1834-1890 


A 


Ancher, Mrs. Anna [Figure] 




1859- 






A2 


Ancher, Michael [Figure and Marine] 


1849- 






H 


* Hammershoy 




1864- 






J 


Jerndorff, August [Landscape] 




1S46- 






h 


Johansen, Viggo [Landscape and 


Figure] 


185I- 


- 




K 


Kroyer [Figure] 




.851- 






L 


* Locher [Marine] 




185I- 






P 


* Paulsen, Julius [Landscape] 




1860- 






S 


* Skovgard, Joachim 




1856- 






V 


* Villumsen 






Bache [Animal and Figure] 


1839- 


C 


*Christensen 




1845- 


Gartner [Portrait] 


1818-1871 


E 


Engelsted 




1852- 


Helsted [Genre] 


1847- 


F 


• Frbhlich 




1820- 


Jerichau-Baumann, Mrs. Elizabeth 


1819-1881 


H2 


Hansen, Hans Nicolai 




1853- 


La Cour [Landscape] 


- 


H3 


Haslund, Otto 




1842- 


Rosenstand [Genre] 


1S3S- 


H4 


Hennings«n 




1855- 


Zahrtmann [History] 


1843- 


I 


Irminger 




1850- 






h 


* Jensen, Carl 




185I- 






P2 


* Philipsen 




1840- 






R 


Ring, Lauritz 




1854- 






R2 


* Rohde 




1856- 






S2 


* Seligman 




i86fr- 






S3 


* Skovgard, Niels 




1858- 






S4 


*Slott-M611er, Mrs. Agnes 




1S62- 






Ss 


* Slott-MoUer, Harold 




1864- 






Se 


Syberg, Fritz 




1S62- 






T 


Thomsen, Carl 




1847- 






T2 


Tuxen 




1853- 






Z 


« Zacho 




1843- 








* Those marked with an asterisk 


are painters of open 


air. 



53 



Jap. I. and II. 



JAPANESE 



I. — SCHOOLS OF PAINTING LITTLE INFLUENCED BY FOREIGN ART 
12 3 



THE EARLY SECULAR SCHOOL 



THE BUDDHIST SCHOOL 



THE YAMATO AND TOSA SCHOOLS 

(The Native School) 



K 



H 



A 

K2 

K, 

S 

T 

T2 



Kana-oka 



Hiro-taka 



Ai-mi 

Kin-mochi 

Kin-tada 

So-ken 

Tada-hira 

Tsune-nori 



fi. 850 A.D. 



fl. xth century 



fl. xth century A.D. 
fl. .\th centurj' 
fl. .xth century 
fl. xth century 
fl. xth century 
fl. xth century 



K; 



K6-bo Daishi 
See also Kana-oka 



Cho Densu 



Ji-kaku Daishi 



Yoshi-hide 



Kan Densu 



774-834 A.n. 
Jap. I. I. K 



1351-1427 



784-854 A.D. 



fl. .xivth century 



fl. xvth century 



M4 



M, 



H 



Moto-mitsu 



fl. xith century 



Tosa Tsun^taka fl. 1240 a.d. 

Fujiwara no Nobu-zand 1 177-1265 



Mitsu-nobu 
Son-kai 



Mitsu-shied 



So-tatsu 



Cho-ga 
Go-kio-goku 



Mitsu-oki 



Mitsu-yoshi 



Hiro-tsura 



1445-1543 
fl. xvth century 



fl. 1532-1560 
1623-1685 






fl. xiith century 
fl.xiiith century 



?-i69i 



1701-1772 



1794-1S64 ! 



54 



PAINTING 



Table 27 



II. — SCHOOLS OF PAINTING BASED ON THE STUDY OF CHINESE ART 
1 2 3 



THE CENESE SCHOOL 



THE SESSHIU SCHOOL 



THE KANO SCHOOL 



Ja-soku, Soga 
Jo-not-6 
J6-setsu 
Shiu-bun 
Sun-no (No-a-mf) 



fl. xvth centurj' 

fl. early xvth centurj- 
fl. x\th centurj' 
fl. xvth century 



Bun-cho (Tani)or Sha-san-ro 1 763- 1 840 



Kei-sai, O-nishi 
Nam-mei, Haru-ki 
S6-rin 



fl. xixth century 
fl. xixth century 
fl. xi.xth century 



Ka-wo, Nen 



Shiu-bun, Soga 



Shin-so (So-a-rai) 
So-tan 



fl. xivth century 
fl. xvth century 



fl. xvith century 
fl. xvith century 



I-fu-kiu [A Chinese Immigrant] 

fl. xviiith century 
Tai-ga-do 1 722-1 775 



C Chiku-den 



1777-1S35 



Sesshiii 
Shiu-getsu 
Sesson 
To-haku 



Kei-shoki 
Soyen 



Rio-kai 

Sei-mo 

Settei 

Shiu-ko 

To-gan 



1420-1507 

fl. late x\th century 

fl. .vi'ith century 

fl. late xvith centurj' 



fl. late xvth century 
fl. late xvth century 



fl. xvith century 
fl. xvith century 
fl. xvith century 
fl. .with century 
fl. xvith century 



K 



Masa-nobu 
Moto-nobu 

San-Raku (Kimura) 

San-setsu 

Tan-yu 

See also So^tatsu 



1 424- 1 520 
1477-1559 

•559-1635 

1592-1654 

1602-1674 

Jap. I. 3. Sj 



Kadzu-nobu 



fl. xi.xth century 



Gioku-raku fl. xvith century 

Kai-hoku 1534-1617 

Naga-mitsu fl. xvith century 

Yuki-nobu (Uta-no-suke) ■5lj-'575 

Yei-toku 1 545-1 592 



Mori-kage 

Nao-nobu 

Ritsu-w'o 

Sho-kwa-do 

Tsune-nobu 

Yasu-nobu 

Michi-nobu 



fl. xviith century 
1 603-1 650 
fl. xviiith century 
1582-1639 
1636-1713 
1613-1685 

fl. xviiith century 



Si 



Jap. III. and China 



JAPANESE AND 



III.— INDIVIDUAL TENDENCIES IN JAPANESE ART SINCE THE EARLY 
2 3 



THE POPULAR SCHOOL 
(Ukiyo-y^ Riu) 



THE KO-RIN SCHOOL 



THE SHIJO SCHOOL 



M 


Mata-hei 


fl. 1600 


M, 


Moro-nobu, Hishi-gawa 


?-i7U 


C 


Cho-ko, Taga (itcho) 


1651-1724 


Ms 


Mori-kuni 


1670-1748 


K 


Kiyo-naga 


fl. 1 765-1 780 


Ka 


Katsu-gawa Sliun-sho 


fl. 1765-1785 



Hoku-sai 

I-sai 

Kio-sai 



1760-1849 
fl. 1860-1870 
1831- 



M4 


Masa-taka 


fl. 


xviith century 


Ms 


Moro-fusa 


fl 


xviith century 


T 


T6-shiu-ki 


fl 


xviith century 


B 


Bun-cho, Ippitsu-sai 


fl. 


x\'iiith centur)- 


Cj 


Chiu-wa 


fl. 


xviiith century 


G 


Go-kan 




1747-1818 


H, 


Haru-nobu 


fl. 


xviiith century 


K* 


Kiyo-nobu (Sho-bei) 


fl. 


xviiith century 


Hs 


Han-bei, Sho-ko-sai 




fl. iSoo 


H4 


Hiro-shige 




1 797-1 858 


K5 


Katsugawa Shun-cho 




fl. 1810 


Ke 


Kei-sai Yeisen 


fl 


. xixth century 


U 


Uta-maro 




fl. 1800 



H 



K6-rin 



Ho-itsu 



Ho-ni 
Ki-itsu 



1660-1716 



fl. x\'iiith centur)' 



fl. early xixth century 
.'-1858 



0-kio 

Gen-ki 

Gekkei (Go-shun) 

Ho-yen fl. late xvii: 

So-sen 

Keibun 



1 733-1 79s: 
1751-1798 
1742-1811 
ith century] 
1 747-1821 I 
1 780- 1 844 



Sho-Gaku 
Tessan (Mori) 
Yo-sai 

Ippo (Mori) 



fl. xixth century 
fl. xixth century ! 
1787-1878 
fl. xixth century 



Ro-setsu 
Torei 

Gi-to 
O-shin 



i755-'799| 
fl. xviiith century ! 

1780-1819 i 
1791-1840' 



Oka-moto Hoken (Toyo-hiko) 176S-1S45 : 
Shiu-ho fl. xixth century ! 

Zai-chiu '-1S37 ; 



56 



CHINESE PAINTING 



Table 28 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 
4 



THE GAN-KU OR KISHI SCHOOL 



6an-ku (Kishi D6-ko) 
Ren-zan 

Bun-riu 



1749-1S3S 
?-i859 

, ?-i877 



Bum-pei (Matsu-moto) fl. xixth century 
Bum-po fl. xixth century 



B2 
B, 

G;' Gan-tai 



1793-1S63 



CHINA 



BRIEF LIST OF IMPORTANT CHINESE PAINTERS WHOSE ART 
INFLUENCED THAT OF THE JAPANESE 



First Period 
Tsao Fuh-hing (S6-futsu-k6») 

fi. iiid centurj' a.d. 
Chang San-yiu (Cho-so-yu) 

fl. vith century A.D. 



H 



Third Period — 96o-r2o6 
Li Lung-yen (Ri -riu-min or 

Ri-ko-riu) fl. xith century 



Second Period — 618-960 A.D. 
Han Kan (Kan-kan) fl. viiith century . N ; Ngan Hwui (Gan-ki) 

Wu Tao-tsz' (Go Doshi) fl. viiith century 
Wang Wei (O-i) fl. viiith century 



Fourth Period — 1206-ca. 1450 
Hia Kwei (Kakei) fl. xiith century 

fl. xiith century- 



Kvvoh Hi (Kwakki) fl. xth century 



* The Japanese names for Chinese artists 
are added in parentheses. 



M Ma Yiien (Ba-yen) 

fl. early xiiith century 
Lin Liang (Kin-rio) fl. xvth century 



S7 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 

Part Two 

LIST OF ARTISTS AND 
PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY 



NOTE 

No elaborate system of diacritical signs has been employed in this List of Artists, because people who 
command a knowledge of foreign tongues have no need of a pronouncing key, and those who lack it are 
best served by simple transliterations. Names which in their proper spelling suggest the correct sounds 
fairly accurately are not transliterated. Russian and Japanese names are commonly spelled as they are 
intended to be pronounced. For Russian names the advice of Professor Wiener has been followed, and 
for Japanese names that of Mr. Morimoto. In the transliterations of French and Belgian names accents are 
not marked, because in French there is no decided stress on any one syllable. Neither long nor short 
vowels are marked where there seems to be little danger of misunderstanding. 

The values of the letters in the transliterations are as follows : 



a 


as 


in 


father. 






a 


" 


" 


ale. 






e 


" 


" 


bet. 






e 


" 


11 


he. 






T 


" 


" 


it. 






T 


" 


" 


fine. 






o 


" 


" 


.short (never 


as 


in hot), 


5 


" 


" 


hole. 






ou 


" 


" 


house. 






oo 


as 


u 


in rule, or oo 


in 


boot. 


u 


as 


in 


1 full (never as 


i in but). 



ch as in chin. 

fas in garden. This letter appears dotted (g) 
. -J wherever there seems to be danger of pro- 

[ nouncing it soft, as in gem. 

j as in joke. 

s " " sand. 
th " " thou (never as in thin). 

y " " yard. It is always a consonant, even 
at the end of a word, and never a vowel, 
as in fullv. 



The following letters indicate sounds which have no equivalents in English. 



S is Danish sound similar to English aw in paw. 

5 is pronounced like French eu in deux, or German ij in 
Hbhe. 

ii is pronounced like French u in tu, or German ii in 
Tiir. 

aoo is a Dutch sound similar to ou in house, with the em- 
phasis on the oo sound. 



d) (German characters for ch) is pronounced Hke the Scotch 
ch in loch, or like the German ch in ach or in ich. The 
various fine distinctions in the pronunciation of this 
sound have not been marked. 

h at the end of a syllable gives the preceding vowel a nasal 
sound, but the n itself is not pronounced. 

3 is pronounced similar to z in azure. 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



DATES 

Aachen (Achen), Hans von (a'c^en) . . 1 562-1 615 

Abbate, Niccolo dell' (abba'ta) .... 1512-1570 

Abbey, Edwin A 1852- 

Abel de Pujol, Ale.\andre Denis (abel 

dii piijol) 1785-1861 

Abildgard, Nicolai Abraham (aljilgar) . 1742-1809 
Achen, see Aachen 

Achenbach, Andreas (a'cfjenbac^) . . . 1815- 

Achenbach, Oswald (a'dienbac^) . . . 1827- 

Adam, Albrecht (a'dam) 1786-1862 

Adam, Denovan (a'dam) 1842-1896 

Adam, Franz (a'dam) 181 5-1886 

Aeken, Hieronymus van (alven), see Bosh 

Aelst, Evert van (alst) 1602-1658 

Aelst, Willem van (alst) 1620-1679 

Aertszen, Pieter (a'rtsen) i507-'573 

Agache, Alfred Pierre (agash) .... 1843- 
Aime-Morot (ama more), see Morot, Aime 

Ai-mi fl. xth century 

Ajvazovski, see Ayvazoski 

Akimov, Ivan Akimovich (a'kimoff) . . 1764-1814 

Albani, Francesco (alba'ne) 1578-1660 

Albertinelli, Mariotto (albertinel'le) . . 1474-1515 

Aldegrever, Heinrich (al'degraver) . . . 1 502-1 55S 

Aleksyeev, Fedor Jakovlevich (ale'xyaff) 1 755-1824 
Alemanno, see Justus de Allamagna 
Alemannus, Giovanni (aleman'nus) . fl. 1444-1451 
Aleni, Tommaso, called II Fadino (ala'ne) fl. 1 500-1 5 1 5 

Alesio (AUecio), Matteo Terey (ale'thio) 1 547-1600 

Alexander, Francis 1800-18S0 

Alexander, John W 1856- 

Alexeyev, see Aleksyeev 

Alfaro y Gamez, Juan (alfa'ro e ga'meth) 1640-16S0 

Aligny, Claude Fran9ois Theodore Car- 

nelle d' (alinye) 179S-1S71 

Allan, David 1744-1796 

Allan, Sir William 1 782-1 S50 

Allebe, August (iilleba) 1838- 

Allecio, see Alesio 

Allegri, Antonio, see Correggio 

AUegri, Pomponio (alla'gre) 1 521-1593 

Allen, Thomas 1S49- 

AUori, Alessandro (alio' re) I5j5-i6°7 

AUori, Cristofano (allo're) 1 577-1621 

Allston, Washington 1 779-1843 

AlmaTadema, Laurenz (al'ma-tada'ma) . 1836- 

Alovigi, see Ingegno, L' 

Alsloot, Denys van (iil'slot) .... fl, 1 599-1630 

Altdorfer, Albrecht 14S0-153S 

Altichiero da Zevio (altekea'ro) . . . fl. 1350 



TABLE 
7 

4 



19 
26 



9 

9 
9 

21 

9 

14 
14 
13 
20 



=4 
5 
4 
7 

24 

3 

4 

17 

23 

17 

19 
21 

16 



DATES 
Alunno, Niccolo (Niccolo da Foligno) 

(alun'no) 1430- 1 502 

- Alvarez, Luis (al'vareth) 1841-1901 

Alvise, see Vivarini, Luigi 

Amalteo, Pomponio (amalta'o) .... 1 505-1 584 

Aman-Jean, Edmond (aman-5an) . . . 1856- 
Amberger, Christoph (am'berger) . . fl. 1 530-1 561 
Amerigo, Francisco (ame'rigo) .... 

Amerling, Friedrich 1803-18S7 

Ames, Joseph 1816-1872 

Amigoni, Jacopo (amigo'ne) 1675-1752 

Amsterdam, Jacob van, see Comelisz 

Ancher, Mrs. Anna (nee Brondum)(an'cf)er) 1859- 

Ancher, Michael Peter (an'c^er) .... 1849- 

Anderson, Nils 1817-1865 

Andrea da Firenze (andra'a da feren'tsa) fl. 1380 
Andrea da Florentia, see Andrea da 

Firenze iiS?-^ i>-rrf.* i*«^ ,>e*yCc i^^^ 

Andrea da Salerno (Sabbatini) (andra'a 

da saler'no) 1 480-1 545 

Andrea Michieli, called Vicentino, see 

Michieli 

Andreotti, Frederico (andraot'te) . . . 1847- 

Andri (an'dre) - 

Anemolo, see Aniemolo 

Angelico, Fra (Giovanni da Fiesoli, Guido 

di Piero) (anje'liko) '387-1455 

Angermeyer, Johann Albert (an'germier) 1674-1740 

Angrand, Charles (angrafi) 1854- 

Anguisciola, Sofonisba (angwishola) . . 1535- 1622 
Aniemolo (Anemolo, Ainemolo),Vincenzo 

(ania'molo) -1540 

Anquetin (ariketeii) 

Ansano (Sano) di Pietro di Mencio 

(ansa'no) 1405-1481 

Ansdell, Richard 181 5-1885 

Anselmi, Michelangelo (ansel'me) . . . 1491-1554 

Antigna, Jean Pierre Alexandre (antenya) 1S1S-1878 

Antolinez, Jose (antole'neth) .... 1639-1676 
Antonello da Messina (antonel'lo da mes- 

se'na) 1444-1493 

Antonello da Saliba (antonel'lo da sale'ba) 1490- 
Antonio da Canale, see Canaletto, II 
Antonio da Murano (Vivarini, Antonio) 

(anto'nio da moora'no) .'-1470 

Antonio Veneziano (anto'nio vanatsia'no) 1312-13SS 

Antropov, Aleksyey Petrovich (an'tropoff ) 1 716-1795 
Apol, Lodewijk Franciscus Hendrik 

(a'pol) 1850- 

Appiani, Andrea (appia'ne) 1754-1S17 



S 
20 

7 

17 
9 



26 
26 

25 
2 



5 
20 

3 
21 

4 
19 
17 



24 

16 
6 



62 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



[Appiani-Bellini 



DATES 

Appiani, Francesco (appia'ne) .... 1704-1792 

Apt, Ulrich fl. 1486-1532 

Arbo, Nicolai 1831-1892 

Archard, Jean Alexis (arshar) .... 1807- 

Aicher, James 1S24- 

Armitage, Edward 1817-1896 

Arpino, Cavaliere d', see Cesare, Giuseppe 

Arsenius, Johann Georg (arsa'nius) . . iSiS- 

Artan, Louis 1837-1890 

Arthois, Jacques d' (artwa) 1613-1684 

Artz, David Adolf Constant 1837-1890 

Asam, Cosmas (a'zam) 1686-1742 

Asper, Hans 1499-1571 

Aspertini, Amico (asperte'ne) .... 1475-1552 

Asselyn, Jan, called Krabbetje (as'salin) . 1610-1660 

Aubert, .\ugustin Raymond (obar) . . . 1781-1857 

Aubert, Ernest Jean (obar) 1824- 

Aublet, Albert (obla) 1851- 

Aumonier, M. J - 

Avanzi, Jacopo d' (Davanzi), (avant'se) fl. 1375 

Avanzii, Jacopo degli (avant'se) . . fl. 1375 
Ayvazovski, Ivan Constantinovich (iiyva- 

zovs'ke) 1S17-1900 

Azeglio, Massimo d' (adze'lyo) .... 1798-1866 

Baade, Knud (bS'de) 1808-1879 

Baader, Louis Marie (badar) 1828- 

Babcock, William 1825-1899 

Bacchiacca, II, see Verdi, Francesco Uber- 

tini dei (bakkeakTta) 1494-1557 

Bache, Otto (ba'c^e) '839- 

Bachelier, Jean Jacques (bashelia) . . . 1724-1806 

Backer, .^driaen (bakTier) 1636-1686 

Backer, Harriet (bakTcer) 1845- 

Backer, Jacob (bakTier) 1608-1651 

Backhuisen, Ludolf (bak'hoizen) . . . 1631-1708 

Badalocchio, Sisto (badalok'kio) . . . 1 581-1647 

Badile, Antonio (bade'la) 1 516-1560 

Baertsoen, Albert (bart'zoon) .... 1865- 
Bagnacavallo, Bartolommeo (banyaka- 

val'lo) 1484-1542 

Baker, George .\ 1821-1880 

Bakhuyzen, Hendrik van de Sande (bak'- 
hoizen) 1795-1S60 

Bakhuysen, see Backhuisen, Ludolf 

Baldovinetti, Alesso (baldovenet'te) . . 1427-1499 

Baldung, Hans (Grien) 1476-1545 

Balen, Hendrik van (ba'len) '575-1632 

Bamboccio, see Laar, Pieter van 

Barabino, Niccol6 (barabe'no) .... 1832-1891 

Barau, Emile (baro) 1851- 

Barbalonga, II, see Vermeyen 

Barbarelli, Giorgio, see Giorgione 

Barbari, Jacopo de (barTjare) .... 1440-1516 

Barbieri, Giovanni Francesco, see Guer- 

cino, II 
Barend van Brussel, see Orley, Bemaert 

Barentz, Dirk(Barent,Berendsen)(ba'rents) 1534-1592 

Bargue, Charles (barg) -'883 

Barker, Thomas 1769-1847 



TABLE 

5 

7 

= 5 

20 



=5 

1 2 

II 

i6 

8 

7 

4 

14 

19 

19 

20 

21 



4- 
26 
18 
14 
25 
14 
14 

5 

4 



4 

22 
16 



6 

20 



DATES 

Barlow, John Noble 1861- 

Barnard, Edward H '855- 

Barocci, see Baroccio 

Baroccio (Barocci), Federigo (barot'cho) 1 528-1612 

Baron, Theodore (baron) 1840-1899 

'Barrias, Feli.\ Joseph (barreii) .... 1822-1905 

Barry, James 1741-1806 

Barse, George R 1861- 

Bartoli, Taddeo (di Bartolo) (baito'le) 1363-1422 
Bartolo, Taddeo di, see Bartoli, Taddeo 

Bartolo di Fredi (barto'lo) 1 330-1 409 

Bartolommeo, Fra (bartolomme'o) . . . 1475-1517 
Bartolommeo, Suardi, see Bramantino 
Bartolommeo, Veneto (bartolomme'o) fl. .wth century 

Bartolotti, Antonio (bartolot'te) . . . 1450-1527 

Basaiti, Marco (basae'te) 1450-1521 

Bashkirtsev, see Baskirtsheff 

Baskirtsheff (Bashkirtsev), Marie . . . 1 860-1884 
Bassano, Francesco da Ponte (bassa'no) . 1550-1591 
Bassano, Giovanni Battista da Ponte (bas- 
sa'no) fl. late xvith centurj' 

Bassano, Girolamo da Ponte (bassa'no) 

fl. late xvith century 
Bassano, Jacopo da Ponte the Elder (bas- 
sa'no 1510-1592 

Bassano, Leandro da Ponte (bassa'no) . 1558-1623 
Bassano, Pedro, see Orrente, Pedro 

Bastiani, Lazzaro (bastia'ne) .... 1450-1508 

Bastida, Joaquin Sorolta y (baste'da) . . 1S63- 

. Bastien- Lepage, Jules (bastieii-lijpa.'S) . . 1848-1884 

Batoni, Pompeo Girolamo (bato'ne) . . 1708-1787 

Baudoin, Pierre Antoine (bodwen) . . . 1 723-1 769 

Baudry, Paul (b6dr€) 1828-1886 

Bauer, Nicolaas (bou'er) 1 767-1820 

Baugniet, Charles (bonya) 1814- 

Baum. Paul (boum) '859— 

Bautzer (bout'ser) — 

Ba-yen, see Ma Yiien 

Bazzaro, Leonardo (batsa'ro) .... 1853- 

Beaux, Cecilia (bo) - 

Beccafumi, Domenico (bekkiifoo'me) . . 1486-1551 
Beccaruzzi, Francesco (bekkaroot'se) . fl. 1 527-1 544 

Becerra, Gaspar (bether'ra) 1520-1570 

Becker, Jacob 1810-1872 

Beckwith, J. Carroll 1852- 

Beechey, Sir William 17 53- '839 

Beerstraaten, A. (bar'straten) . fl. after 1650 

Beerstraaten, Jan (bar'straten) .... 1622-1687 

Bega, Comehs Pietersz (baga) .... 1620-1664 

Beham, Barthel (ba'ham) 1 502-1540 

Beham, Hans Sebald (ba'ham) .... 1 500-1 550 

Beich, Joachim Franz (bicf)) 1665-1748 

Beidemann, Alexander Jegorovich (bi'- 

deman) 1826-1869 

Beijeren, Abraham van (bl'aren) . . . 1620-1674 

Bellange, Eugene (bellanja) 1837-1895 

Bellange, Hippolyte (bellahsa) .... 1800-1866 

Bellini, Gentile (belle'ne) 1426-1507 

Bellini, Giovanni (belle'ne) 1428-1516 

Bellini, Jacopo (belle'ne) 1 400-1 464 



TABLE 

23 
23 

5 

12 

19 
21 

23 



3 
4 
3 

20 
4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

3 
17 
20 

5 
18 

■9 

16 

12 

9 

9 

6 

23 
4 
4 

17 
9 

-3 

21 

14 

14 

•5 

7 

7 



24 
14 
19 
19 
3 
3 
3 



Bellows-Borgognone] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



63 



0»TES TABLE 

Bellows, Albert F 1S30-1SS3 23 

Belotto, Bernardo (II Canaletto, the 

nephew) (belot'to) 1720-17S0 5 

BeltrafEo (Boltraffio), Giovanni Antonio 

(beltraf'fio) 1467-1516 4 

Bembo, Bonifazio .'-1500 3 

Bembo, Gian Francesco ?-i526 3 

Benczur, Gyula (bent'soor) 1844- 9 

Bendemann, Eduard 1811-1889 9 

Bendsz, Vilhelm Ferdinand 1804-1832 26 

Benetter, Jacob (benet'ter) 1822— 25 

Benjamin-Constant, Jean Joseph (benja- 

meri-kohstaii) 1S45- 20 

Benliure y Gil, Jose (benleoo'ra e hll) . 1S55- 17 

Benouville, Achille (benoovel) .... 1S15-1891 19 

Benson, Frank W 1862- 23 

Benvenuti, Giovanni Battista, see Orto- 

lano, L' 

Benvenuti, Pietro (benvenoo'te) . . . 1769-1844 5 
Benvenuto, see Girolamo di Benvenuto 

Beraud, Jean (baro) 1849- 20 

Berchem (Berghem), Claas (Nicolaas) 

Pietersz (ber'c^em) 1620-16S3 15 

Berck-Heyde, Gerrit (berk-hi'de) . . . 1638-1698 15 

BerckHeyde, Job (berk-hi'de) .... 1630-1693 15 
Berendsen, see Barentz 

Berettini, Pietro da Cortona (berette'ne) 1596-1669 5- 

Berg, Gunnar 1863-1893 25 

Berge, Charles de la (bers) 1807-1S42 19 

Bergh, Johan Edvard (barg) 182S-18S0 25 

Bergh, Richard (barg) 1858- 25 

Berghem, see Berchem 

Beme-Bellecour, fitienne Prosper (bem- 

belkoor) 183S-1898 19 

Berruguete, Alonso (berrooga'te) . . 1 480-1 561 17 

Berruguete, Pedro (berrooga'te) . . ?-i504 19 

Bertin, Edouard Fran9ois (berteh) . . . 1 797-1 87 1 19 

Bertin, Jean Victor (berten) 1775-1842 19 

Bertini, Giuseppe (berte'ne) 1 825-1 899 6 

Besnard, Paul Albert (banar) .... 1849- -° 

Beukelaer, Joachim (bbk'elar) .... '"'575 '3 

Bezzi, Bartolommeo (bet'se) 1851- 6 

Bezzuoli, Giuseppe (betswo'le) .... 1 784-1855 6 

Bianchi, Francesco (bean'ke) .... 1447-1 510 3 

Bianchi, Moise (bean'ke) 1840- 6 

Biard, Franjois (bear) 1801-1S82 19 

Bidault, Xavier (bedo) 1745-1813 19 

Biefve, Edouard de (beef) 1809-1882 12 

Bierstadt, Albert 1830-1902 22 

Bigio, Francia, see Franciabigio 

Bigordi, see Ghirlandajo 

Bilders, Johannes Wamardus .... 1811-1890 16 

Bilders-van Bosse, Mrs 1837-1900 16 

Billet, Pierre-Celestin (beya) 1836- 20 

Billotte, Rene (beyott) : 1846- 20 

Binck, Jacob 1 490-1 569 7 

Binet, Victor Jean Baptiste Barthelemey 

(bena) 1849- 20 

Birch, Thomas 1779-1851 22 

Birger, Hugo (bir'ger) 1854-1887 25 



OtTES TtBLE 

Bisbing, Henry Singlewood '849- 23 

Biset, Karel Emanuel (beza) 1633-1680 11 

Bisschop, Christoffel (bis'sdjop) . . . 1828- 16 

Bissolo, Pietro Francesco (bes'solo) . . 1464-1528 3 

Bjork, Oscar (byijrk) i860- 25 

Bjomsen-Mbller, Niels (byijm'sen) . . - 25 

Blackburn, J. B 1 700-1760 22 

Blake, William 1 757-1827 2i 

Blakelock, Ralph Albert 1847- 23 

Blanche, Jacques fimile 1861- 20 

Blashfield, Edwin Howland 1848- 23 

Blechen, Karl Eduard (h\e'd)en) . . . 1 798-1840 9 

Bles, David 1821-1899 16 

Bles, Henry (Hendrik) de (called also 

Civetta) 1480-1550 10 

Bloch, Karl Heinrich (blok) 1834-1890 26 

Block, Eugenius Frans de 1812- 12 

Bloemaert, Abraham (bloo'mart) . . . 1 564-1651 15 

Bloemaert, Adrian (bloo'mart) . . fl. xviith century 15 

Bloemaert, Comelis (bloo'mart) . . . 1 603-1 688 15 

Bloemaert, Hendrik (bloo'mart) . . fl. .wiith century 15 

Blommer, Nils Johan (blommar') . . . 1S16-1858 25 

Blommers, Bemardus J 1845- '^ 

Blondeel, Lancelot (blon'dal) .... 1495-1561 10 

Bloot, Pieter de (bl5t) ?-i652 15 

Blum, Robert 1857-1903 23 

-Boccaccino, Boccaccio (bokkatche'no) . 1460-1518 3 

Bock, Theophile de - 16 

Bockhorst, Jan van 1610—1668 11 

Bocklin, Arnold (bbklen') 1S27-1901 9 

Bocklund, Johan Kristoffer 1817-1880 25 

Bocksberger, Hans 1540- 7 

Boe, Frans (bij'e) 1820- 25 

Bogert, George H 1864- 23 

Bogolyubov, Aleksyey 1824-1896 24 

Bohm, Max 1868- 23 

Bol, Ferdinand 1611-1680 14 

Bol, Hans '534-1593 'o 

Boldini, Giovanni (bolde'ne) 1844— 20 

Boltraffio, see Beltraffio 

Bompiani, Roberto (bompia'ne) . . . 1821- 6 

Bonfigli, see Bonfiglio 

Bonfiglio (Bonfigh), Benedetto (bonfel'yo) 1425-1496 3 

Bonheur, Auguste (bonor) 1824-1884 20 

Bonheur, Rosa (bonor) 1822-1S99 20 

Bonifazio I (Veronese) the Elder (boni- 

fa'tsio) 1490-1540 4 

Bonifazio II (Veronese) the Younger 

(bonifa'tsio) ?-i533 4 

Bonifazio III (Veneziano) (bonifa'tsio) 1 555-1 579 4 

Bonington, Richard Parkes 1801-1S28 21 

Bonnat, Leon (bonna) 1S33- 20 

Bonone, Carlo (Carracci of Ferrara) (bo- 

n5'na) 1 569-1632 5 

Bonsignori, Francesco di Alberto (bon- 

sinyo're) 1455-1 519 3 

Bonvin, Francois (bonveii) 1817-1887 20 

Bordone, Paris (bordo'na) 1 500-1 570 4 

Borg, Axel 1847- 25 

Borgognone, Ambroggio (borgonyo'na) . 1445-1523 3 



64 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING [Borgognone-buttinone 



Borgognone, II, see Courtois, Jacques 

Borovikovsky, Vladimir (borovikov'ske) 1758- 

Bosboom, Jan (bos'bom) 181 7- 

Bosch, Jan (Hieronymus van Aeken) 

(bos) 1460- 

Boschaert (Boskaert), Thomas (bos'cf)art) 1613- 

Both, Andries (bot) fl. 1640 

Both, Jan (bot) 1610- 

Botticelli, Alessandro (bottichel'le) . . 1446- 

Botticini, Francesco (bottiche'ne) . . . 1446- 

Boucher, Francois (boosha) 1703- 

Bouchot, Francois (boosho) 1800- 

Boudin, Eugene (boodeii) 1825— 

Boughton, George Henry 1834- 

Bouguereau, Mme., see Gardner, Miss E. J. 
Bouguereau, Guillaume Adolphe (boo- 

gero) 1825- 

Boulanger, Gustave (boolansa) .... 1824- 

Boulanger, Louis (boolanja) i8c6- 

Boulenger, Hippolyte (boolanSa) . . . 183S- 

Boullongne, Bon (boolony) '649- 

Boullongne, Jean de, see Valentin, Le 
Boullongne, Louis the Elder (boolony) . i6og- 
BouUongne, Louis the Younger (bool- 
ony) 1654- 

Bourdichon, Jean (boordishon) .... 1457- 

Bourdon, Sebastien (boordon) .... 1616- 
Bourguignon, Le, see Courtois, Jacques 

Boursse, Esaias (ba^io'rsa) 1630-i 

Bouts, Dierick (Huerbouts, or Dick van 

Harlem) (ba^oots) 1410- 

Boyermans, Theodor (bo^erma^s) . . . 1620- 

Bracht, Feli.x Prosper Eugen (brac£)t) . . 1842- 

Bradford, William 1830- 

Braekeleer, Ferdinandus de (braTcelar) . 1792- 

Braekeleer, Henri de (braTcelar) . . . 1S30- 
Bramantino (Bartolommeo Suardi), (bra- 

mante'no) '45°- 

Bramer, Leonard (bra'mer) 1596- 

Bramley, Frank - 

Brancaccio (brankat'cho) - 

Brand, Christian Hilfgott 1695- 

Brand, Johann Christian 1723- 

Brandegee, Robert - 

Brandelius, Gustaf (branda'liiis) . . . 1833- 

Brandt, Joseph von 1841- 

Brascassat, Jacques Raymond (brakassa) 1805- 

Bray, Jan de (br!) 

Bray, Salomon de (bri) '597- 

Breda, Karl Frederik von (bra'da) . . . 1759- 

Bree, Mattheus Ignatius van (bra) . . . 1773- 
Breenbergh (Brenborch), Bartholomeus 

(bran'berd)) '599- 

Breitner, G. H. (brTt'ner) 1857- 

Brekelenkam (Breklinkam), Quiryn (bre'- 

kelenkam) — 

Breklinkam, see Brekelenkam 

Brenborch, see Breenbergh 

Breton, fimile Adelard (bretoii) . . . . 1S31- 

Breton, Jules Adolphe (breton) .... 1827- 



826 


24 


891 


16 


516 


>3 


664 


1 1 




■5 


652 


15 


510 


3 


497 


3 


770 


iS 


842 


■9 


898 


20 


905 


21 


905 


'9 


888 


19 


867 


19 


874 


12 


7>7 


18 



674 



733 


18 


521 


18 


671 


18 



14 



475 


10 


678 


1 1 




9 


S92 


22 


883 


12 


888 


12 


526 


3 


667 


14 




6 


756 


8 


795 


S 




-3 


884 


-5 




9 


867 


20 


697 


■5 


664 


'5 


818 


^', 


839 


12 


663 


14 




16-^ 



668 



DATES 

Brett, John 1830- 

Breu, Jorg (Brevf, Prew), (broi) .... -'-'536 
Breuil, du, see Dubreuil 
Brew, see Breu 

Bridgman, Frederic Arthur 1847- 

Bril, Mattheus 1 550-1 584 

Bril, Pauwel 1 554-1 626 

Brillouin, Louis Georges (briyooeii) . . 1817- 

Brion, Gustave (breori) 1 824-1877 

Bristol, John Bunyan 1826- 

Broederlam, Melchior (broo'derlam) . fl. 1390 
Bronchorst (Bronckhorst), Jan (bron'- 

c^orst) 1603-1678 

Bronckhorst, see Bronchorst 

Bronnikov, Fedor 1S27- 

•Bronzino, Agnolo (brontse'no) .... 1502-1572 

Brouwer, Adriaen (bra^oo'wer) .... 1606-163S 

Brown, Ford Madox 1821-1893 

Brown, J. Appleton 1844-1902 

Brown, J. G 1831- 

Brown, John Lewis 1 829-1 890 

Brown, Thomas Austen - 

Brozik, Wenzel (bro'tstk) 1851- 

-Brueghel, Jan the Elder (Fluweelen, i.e. 

Velvet Brueghel) (brij'cJiel) .... 156S-1625 

Brueghel, Jan the Younger (brb'cfjel) . . 1601-1677 
Brueghel, Peeter the Elder (Boeren, i.e. 

Peasant Brueghel) (brij'cf)el) . . . 1 525-1 570 
Brueghel, Peeter the Younger (Hollen, i.e. 

Hell Brueghel) (brb'c^el) .... 1 564-1 637 

Bruni, Fidelio (broo'ne) 1800-1875 

Brusasorci the Elder (Domenico Riccio) 

(broosasor'che) 1494-1567 

Brusasorci the Younger (Felice Riccio) 

(broosasor'che) 1540^-1605 

Brush, George de Forest 1855- 

Bruyn, Arnold (briin) fl, 1550 

Bruyn, Barthel the Elder (Bartholomaus) 

(briin) 1494-1557 

Bruyn, Barthel the Younger (briin) . fl. 1550 

Bruzzi, Stefano (brii'tse) - 

Bryullov (BruUeau), Karl (briil'loff) . . 1799-1852 

Bugiardini, Giuliano (boojarde'ne) . . 1475-1554 

Bum-pei (Matsu-moto) fl. .\ixth century 

Bum-po fl. xixth century 

Bunce, \V. Gedney 1S40- 

Buncho, Ippitsu-sai fl. xviiith century 

Buncho (Tani) or Sha-san-ro .... 1763-1840 

Bunner, .\ndrew F 1841-1897 

Bun-riu ?-i877 

Buonconsiglio, Giovanni (II Marescalco) 

(boo-onkonsil'yo) fl. 1497-1550 

Burckmair, Hans the Elder (bvirTcmir) . 1473-1531 

Burckmair, Toman (bur'kmir) . . . fl. 1460-1523 

Biirkel, Heinrich 1802-1869 

Burne-Jones, Sir Edward 1833-189S 

Butin, Ulysse (biiteii) 1S38-1883 

Butler, Elizabeth 1844- 

Butler, Howard Russell 1856- 

Buttinone, Bernardino (boottmo'na) . . 1436-1507 



23 
10 
10 
19 



14 

24 
5 
11 
21 
23 
23 
20 
21 
9 

10 
11 



II 
24 



4 
23 

7 

7 
7 
6 

24 
4 

28 

28 

23 

28 

27 
23 
28 

4 

7 

7 

9 

21 

20 

21 

23 

3 



Bylekt-Chavet] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



65 



DATES TABLE 

Bylert, Jan van (bnert) 1603-1671 15 

Byss, Johann Rudolf (biss) 1 660-1 73S S 

Cabanel, Alexandre (kabanel) .... 1823-18S9 19 

Cabat, Louis (kaba) 1S12-1893 19 

Cagliari, Benedetto (Veronese) (kalya're) 153S-159S 4 

Cagliari, Carletto (Veronese) (kalya're) . 1 570-1 596 4 

Cagliari, Gabriele (Veronese) (kalya're) . 156S-1631 4 

Cagnacci (Guido Canlassi) (kanya'che) . 1601-1681 5 

Caillebotte (kaybot) - 20 

Calderon, Philip Hennogenes .... 1833-1S9S 21 
Caliari, see Cagliari 

Callcott, Sir Augustus Wall 1779-1844 21 

Callet, Antoine Franfois (kalla) . . . 1 741-1823 iS 

Callot, Jacque (kiillo) 1592-1635 iS 

Caluwaert, see Calvaert 

Calvaert (Caluwaert), Denis (Dionisio 

Fiammingo) (kalvart) 1540-1619 10- 

Cambiaso, Luca, of Genoa (kambra'so) . 1 527-1 585 5 

Cameron, D. Y - 21 

Cameron, Hugh 1S35- -■ 

Campagnola, Domenico (kampanyo'la) . 1490- 1564 4 
Campana, Pedro (Champaigne, Pierre) 

(kampan'ya) 1 503-1 580 17 

Camphausen, Wilhelm (kamp'housen) . 1S1S-18S5 9 

Campi, Bernardino (kam'pe) 1 522-1 590 4 

Campi, Galeazzo (kam'pe) 1477-IS36 4 

Campi, Giulio (kam'pe) 1500-1572 4 

Campriani, Alcesto (kamprTa'ne) . . . 1848- 6 
Camuccini, Vincenzo Cavaliere (kamoot- 

che'ne) 1 775-1844 6 

Canaletto, II (Antonio da Canale) (kana- 

let'to) 1697-1768 5 

Canaletto, II (the nephew) (kanalet'to), 

see Belotto, Bernardo 
Candido, see Witte, Peter de 
Canlassi, see Cagnacci 

Cano, Alonso (ka'no) 1601-1667 '7 

Capelle, Jan van der (kapel'le) .... .'-1680 14 

Cappelen, August (kap'pelen) .... 1827-1852 25 

Capuccino, II, see Strozzi, Bernardo — 
Caracci, see Carracci 

- Caravaggio, Michelangelo da (karavad'jo) 1569-1609 5 

Caravaggio, Polidore da (karavad'jo) . 1490-1543 4. 

Carbonero, Moreno (karbona'ro) . . . i860- 17 

Carcano, Filippo (karka'no) 1S40- 6 

Carducci (Carduchio), Bartolommeo (kar- 

doot'che) 1 560-1608 5 

Carduchio, see Carducci 

Cariani, Giovanni Busi (karfa'ne) . . . 14S0-1541 4 

Carlandi, Onorato (karlan'de) .... 1848- 6 

Carloni, Giambattista (karlo'ne) . . . 1 594-1680 5 

Carloni, Giovanni (karlo'ne) ..... 1591-1630 5 
Carlotto, see Loth, Johann Karl 

Carlsen. Emil 1S4S- 23 

Camevale, Fra (kameviile) . . . . fl. 1456 3 
Carolus Duran (Charles Auguste fimile 

Durand) (karoliis-diirah) 'S37- 20 

Caroto, Giovan Francesco <karo'to) . . 1470-1546 3 

Carpaccio, Vittore (karpat'cho) . . 1 440-1 522 3 



DATI 

Carracci, Agostino (karrat'che) .... 1557 

Carracci, Annibale (karrat'che) .... 1560- 

Carracci, Francesco (karrat'che) . . . 1595 

Carracci, Ludovico (karrat'che) .... 1555 
Carracci of Ferrara, see Bonone 
Carreno de >Iirando, Don Juan (kar- 

ran'yo) 1614 

Carriera, Rosalba (karria'ra) 1675- 

Carriere, Eugene (karriar) 1849 

Carstens, Asmus Jacob '754 

Casado del Alisal (kasa'do) 1S32 

Casanova, Francesco (kasano'va) . . . 1727- 

CasanovayEstorach, Antonio (kasanS'va) 1S47 
Caselli, Cristoforo (kasel'le) . . . . fi. 14S9- 

Casilear, John W iSii 

Cassatt. Miss Mary 

Cassioli, Amos (kassiole) 1832- 

' Castagno, Andrea del (kastan'yo) . . . 1390- 

Castello (Castelli), Bernardo (kastel'lo) . 1557- 

Castello, CastelUno (kastel'lo) .... 1579- 
Castello, Fabricio (kastel'yo) .... 

Castello, Felix (kastel'yo) 1602- 

Castello, Nicolas Granelo (kastel'yo) . . 
Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto (kastil- 

yo'na) 1616- 

Castillo, Agustin del (kastel'yo) . . . 1565 

Castillo, Juan de (kastel'yo) 1584 

Castillo y Saavedra, Antonio del (kastel'yo 

e sava'dra) 1603 

Catena, Vincenzo (kata'na) 1465 

Cavaliere d'Arpino, see Cesare, Giuseppe 

Cavazzola, see Morando, Paolo 

Cavedone, Giacomo (kavedo'na) . . . 1577 

Caxes, Eugenio (kacf)es') '577 

Cazin, Jean Charles (kazeii) 1S41- 

Cazin, Mme. Marie (kazen) 

Cederstrom, Gustav Olaf (sa'derstrijm) . 1845- 

Celentano, Bernardo (chalenta'no) . . . 1835- 
Cenni di Pepo. see Cimabue 

Cerezo (Zerezo), Mateo (thera'tho) . . 1635 

- Cesanne (sazan) 

Cesare, Giuseppe (Cavaliere d'Arpino) 

(chasa're) 1568- 

- Cesare da Sesto (chasa're) '485- 

Cespedes, Pablo de (thas'pedcs) . . . 1538- 

Chalmers, G. Paul 1S36- 

Champaigne, Philippe de (shanpan) . . 1602- 
Champaigne, Pierre, see Campafia 

Champmartin, Charles fimile (sharimarten) 1 797- 
Chang Sang-yiu (Cho-s5yu) ... fl. vith cen 

Chaplin, Charles Joshua (shapleri) . . . 1825- 

Chapman, Carlton T 1860- 

Chardin, Jean Baptiste Simeon (sharden) 1699- 

Charlet, Nicolas Toussaint (sharla) . . 1792- 

Chase, William Merritt 1849- 

Chasseriau, Theodore (shassario) . . . 1819-: 

Chastel, du, see Duchatel 

Chattel, Fredericus Jacobus van Rossun 

du ((ftat'tel) 1S56- 

Chavet, Victor Joseph (shava) .... 1822- 



fES 


TABLE 


-1602 


S 


-1609 


5 


-1622 


s 


-1619 


5 


-.685 


17 


■757 


5 




20 


.798 


8 


•1886 


17 


.805 


18 


1896 


17 


1507 


4 


■893 


22 




23 


1S91 


6 


1457 


3 


1629 


5 


1649 


5 


1617 


17 


1656 


'7 


'593 


17 


1670 


5 


1626 


17 


1640 


17 


1667 


17 


■531 


3 


1660 


5 


1642 


17 


-1901 


20 




20 




25 


■1863 


6 


1675 


17 




20 


1640 


S 


'523 


4 


1608 


17 


1878 


21 


1674 


iS 


1883 


19 


itury 


28 


1S91 


20 




23 


1779 


iS 


1S45 


19 




23 


1S56 


'9 




16 




19 



66 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



[Checa-Cremona 



OATES ■ 

Checa, Ulpiano (cha'ka) 1S90- 

Chenavard, Paul Joseph (shanavar) . . 1808-1895 
Chialiva, Luigi (ktale'va) ...... 

Chierici, Gaetano (kieri'che) .... 1838- 

Chiku-den 1777-1835 

Chintreuil, Antoine (sheiitrby) .... 1814-1S73 

Chirico, Giacomo di (kiriTco) .... 1845- 

Chistyakov, Pavel 1832- 

Chiuwa, Nishi-mura fl. xviiith century 

Cho Densu (Mei-cho) (the Fra Angelico 

of Japan) 1351-1427 

Chodowiecki, Daniel Nicolaus ((^odove- 

ek'ke) 1 726-1 801 

Choga, Takuma (Choga Hoin) . . fl. xiith century 

Cho-ko, Taga (Itcho, Hanabusa) . . . 1651-1724 
Cho-soyu, see Chang Sangyiu 

Christensen, Godfred 1845- 

Church, Frederick Edwin 1826-1900 

Church, Frederick Stuart 1842- 

Cignant, Carlo, Count (chinya'ne) . . . 1628-1719 

CimadaConegliano (che'ma da konelya'no) 1460-1517 
Ciniabue, Giovanni (Cenni di Pepo) (che- 

miiboo'a) 1240-1302 

Clone, Andrea di, see Orcagna 

Ciradi, Guglielmo (char'de) - 

Ciseri, Antonio (chisa're) 1821-1891 

Civerchio, Vincenzo (cheverTiio) . . . 1470-1540 

Civetta, see Bles, Henry de 

Claasz, Pieter (Claesz van Harlem) (klas) 1 595-1661 

Claesz, see Claasz 

Claude Lorrain, see Lorrain, Claude 

Claus, fimile (klo) 1781-1840 

Clausen, George 1852- 

Clays, Paul Jean (kli) 1819-1900 

Cleef, Hendrik van (klaf) ?-i589 

Cleef, Jan van (klaf) 1646-1716 

Cleef (Cleve), Joost van (klaf) . . . fl. 1 530-1 550 

Cleef, Marten van (klaf) ?-i570 

Clennel, Luke 1781-1840 

Cleve, see Cleef 

Clouet, Fran9ois (klooa) 1 500-1 572 

Clouet, Jehan (kloo-a) 1485-1541 

Cobergher (Coeberger) 1 560-1635 

Cocx, see Coques 
Cocxie, see Coxcyen 

Codde, Pieter 1610-1660 

Coeberger, see Cobergher 

Coello, Claudio (koel'yo) 1635-1693 

Coello, Sanchez, see Sanchez Coello 

Coene, Constantinus (koo'ne) .... 1 780-1841 

Coene, Jean Henri de (koo'ne) .... 1798-1866 

Coflin, William Anderson '855- 

Coghetti, Francesco (koget'te) .... 1804-1875 

Cogniet, Leon (konya) 1 794-1 880 

Cole, J. Foxcroft 1837-1892 

Cole, Thomas 1801-1848 

Cole, Vicat 1833-1893 

Coleman, Charles Caryl 1840- 

Collantes, Francisco (kolyan'tes) . . . 1 599-1656 

Collins, WiUiam 1 788-1847 



17 

19 

6 

6 

27 

20 

6 

24 
28 

27 

8 

27 



26 

22 

23 

5 

3 



6 
6 
4 

15 



12 
10 

10 
10 
21 

18 
18 
II 



14 

>7 



23 
6 

19 

23 



23 
17 



DATES 

Colman, Samuel '833- 

Conca, Sebastiano (konTca) 1 679-1 764 

Conegliano, see Cima da Conegliano 

Coninck, David de 1636- 1 687 

Coninxlo, Gillis van 1544-1604 

Coninxlo, Jan van 1489-? 

Constable, John 1776-1837 

Contarini, Giovanni, Cavaliere(kontare'ne) 1 549-1605 
Conti, Bernardino dei (kon'te) . . . fl. 1490 

Conti, Tito (kon'te) 1847- 

Cooke, Edward William 1S11-1880 

Copley, John Singleton 1737-1815 

Coques (Cocx), Gonzales (koks) . . . 1618-1684 

Corbett, M. R -1902 

Corelli, Augusto (korel'le) 1855- 

Corinth, Ludwig (korint') 1858- 

Cormon, Femand, called Piestre (kormoii) 1845- 
Comelisz, Jacob (Oostsaanen van Amster- 
dam) 1475-1560 

Comeliszen, Cornells, van Harlem . . . 1 562-1638 

Cornelius, Peter von (koma'liijs) . . . 1783-1867 

Corot, Jean Baptiste Camille (koro) . . 1 796-1 875 
Correa, Diego (korra'a) . . . . fl. xvith century 

-Correggio (Antonio AUegri) (korred'jo) . 1494- 1534 

Cortese, Federigo (korta'sa) .... 1829- 
Cortona, Pietro da, see Berettini 

Cosimo, Piero di (ko'simo) 1462-1521 

Cosme, see Tura, Cosimo 

Cossa, Francesco (kos'sa) .... fl. 1450-1470 

Costa, Lorenzo (kos'ta) 1460-1535 

Cotan, see Sanchez Cotan 

Cotman, John Sell 1782-1842 

Cottermole 1800-1868 

Cottignola, Francesco da, see Zaganelli 

Courbet, Gustave (koorba) 1819-1878 

Courtens, Franz (ka5)or'tens) .... 1853- 
Courtois, Jacques, named Le Bourguignon 

(koortwa) 1621-1676 

Couse, Eanger Irving 1866- 

Cousin, Jean (kooseh) 1500-1589 

Couture, Thomas (kootiir) 181 5-1879 

Cox, David, of Birmingham 1783-1859 

Cox, David, of London 1809-1885 

Cox, Kenyon 1856- 

Coxcyen (Cocxie), Michiel van, the Elder 1499-1592 

Coypel, Antoine (kwbpel) 1661-1722 

' Coypel, Charles Antoine (kwijpel) . . . 1694-1752 

Co)-pel, Noel (kwijpel) 1628-1707 

Cozens, John Robert 1752-1799 

Craesbecke, Joost van (kra'sbeke) . . . 1606-1662 

Craeyer, Caspar de (krl'er) . . ., . . 1582-1669 

Cranach, Lucas, the Elder (kra'na^) . . 1472-1553 

Cranach, Lucas, the Younger (kra'nac^) 1515-1586 

Crandall, Joseph 1860- 

Crane, R. Bruce 1857- 

Crane, Walter 1845- 

Crawford, Edmund Thornton .... - 

Crawhall, Joseph 1860- 

Credi, Lorenzo di (kra'de) '459-1537 

Cremona, Tranquillo (kremo'na) . . . -1878 



TABLE 

-3 

5 

1 1 

10 

10 

21 

4 

4 

6 

21 



21 
6 

9 
20 

13 

'3 

9 

20 

17 
4 
6 



3 
3 

21 
21 

20 
12 

18 

23 
18 

19 
21 
21 

23 
10 
18 
18 
18 
21 
II 
11 

7 

7 

21 

23 

21 
21 

3 
6 



Crespi-Duck] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



67 



DATES TABLE 

Crespi, Daniele (kres'pe) 1 590-1630 5 

Creswick, Thomas 1811-1869 2t 

Cristus, Petrus 1400-1472 10 

Crivelli, Carlo (krivel'le) 1430-1493 3 

Crome, John the Elder (Old Crome) . . 1769-1821 21 

Crome, John Bernay 1792-1842 21 

Cropsey, Jaspar F. . . . ' 1823-1900 22 

Cubello, Martinez (kubel'yo) .... - 17 

Curran, Charles Courtney 1861- 23 

Currier, J. Frank 1843- 23 

Curzon, Paul Alfred de (kiirzoh) . . . 1820-1895 19 

Cutler, Carl Gordon 1873- -3 

"Cuyp, Aelbert (koip) 1620-1691 14 

Cu)-p, Benjamin Gerritz (koip) .... 1612-1652 14 

Cuyp, Jacob Gerritz (koip) 1575-1649 14 

Daddi, Bernardo (dad'de) -'3S0 2 

DagnanBouveret, Pascal Adolphe Jean 

(danyah-boovera) 1852- 20 

Dahl, Johan Christian (dal) 1 788-1 S57 25 

Dahl, Johannes Siegwald (dal) .... 1827- 25 

Dahlstrom, Karl Andreas (dal'strom) . -1869 25 

Daingerfield, Elliot 1859- 23 

Dalbono, Eduardo (dalbo'no) .... 1843- 6 

Dall'OcaBianca, Agnolo(dal-o'kabean'ka) - 6 

DalsgSrd, Christen (dal'sgSr) .... 1824- 26 

Damoye, Pierre Emmanuel (damwa) . . 1847- 20 

Dana, W. P. W 1833- 23 

Danhauser, Joseph (dan'houzer) . . . 1805- 1845 9 

Dannat, William T 1853- 23 

Dantan, Joseph fidouard (dantah) . . . 1848-1897 20 

Da-soku-ken, see San-setsu 

Daubigny, Charles Francois (dobenye) . 1817-1878 20 

Dauphin, Eugene (dofeh) 1857- 20 

Davanzi, see Avanzi 

David, Gheeraerdt (da'vid) 1450-1523 10 

David, Louis (daved) 174S-1825 19 

Davies, Arthur B - 23 

Davis, Charles Harold 1856- 23 

Dawson, Henry 1811-1878 21 

Dearth, Henry Golden 1863- 23 

Debrosses, Jean (dabross) '835- 20 

Decaisne, Henri (dekan) 1 799-1852 12 

De Camp, Joseph R 1858- 23 

Decamps, Alexandre Gabriel (dekaii) . 1803-1860 19 

Decker, Cornells Gerritsz 1600-1678 15 

Deelen, Dirk van (da'len) 1607-1673 15 

Defregger, Franz von (de'freger) . . . 1S35- 9 

Degas, Hilaire Germain (daga) .... 1834- 20 

De Haas, Mauritz Frederic Hendrik . . 1832-1895 22 
De Haas, see Haas, de 

De Haven, Frank 1856- 23 

De Jonghe, see Jonghe, de 

Delacroi.x, Eugene (delakrwa) .... 1799-1S63 19 

Delaroche, Paul (delarosh) 1 797-1 856 19 

Delaunay, Jules filie (delona) .... 1828-1892 20 
Delff, see Delft 

Delft (Delff), Jacob Willemiszen (de'left) 1550-1601 13— 

Delft (Delff), Jacobus (de'left) .... 1619-1661 14 

Delft (Delff), Willem Jacobsz (de'left) . 1 580-1 638 14 



Delleani, Lorenzo (dellaa'ne) . . . . 

De Longpre, Paul 

Denis, Maurice (dijnc) 

Denner, Balthasar 

Desmarees, see Marees, Georg de 

Desportes, Alexandre Francois (daport) . 

Dessar, Louis Paul 

Detaille, Edouard (datay) 

Dettmann, Ludwig 

Deveria, Eugene (devaria) 

Devis, Arthur William 

Dewey, Charles Melville 

Dewing, Thomas W 

Dewint (De Wint), Peter 

De. For compound names with de, see 
also under the initial letter of the sec- 
ond part of the name. 

Diamante, Fra (diaman'te) 

Diana, Benedetto (dia'na) 

Diaz de la Pena, Narciso Virgilio (dea de 
la penya) 

Dickson, Mary Estelle 

Diepenbeeck (de'penbak) 

Dietrich, Christian (detrid)) 

Diez, W'ilhelm von (dets') 

Dill, Ludwig 

Dillens, Adolf 

Dionisio Fiamniingo, see Calvaert 

Diriks, Karl Edvard 

Dissen, Andreas Edvard 

Dodge, W. de L 

Does, Jacob van der (doos) 

Do-ko, Kishi, see Gan-ku 

Dolci, Carlo (dol'che) 

Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri) (do- 
menike'no) 

Domenico di Bartolo (domene'ko) . . . 

Domenico Veneziano (domene'ko) . 

Domingo, Francisco 

Donoho, Gaines Ruger 

Dore, Gustave Paul (dora) 

Dosso Dossi, Giovanni 

Dou, Gerard (Douw, Dov, Dow) (da<)o) 

Doughty, Thomas 

Douglas, William Fettes 

Douw, Dov, Dow, see Dou 

Doyen, Gabriel Fran9ois (dwijefi) . . . 

Dreber, see Franz-Dreber 

Drooch-Sloot, Joost Comelisz (droc^-slot) 

Drouais, Fran9ois Hubert (drooa) 

Drouais, Germain Jean (drooa) 

Dubbels, Hendrik (dbb'bels 

Dubois, Guillam (diibwa) . 

Dubois, Louis (diibwa) . 

Dubois, Paul (diibwa) 

Dubreuil (Du Breuil), Toussaint (diibrijy) 

Due ; Due, Le ; Duck, van, see Duck 
'Duccio di Buoninsegna (doot'cho) . 

Duchatel (du Chastel), Frans (diishatel) 

Duck (Due, Le Due, Van Duck) A. J. fl 



DATES 


TABLE 


1840- 


6 


.855- 


-3 


1855- 


20 


1685-1749 


8 


1661-1743 


18 


1867- 


23 


1848- 


19 


1865- 


9 


1805-1865 


■9 


1 763-1 822 


2 I 


1S51- 


23 


1851- 


-3 


I 784-1849 


21 



1430-1492 


3 


.'-1500 


3 


1808-1876 


20 


- 


=3 


1596-1675 


1 1 


1712-1774 


8 


1839- 


9 


1846- 


9 


1821-1877 


12 


1855- 


25 


1844- 


25 


1867- 


23 


1623-1673 


14 


1616-1686 


5 


15S1-1641 


5 


?-i444 


3 


1390-1461 


3 


1842- 


•7 


1857- 


23 


1833-1883 


•9 


1479-1542 


4 


1613-1675 


15 


1793-1856 


22 


1S22-1891 


21 



1726-1806 18 



•'-1666 


15 


I727-I775 


18 


1763-1788 


19 


1620-1676 


14 


.'-I6S0 


"; 


1830-1880 


12 


1829-1905 


20 


I56I-I602 


18 


1 260-1 339 


2 


1616-1694 


11 


1630-1650 


14 



68 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



[DUEZ-FOPPA 



DATES TABLE 

Duez, Ernest (diia) 1843-1896 20 

Dughet, see Poussin, Gaspard 

Dujardin, Karel (diijardeh) 1625-1678 I4~ 

Du Mond, Frank Vincent 1865- 23 

Dumoulin (diimooleii) - 20 

Diinwegge, Heinrich (diinveg'ge) . . . 1520- 7 

Dunwegge, Victor (diinveg'ge) . . . fl. 1520 7 

Dupre, Jules (diipra) 1812-1889 20 

Dupre, Julien (diipra) 1851- 20 

Durand, Asher Brown 1796-18S6 22 

Durand, Charles Auguste fimile, see 

Carolus Uuran 

Diirer, Albrecht 1471-1528 7 

Diirer, Hans 1490-? 7 

Dusart, Cornells (dii'zart) 1660-1704 15 

Duveneck, Frank 1848- 23 

Diiwett, Johann, see Wet, Jan de 

Duyster, Willem Comelisz (dois'ter) . . 1599-1635 14 

Dyce, William 1806-1S64 21 

Dyck, Antoon van (Sir Anthony van 

Dyck) (dik) 1 599-1641 11 

Dyck, Philip van (dIk) 1683-1753 15 

Dyckmans, Joseph Laurens (the Belgian 

Gerard Dow) (dik'mans) .... 181 1- u 

Eakins, Thomas 1844- 23 

Earl, Ralys 1751-1801 22 

East, Alfred 1849- 21 

Eastlake, Sir Charles Lock . . . . 1 793-1 865 21 

Eaton, Charles Warren 1857- 23 

Eaton, Wyatt 1S49-1896 23 

Eckersberg, Christoffer Vilhelm . . . 1783-1853 26 

Eckersberg, Johann Frederik .... 1822-1870 25 

Eckstrom, Per - 25 

Eddelien, Matthias (ad'delen) .... 1803-1852 26 

Edelfelt, Albert (a'delfelt) 1854-1905 25 

Edridge, Henry 1769-1821 21 

Eeckhout, Gerbrand van den (ak'hii<)Ot) 1621-1674 14 

Eeckhout, Jacob Joseph (ak'ha<iot) . . 1793-1861 16 
Egenes (a'genes), see Ekenaes 

Eguiquipa (agike'pa) - 17 

Ekenaes, Jahn (e'kenas) 1847- 25 

Eliasz, Nicolas (ale'as) 1590-1646 14 

Elliot, Charles L 1S12-1868 22 

Elzheimer (Elsheimer), Adam (elts'himer) 1574-1620 8 

Emmet, Mi.ss Ellen G - 23 

Ender, Axel 1853- 25 

Ender, Johann 1793-1854 9 

Ender, Thomas 1793-1875 9 

Engelbrechtsen, Cornells 1468-1533 13 

Engelsted, Malthe 1852- 26 

Enhuber, Karl von (en'hoober) .... 1811-1867 9 

Enneking, John J 1841- 23 

Eskilson, Per 1820-1S72 25 

Essen, Jan van 1854- 16 

Etty, William 17S7-1S49 21 

Eugen, Prince of Sweden (oigan') . . . 1865- 25 

Evenepoel, Henri (a'venepool) .... - 12 

Everdingen, AUart van 1621-1675 T5 

Everdingen, Cesar van (of Alkmar) . . 1606-1679 15 



DATES TABLE 

Exner, Johann Julius (e'ksner) .... 1825- 26 

Exter, Julius 1863- 9 

Eyck, Hubert van (ik) -1426 10 

Eyck, Jan van (ik) 1381-1440 10 

Faber du Faur, Otto von (fa'ber dii for') 1S28-1901 9 

Fabriano, Gentile da (fabria'no) . . . 1360-1428 3 

Fabritius, Bernart 1620-1669 15 

F"abritius, Karel 1624-1654 14 

Fadino, II, see Aleni 

Faed, John 1820- 21 

Faed, Thomas 1826-1900 21 

Fagerlin, Ferdinand (fa'gerlen) .... 1825- 25 

Fahlkrantz, Karl Johan 1774-1S61 25 

Faistenberger, see Feistenberger 

Falconetto, Giovanni Maria (falkonet'to) 1 458-1 534 3 

Fantin-Latour, Henri (fanten-latoor) . . 1836- 20 
Fa-Presto, see Giordano 

Farinati, Battista (farina'te) 1 532-1 592 4 

Farinati, Paolo (farina'te) 1524-1606 4 

Fattore, II, see Penni, Francesco 

Fattori, Giovanni, Cavaliere (fatto're) . 1S2S- 6 

Fauvelet, Jean (fovela) 181S- 19 

Favretto, Giacomo (favret'to) .... 1849-1887 6 

Feaniley, Thomas 1802-1842 25 

Fedotov, Pavel (fe'dotof) 181 5-1852 24 

Feistenberger, Anton (fis'tenberger) . . 1678-1722 8 

Feistenberger, Joseph (fis'tenberger) . . 1684-1735 8 

Feke, Robert 1724-1769 22 

Fernandez y Baldenes (feman'deth e bal- 

da'nes) 17 

Fernandez Vasco (i.e. the Great) (feman'- 
deth viis'ko) '55--? 17 

Ferragutti, Arnoldo (ferragiit'te) . . . 1S62- 6 

Ferrari, Defendente (ferra're) . . . fl. 1525 4 

Ferrari, Gaudenzio (ferra're) 1481-1547 4 

Ferri, Ciro (fer're) 1634-1689 5 

Feselen, Melchior (faza'len) .'-1538 7 

Feuerbach (foi'erbiid)) 1829-1880 6 

Fiant, Emile (feiin) 1863- 20 

Fictoors, Jan, see Victors, Jan 

Fielding, Vandyke Copley 1787-1855 21 

Filippini, Francesco, of Brescia (filip- 

pe'ne) 1853-1895 6 

Fiore, Jacobello del (feo'ra) .... fl. 1400-1439 3 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (feorent'so de 16- 

rent'so) 1444-1521 3 

Firle, Walter (fir'la) 1859- 9 

Fischer, Vincenz (fi'sher) 1729-1810 8 

Fisher, Mark W 1841- 23 

Fitzgerald, Harrington '847- 23 

Fixter - 21 

Flandrin, Hippolyte (flaridreii) .... 1809-1S64 19 

Flinck.'Govaert 161 5-1660 14 

Floris, Frans 151S-1570 10 

Fogolino, Marcello (fogole'no) fl. early xvith century 4 

Fontana, Lavinia (fonta'na) 1552-1614 4 

Foppa, Vincenzo, the Elder (fop'pa) . . 1455-1492 3 
Foppa, Vincenzo, the Younger (fop'pa) 

fl. xvith century 4 



Forain-Ghirlandajo] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



69 



Forain, J. L. (foreii) - 

Forbes, A. Stanhope 1837- 

Fortuny y Carbo, Mariano (fortoo'nyi e 

karboO 1838-1874 

Fosberg, Nils 1842- 

Foster, Ben 1S25-1S99 

Fouquet, Jehan (fool<a) 1415-14S5 

Fourmois, Theodore (foormwa) . . . . 1814-1S71 

Fracassini, Cesare (frakasse'ne) . . . . 1S38-1868 

Fragiacomo, Pietro (frajako'mo) . . . 1S56- 

Fragonard, Jean Honore (fragonar) . . 1732-1806 

Fran^ais, Franjois Louis (fraiisa) . . . 1S14-1897 

Francesca, Piero della (franches'ka) . . 1420-1492 
Francesco da Cottignola. see Zaganelli 
Francesco da Santacroce (franches'ko da 

santakro'cha) fl. 1 504-1 541 

Franchi, Alessandro (fran'ke) .... 183S- 

Francia, Francesco (fran'cha) .... 1450-1517 

Francia, Giacomo di Francesco (fran'cha) 1486-1557 

Francia, Giovambattista (fran'cha) . . . 1 533-1 575 

Francia, Giulio di Francesco (fran'cha) . 1487-? 

Franciabigio (Bigio) (fran'chabe'36) . . 1482-1525 

Francken, Ambrosius 1544-1618 

Francken, Constantyn 1661-1717 

Francken, Frans, the Elder 1540-1616 

Francken, Frans, the Younger .... 1581-1642 
Francken, Frans, the Third (de Rubensche 

Francken) 1607-1667 

Francken, Hans or Jan 1 581-1624 

Francken, Hieronymus, the Elder . . . 1542-1610 

Francken, Hieronymus, the Younger . . 1578-1623 

Francken, Johannes 1500-.' 

Francken, P. H. (H. P.?) fl. 1650 

Francken, Sebastian, see Vrancx 

Franz-Dreber, Heinrich (frants'-dra'ber) . 1S22-1S75 

Frass, Leo (L. F.) (fras) fl. 1502 

Frederic, Leon (fradarek) 1S56- 

Freminet, Martin (framina) 1 567-1619 

Frere, Edouard (frar) 1819- 

Frere, Theodore (frar) 1815-188S 

Frich, Joachim C. G. (frik) 1810-1858 

Friedrich, Kaspar David (fred'rid)) . . 1774-1840 

Fries, Hans (fres) 1465-1520 

Frith, William Powell 1819- 

Frithjof-Smith, Carl (fri'chof) .... 1859- 

Frohlich, Lorenz (frb'lik) 1820- 

Fromentin, Eugene (fromanteii) .... 1S20-1876 

Fromouth, Charles H 1S61- 

Frothingham, James 1786-1864 

Fiihrich, Josef, Ritter von (fii'ric^) . . . 1S00-1876 

Fujiwara no Nobu-zane (Nabu-zane) . . 1 177-1265 
Fujiwara no Yoshi-tsune, see Go-kio-goku 

Fuller, George 1S22-1884 

Fuller, Henrys B 1S67- 

Fungai, Bernardino (fiSnga'e) 1460-1516 

Furini, Francesco (fure'ne) 1600-1649 

Furse, Charles ^V 1868-1904 

Fuseli, Henry 1741-1825 

FyoU, Konrad (fe'61) fl. 1466- 1498 

• Fyt, Jan (fit) 1609-1661 



-J 
-i 
18 
12 
6 
6 



4 
6 

3 

4 

4 

4 

4 
10 
1 1 
10 
II 

1 1 

10 

10 

10- 

10 

II 

9 
7 

18 
19 
19 

25 
9 

7 

-5 
26 

19 

23 

9 

27 



23 

5 



Gabriel, Paul Joseph Constantin (gaTireel) 
Gaddi, Agnolo (gad'de) ...... 

Gaddi, Gaddo (gad'de) 

Gaddi, Taddeo (gad'de) 

Gainsborough, Thomas 

Galassi, Galasso (galas'se) 

Gallait, Louis (galla) 

Gallegos, Fernando (galya'gos) .... 

Gallen, A.xel (gallan') 

Gallison, Henry H 

Gamba, Enrico (gam'ba) 

Gandara, Antonio (gandara) 

Gan ki, see Ngan Hvvui 

Gan-ku (Kishi Do-ko) 

Gan-tai 

Garbo, Raffaellino del 

Gardner, Miss E. J. (Mme. Bouguereau) . 
Garofalo, II (Benvenuto di Piero Tisi) 

(garo'falo) 

Gassel, Lucas 

Gastaldi, Andrea (gastal'de) 

Gatti, Bernardo (Bernardino) (II Sojaro or 

Sogliaro, i.e. the Copper) (gat'te) 
Gauermann, Friedrich (gou'erman) . . 
Gaugengigl, Ignaz Marcel (gou'gengegl) . 

Gauld, David 

Gauley, Robert D 

Gay, \Yalter 

Gebauer, Christian David 

Gebhardt, Eduard von 

Geeraerts, Martin Joseph (c^a'rarts) . . 
Geerarts, Marcus, the Elder (c^a'rarts) 
Geerarts, Marcus, the Younger (c^a'- 

rarts) 

Geertgen van Sint-Jans (c^art'cften) . . fl. 
Gegerfeh, Yilhelm van (ga'gerfelt) . . 
Gekkei (Matsu-mura), named Go-shun . 
Gelder, Avent or Aart de (djel'der) . . 

Geldorp, Gortzius (t^el'dorp) 

Gellee, see Lorrain 

Gelli, Edoardo (jel'le) 

Gendron, Auguste (Sendron) 

Genelli, Bonaventura (genel'le) .... 

Genga, Girolamo (jen'ga) 

Gen-ki (Ko-mai Ki or Shi-on) .... 

Gensler, Jacob (gens'ler) 

Gensler, Martin (gens'ler) 

Gentileschi, Orazio (jentiles'ke) .... 

Gentz, Wilhelm (gents) 

George, Vesper Lincoln 

Gerard, Franjois Pascal (Sarar) .... 
Gericault, Jean Louis Andre Theodore 

(oariko) 

Gerini, see Niccolo di Pietro 

Gerome, Jean Leon (.lerom) 

Gertner, Johan Vilhelm (gert'ner) . . . 
Gervez, Henri (serva) ....... 

Gessner, Salomon (ges'ner) 

Ghirlandajo, Benedetto Bigordi (gir- 
landa'yo) 



DATES 


TABLE 


828- 


16 


333-1396 


2 


239-1312 


2 


300-1366 


2 


727-1788 


21 


?-i473 


3 


S10-18S7 


12 


475-1550 


17 


- 


25 


S50- 


23 


831-18S3 


6 


862- 


20 


749-1838 


28 


793-1863 


28 


466-1524 


3 


S51- 


23 


481-1559 


4 


500-1550 


10 


S19-1S89 


6 


490-1575 


4 


807-1862 


9 


855- 


23 


866- 


21 


875- 


23 


856- 


23 


777-1831 


26 


S38- 


9 


707-1791 


II 


i'-i6o4 


10 


561-1635 


II 


475 


13 


S44- 


25 


742-lSlI 


28 


645-1727 


14 


533-1618 


10 


852- 


6 


817-1881 


19 


798-1 868 


9 


476-1551 


3 


751-179S 


28 


808-1845 


9 


811-1881 


9 


562-1647 


5 


S22-1890 


9 


865- 


23 


770-1S37 


19 



791-1824 19 

824-1904 19 

SIS-I87I 26 

S52- 20 

730->787 8 

1458-1497 3 



70 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING [Ghirlandajo-Hamilton 



DATES 

Ghirlandajo, Davide Bigordi (girlanda'yo) 1452-1525 

- Ghirlandajo, Domenico (girlanda'yo) . . 1449-1494 
Ghirlandajo, Ridolfo Bigordi (girlanda'yo) 1483-1 561 
Giampetrino, see Pedrini 

Giiford, Robert Swain 1S40-1905 

Gifford, R. Sandford 1823-1880 

Gigoux, Jean Fran9ois (segoo) .... 1806- 

Gillot, Claude (3iyo) 1673-1722 

Gilsoul, Victor (djil'sa-pol) - 

Giltlinger, Gumpolt (gilt'linger) . . . . 1460-1522 
Gimignano, Vincenzo da San (jiminya'no), 

see Vincenzo 

Gioku-raku fl. xvith century 

Giordano, Luca (Fa-Presto) [of Naples] 

(jorda'no) 1632-1705 

Giorgio di Martini, Francesco di (jor'j5 

de Martene) 1439-1502 

Giorgione, II (Giorgio Barbarelli) (jor- 

jo'na) 1477-151 1 

Giottino (Tommaso di Stefano) (jotte'no) 1324-1369 

- Giotto di Bondone (jot'to) 1266-1337 

Giovanni da Fiesoli, see Angelico, Fra 

Giovanni da Milano (jovan'ne da Mi- 

la'no) fl. 1370 

Giovanni da San Giovanni, see Mannozzi 

Giovanni da Udine (jovan'ne da oode'na) 1487-1564 

Giovanni di Martini da Udine (jovan'ne 

de Marte'ne da oode'na) '"'535 

Giovenone, Girolamo (joveno'na) . . fl. 1500 

Girodet de Roussy, Anne Louis (seroda) 1766-1824 
Girolamo da Capri (jero'lamo da ka'- 

pre) 1501-1561 

Girolamo da Santa Croce (jero'lamo da 

san'ta kro'cha) fl. 1520-1549 

Girolamo dai Libri (jero'lamo da'e lebre) 1474-1555 
Girolamo di Benvenuto (jero'lamo de 

benvenoo'to) 1470-1524 

Girtin, Thomas 1775-1802 

Gi-t5 (Shibata) 1780-1819 

Giulio Romano (joo'Iio roma'no) . . . 1492-1546 

Glauber, Jan Godlieb 1656-1703 

Gleyre, Charles Gabriel (glar) .... 1S06-1874 

Glbersen, Jacob 1852- 

Go Doshi, see Wu Tao-tsz' 

Goeneutte, Robert (geniit) — 

Goes, Hugo van der (t^oos) 1 430-1 4S2 

Go-kan, Shiba 1747-1818 

Go-kio-goku (Fujiwara no Voshi-tsune) 

fl. xiiith century 

Gola, Emilio, Count (go'la) 1S52- 

Goltzius, Hendrik (tflol'tsiiSs) .... 1558-1616 
Gomez, Sebastian (el Mulato de Murillo) 

(go'meth) 1646-1690 

Gonzalez, Bartholome (gontha'leth) . . 1564-1627 
Gonzalez, Juan Antonio (gontha'leth) . - 

Good, Thomas Sword 1789-1S72 

Goodale, Frederick 1822- 

Gorbitz, Johan 1782-1853 

Gordigiani, Michele (gordeja'ne) . . . 1828- 
Go-shun, see Gekkei 



TABLE 
3 



'9 
iS 



27 

5 
3 

4 



28 

4 

'5 

19 

20 
10 
28 

27 
6— 

'3 

17 
17 
17 
21 
21 

25 
6 



DATES TABLE 

Gossaert, see Mabuse 
'Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Jose de 

(go'ya e luthyan'tes) 1746-1828 17 

Goyen, Jan van (c^oten) 1596-1656 15 

Gozzoli, Benozzo (go'tsole) 1424-1498 3 

Graff, Anton 1736-181 3 8 

Graham, Peter 1836- 21 

Graham, Thomas - 21 

Gran, Daniel (gran) 1694-1757 8 

Granacci, Francesco (grana'che) . . . 1477-1543 4 

Grandi, Ercole di Giulio (grande) . . . 1462-1531 3 

Grandi, Ercole di Roberti (grande) . fl. 1475-1496 3 

Granet, Fran9oisMarius (grana) . . . 1775-1S49 19 

Gray, Henry Peters 1819-1877 22 

Grebber, Frans Piertersz de (djreb'ber) . 1579-1649 15 

Grebber, Pieter de (ct)reb'ber) .... 1600-1665 'S 
Greco, El (gra'ko), see Theotocopuli 

Greenwood, John 1726- 22 

Greiner, Otto (gri'ner) 1871- 9 

Greuze, Jean Baptiste (grijz) 1725-1805 18 

Grien, see Baldung, Hans 

Grimelund, Johannes Martin (gre'me- 

lunt) 1842- 25 

Gronvold, Marcus (grijn'vol) 1845- ~S 

Gros, Antoine Jean, Baron (gr5) . . . 1771-1835 19 

Groux, Charles de (groo) 1825-1870 12 

Griinewald, Matthias (grii'nevalt) . . died ca. 1529 7 

Griitzner, Eduard 1846- 9 

Guardi, Francesco (gwar'de) 1712-1793 5 

Gude, Hans Fredrik (goo'de) .... 1S25- 25 
Guercino, II (Giovanni Francesco Bar- 

bieri) (gwerche'no) 1 591-1666 5 

Guerin, Pierre Narcisse, Baron (gareh) . 1774-1833 ig 

Guffens, Godfroid (c^bf'fens) 1823- 12 

Guide da Siena (gwe'do da see'na) . fl. 1275 2 

'Guido Reni (gfte'do ra'ne) 1575-1642 5 

Guillaumet, Gustave (giiyoma) .... 1840- 19 

Gussow, Karl (goos'so) 1843- 9 

Guthrie, James 1859- 21 

Guy, Seymour Joseph 1824- 22 

Gysis, Nicolaus (gii'zis) 1842-1902 9 

Haas, Johannus Hubertus Leonardus de 1832-1880 16 

Haas, William Frederick de 1830-18S0 16 

Haas, M. F. H. de, see De Haas 
Habermann, Hugo Freiherr von (ha'ber- 

man) 1849- 9 

Hackaert (Hakkert), Jan (hak'kart) . . 1636-1699 14 

Hackert, Jacob Philipp (hak'kert) . . . 1737-1807 8 

Haes, Carlos de (a'es) - 17 

Hagborg, August 1852-1S75 25 

Hagen, Joris van der (Verhagen) (ha'cf|en) .?-i669 14 

Haider, Karl (hi'der) — g 

Hakkert, see Hackaert 

Hallowell, George Hawley 1872- 23 

Hals, Dirk 1600-1656 15 

Hals, Frans, the Elder 15S4-1666 15 

Hals, Frans, the Younger 1617-1669 15 

Hamilton, Charles William de . . . . 1670-1754 8 

Hamilton, Hamilton 1847- 23 



Hamilton-Hondecoeter] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



71 



Hamilton, James 

Hamilton, Jean George de 

Hamilton, John McLure 

Hamilton, Philip Ferdinand de . . . . 

Hammershoy, Vilhelm (ham'mershbii) 

Hamon, Jean Louis (iimoh) 

Han Kan (Kan-kan) fl. vni 

Hana-busa Itcho, see Choko 

Han-bei, Sho-kosai fl 

Hannemann, Adriaen 

Hanoteau, Hector (anoto) 

Hansen, Carl Frederik (Sundt-Hansen) , 

Hansen, Constantin 

Hansen, Hans Nicolai 

Hansen, Henrik 

Hansteen, Aasta (han'stan) 

Hansteen, Nils (han'stan) 

Harding, Chester 

Harpignies, Henri (arplnye) 

Harrison, L. Birge 

Harrison, Thomas Alexander .... 

Hart, James M 

Haru-nobu, Suzu-ki fl. xviii 

Har\'ey, Sir George 

Ha-se-gawa, see To-haku 

Haseltine, William Stanley 

Hasenclever, Johann Peter (ha'zenkla'- 
ver) 

Haslund, Otto (has'lunt) 

Hassam, Childe 

Haug, Robert (houg) 

Haverman, Hendrik Johann (ha'verman) 

Hayden, Charles H 

Haydon, Benjamin Robert 

Hayez, Francesco (a'yes) 

Hazard, Arthur Merton 

Healy, George P. A 

Heaphy, Thomas 

Hebert, Ernest (abar) 

Heda, Willem Claasz (ha'da) .... 

Heem, Cornells de (ham) 

Heem, David de, the Elder (ham) . . . 

Heem, Jan Davidsz de (ham) .... 

Heemskerck, B. (hamsTcerk) .... fl 

Heemskerk, Egbert van, the Elder (hams'- 
kerk) 

Heemskerk, Egbert van, the Younger 
(hams'kerk) 

Heemskerk, Marten (van Veen) (hams'- 
kerk) 

Heere, Lucas de (hare) 

Heilbuth, Ferdinand (alboot) .... 

Heinz, Joseph, the Elder (hints) . . . 

Heinz, Joseph, the Younger (hints) . . 

Hellquist, Karl Gustaf 

Heist, Bartholomeus van der .... 

Helsted, Axel Theofilus 

Hemissen, Jan van (ha'missen) .... 

Hemsen, see Hemissen 

Henkes, Gerke (hen'kes) 



DATES 


TABLE 


1819-1878 


22 


666-1740 


8 


■853- 


23 


664-1750 


8 


S64- 


26 


S21-1S74 


>9 


h century 


28 


800 


28 


601-1669 


■4 


8=3- 


20 


841- 


25 


804-18S0 


26 


853- 


26 


S21- 


26 


824- 


=5 


.855- 


= 5 


792-1866 


22 


[819- 


20 


854- 


23 


853- 


23 


S28-1901 


22 


h century 


28 


806-1876 


21 



S3 5- 1 900 



810-1853 


9 


S42- 


62 


859- 


-3 


857- 


9 


857- 


16 


856-1901 


23 


786-1846 


21 


791-1882 


6 


872- 


23 


808-1894 


22 


775-1835 


21 


817- 


19 


594-1678 


■5 


631-1695 


15 


570-1632 


15 


606-1683 


15 


73° 


II 


6 1 0- 1 680 


15 


645-1704 


■5 


498-1574 


13 


534-1584 


10 


829-1889 


20 


565-1609 


8 


590-1655 


8 — 


851-1S90 


25 


613-1670 


14 


847- 


26 


500-1556 


10 



IS44- 



16 



DATES 

Henneberg, Rudolf 1825-1876 

Henner, Jean Jacques (ennar) .... 1829-1905 

Henningsen, Erik '855- 

Henri, Robert 1865- 

Henry, Edward L 1841- 

Henry, George - 

Herbert, John Rogers 1810— 

Herbst, Hans fl. 1500 

Herbsthoffer, Karl (erbstoffar) .... 1821-1876 

Herkomer, Hubert von 1S49- 

Herlin, Friedrich ?-i499 

Hermans, Charles '839- 

Herrera, Francisco de, the Elder (errara) 1576-1656 
Herrera, Francisco de, the Younger 

(erra'ra) 1622-1685 

Herring, John Frederick 1795-1865 

Herter, Albert 1871- 

Hess, Heinrich Maria von 1798-1863 

Hess, Peter von 1792-1871 

Heusch, Jacob de (hijs) 1657-1701 

Heusch, Willem (Guilliam) de (hos) . . 1638-1669 

Heyden, Jan van der (hl'den) .... 1637-1712 

Heyerdahl, Hans (ha'yerdal) 1857- 

Heymans, Adrien Joseph (himiins) . . 1839- 

Hia Kwei (Kakei) fl. xiith century 

Hicks, Thomas 1S23-1890 

Hildebrandt, Eduard 1817-1868 

Hildebrandt, Theodor 1804-1874 

Hill, Thomas 1S29- 

Hillestrom, M. Per 

Hills, Laura Coombs 1S59- 

Hills, Robert 1769-1844 

Hire (Hyre), Laurent de la (er) . . . 1606-1656 

Hiroshige (Ichi-riu-sai or Kon-do Jiu-bei) 1797-1858 

Hiro-taka fl. xth century 

Hiro-tsura, Sumi-yoshi (Hiro-sada) 1794-1864 

Hitchcock, George 1850- 

Hobbema, Meyndert (hobba'ma) . . . 163S-1709 

Hbcker, Paul 1854- 

Hoecgeest, C. (Comelis .') (hook'c^ast) fl. 1610-1615 

Hoeckert, Johann Frederik (hbk'kert) . 1826-1866 

Hoffmann, Heinrich 1824- 

Hoffmann, Ludwig von 1861- 

Hoffmann, Samuel 1 592-1 64S 

Hofmann. see Hoffmann 

Hogarth, William 1697-1764 

Hogen, see Oka-moto 

Hoguet, Charles (hoga) 1821-1870 

Hoin, see Choga 

H6-itsu fl. xviiith century 

Hoken, see Oka-moto 

Hoku-sai 1760-1849 

Holbein, Hans, the Elder (hol'bin) . . 1460-1524 

Holbein, Hans, the Younger (hol'bin) . 1497-1543 

Holbein, Siegmund (hol'bin) .... 1465-1540 

Holiday, Henry 1839- 

HoU 1S45-18S8 

Homer, Winslow 1836- 

Hondecoeter, Gillis d' (hon'dekooter) . ?-i637 

Hondecoeter, Gysbert d' (hon'dekooter) 1604-1653 



TABLE 

9 
19 
26 

23 

22 
21 
21 
7 
19 



17 

17 
21 

23 
9 
9 
'5 
15 
14 
25 
12 



9 
9 

22 

25 

23 

21 

18 

28 

27 

27 

23 

14 

9 

14 

25 

9 

9 



9 
28 

28 
7 
7 
7 



23 
14 
14 



72 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING [Hondecoeter-Jouvenet 



DATES 

Hondecoeter, Melchior d' (hon'dekooter) 1636-1695 

Ho-ni fl- early xixth century 

Honthorst, Gerard van 1590-1656 

-Hooghe (Hooch), Pieter de (ho'cl)a) . . 1632-16S1 

Hoogstraaten, Samuel van (hodjstra'ten) 1 627-1 67S 

Hook, James Clarke 1S19- 

Hoppner, John 1758-1810 

Homell, Edward 

Horschelt, Theodor (hor'shelt) . . . . 1 829-1 871 

Horsley, John Callcott 1S17- 

Hovenden, Thomas 1840-1895 

Howe, Hubertus (ho'wa) 1814-1S67 

Howe, W. H 1S46- 

Howitt, Samuel 1765-1822 

Ho-yen fl. xviiith century 

Hubbard, Richard W 1817-1888 

Hubner, Karl 1814-1879 

Huet, Jean Baptiste (iia) 1745-1811 

Hughes, Arthur 1S32- 

Hughtenburg (Huchtenburg), Jacobus 

van (hbt^'tenbbrc^) 1 639-1 670 

Hughtenburgh (Huchtenburg), Jan van 

(hbcl)'tenbbrcl)) 1646-1733 

Hugo, Victor (iigo) 1S02-1885 

Hunt, William Henry 1790-1S64 

Hunt, William Holman 1827- 

Hunt, William Morris 1824-1879 

Hunter, Colin 1842- 

Huntington, Daniel 1816- 

Hutin, Charles (iiten) 1715-1776 

Huys, Peeter (hois) fl. 1675 

" Huysmans, Cornells (hois'mans) . . . 1648-1727 

Huysmans, Jacob (hois'mans) .... 1656-1696 

Huysmans, Jan Baptist (hois'mans) . 1654-1716 

Huysum, Jan van (hoi'siim) 1682-1749 

Huysum, Justus van (hoi'siim) .... 1659-1716 

Ibbetson, Julius Caesar 1759-1817 

Ichi-riu-sai, see Hiro-shige 

I-fu-kiQ fl. xviiith century 

Ike-no, see Taiga-do 

Imola, Innocenza da (T'mola) .... 1494-1550 

Inchbold, John W 1830-1888 

Induno, Domenico (Indoo'no) .... 1815-1878 

Induno, Girolamo (Indoo'no) 1827-1890 

Ingegno, L' (.\ndrea Luigi, Alovigi or 

Lovigi) (Injen'yo) fl. 1480 

Ingham, Charles C 1796-1863 

Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique (eiigr) . 1 780-1867 

Inman, Henry 1801-1846 

Inness, George 1825-1894 

Inness, George, Jr 1854- 

Ippo (Mori) fl. xixth century 

Iriarte, Ignacio (iria'rte) 1620-1685 

Irminger, Valdemar (Ir'minger) .... 1850- 

Irving, John Beaufain 1826-1877 

Isabey, Eugene (ezaba) 1 804-1 886 

I-sai, Katsu-shika fl. 1860-1S70 

Isenmann, Kaspar (e'zenman) .... ?-i466 

Isham, Samuel 'S55- 



TABLE DATES T 

14 Israels, Isaac (iz'raels) 1865- 

28 Israels, Joseph (iz'raels) 1824- 

15 Itcho, see Ch6-k5 
14 Ivanov, Aleksandr (e'vanof) 1S06-185S 

14 Ivanov, Audrey (e'vanof) 1775-1848 

21 Ivanov, Mikhail (e'vanof) 1748-1823 

21 

21 Jackson, John 1778-1831 

9 Jacobsz, Dirk (ya'kobs) .'-1567 

21 Jacobsz, Juriaen (ya'kobs) 1610-1664 

23 ^Jacopo da Casentino (ya'kopo) . . . fl. 1350 

16 Jacque, Charles Emile (3ak) 1813-1S94 

23 Jadin, Louis Godefroy (jadeii) .... 1805- 

21 Jalabert, Charles Franyois (salabar) . . i8ig- 
28 Janssens, H. (Hieronymus) (yans'sens) . 1624-1693 

22 — »Janssens, Victor Honore (yans'sens) . . 1664-1739 
9 Janssens van Nuyssen, Abraham (yans'sens) 1575-1632 

19 Jardin, du, see Dujardin 

21 Jarvis, John Wesley 1780-1834 

Ja-soku, Soga fl. xvth century 

15 Jeanron, Philippe Auguste (sanroh) . . 1810-1877 
Jeaurat, fitienne (3ora) 1699-1789 

15 Jensen, Carl (yen'sen) 1851- 

19 Jerichau-Baumann, Mrs. Elizabeth (ya'ri- 

21 djoubou'man) 1819-1881 

21 Jernberg, August (yem'berg) 1826-1896 

22 Jernberg, Olaf (yem'berg) 1S55- 

21 Jenidorff, August Andreas (yern'dorf) . 1846- 

22 Jewett, W. S 1795-1S73 

18 Jikaku Daishi 784-854 

1 1 Jimenez y Aranda, Jose (hime'neth e 

II aran'da) 1832- 

1 1 Jimenez y Aranda, Luis (hime'neth e 

II aran'da) 1845- 

16 Jocavacci, Francesco (yokavat'che) . . 183S- 
14 Joest of Calcar, Jan (yoost) 1460-1519 

Johansen, Viggo (yohan'sen) 1851- 

21 Johansson, Karl (yohan'son) - 

Johnson, David 1827- 

27 Johnson, Eastman 1824-1906 

Johnston, John B 1847-1886 

4 Johnston, John Humphreys '857- 

21 Jones, Francis Coates '857- 

6 Jones, Hugh Bolton 1848- 

6 Jonghe, Gustave de (yon'(f)e) .... 1 828-1 893 
Jonghe, Jean Baptiste de (yon'dje) . . 1785-1844 

3 Jongkind, Johan Barthold (yiing'kint) . 1819-1891 

22 Jo-not-o - 

19,— —Jordaens, Hans (yor'dans) 1595-1643 

22 Jordaens, Jacob (yor'dans) 1593-1678 

22 Jordan, Rudolf (yor'dan) 1810-1887 

-3 Jorgensen, Swend (ybr'gensen) .... 1861- 

28 Joris, Pio (yo'ris) 1843- 

17 Josephson, Ernst (yo'sefson) 1851- 

26 Jo-setsu fl. early xvth century 

22 Josselin de Jong (or Yong), Pieter de 

19 (yos'selln da yung) 1861- 

28 J6-sui, see Soyen 

7 Jouett, M. H 1788-1S27 

23 Jouvenet, Jean (soovena) 1644-17 17 



16 
16 

24 
24 
24 

21 
13 



20 
20 

>9 
II 



=7 
19 
18 
26 

26 

25 
25 
26 
22 
27 



17 
6 

13 
26 

25 



23 
23 
23 
23 
12 

16 

27 



9 

25 

6 

25 

27 
16 



Juanes-Kurzbauek] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



73 



DATES 
Juanes, Juan de (Vicente) (hooa'nes) . 1523-1579 

Juel, Jens (yoo'el) 1745-1802 

Juncker, Justus (yun'ker) 1703-1767 

Justus de Allamagna (yus'tiis da alla- 

man'ya) fl. 1451 

Justus (Jodocus) van (of) Ghent (yfis'- 

tus) fl. end xvth century 

Kadzu-nobu fl. xi.\th century 

Kaemmerer, Frederic Henry (kam'merer) 1S50- 

Kager, Matthias (kii'ger) 1 566-1634 

Kai-hoku (Vu-sho) 1534-1617 

Kakei, see Hia Kwei 

Kalckreuth, Leopold, Graf von (kalk'roit) 1855- 
Kalckreuth, Stanislaus, Graf von (kalk'- 
roit) 1S31-1894 

Kalf, Willem (ka'lef) 1630-1693 

Kalkar, Giovanni di (Hans von) (kal'kar) 1510-1546 
Kamecke, Otto von (kam'ke) .... 1829-1899 

Kampf, Arthur 1864- 

Kan Densu fl. xvth century 

Kanaoka, Kose na fl. 850 

Kan-kan, see Han Kan 

Ka-no, see Masa-nobu and Moto-nobu 

Kappes, Alfred 1850-1894 

Karpen 

Kate, Herman Frederik Karel ten (ka'te) 1822-1891 
Katsu-gawa Shun-ch5 (Shun-ken) . . fi. iSio 
Katsu-gawa Shun-sho (Katsu-kama) . fl. 1765-1785 
Katsu-kama, see Katsu-gawa 

Kauffmann, Angelica 1741-1S07 

Kauffmann, Hermann 1S0S-1889 

Kauffmann, Hugo 1S44- 

Kaula, William Jurian 1S71- 

■ Kaulbach, Friedrich August von (kouT- 

bacfl) 1850- 

Kaulbach, Wilhelm von (koulTjad)) . . 1805-1847 

Ka-w5, Nen fl. xivth century 

Keibun (Matsu-mura) 1780-1844 

Kei-sai, (J-nishi fl. xixth century 

Kei-sai Yei-sen fl. xixth century 

Kei-sho, see Kei-shoki 

Kei-shoki (kei-sho) fl. late xvth century 

Keller, Albert von 1S44- 

Kendall, William Sergeant 1869- 

Kennedy, William 1860- 

Kensett, John F 1818-1872 

Kessel, Ferdinand van 1648-1696 

Kessel, Jan van 1641-1690 

Kessel, Jan van, the Elder 1626-1679 

Kessel, Jan van, the Younger .... 1654-1708 

Ketel, Cornells (ka'tel) 1548-1616 

Key, Adriaan Thomasz (ki) 1544-1590 

Key, Willem (ki) 1 520-1 568 

Keyser, Nicaise de (ki'zer) 1813-1887 

Keyser, Thomas de (ki'zer) 1596-1679 

Khnopff, Femand 1858- 

Kielland, Kitty (rfjel'land) 1844- 

Ki-itsu ?-i858 

Kiku-chi, see Yo-sai 



'7 
26 



27 

16 

8 

27 



9 
14 

4 

9 

9 

27 

27 



23 
16 
16 
28 
28 

S 

9 

9 

23 

9 
9 

27 
28 

27 
28 



9 
23 
21 

1 1 
14 



10 
10 

12 

14 
12 

25 
28 



DATES 

Kindborg, Johan 1S61- 

Kindermans, Jean Baptiste 1805-1S76 

Kin-mochi fl. xth century 

Kin-tada fl. xth century 

Kio-sai, Sho-fu 1831- 

Kiprenski, Orest (kipren'ski) 1783-1836 

Kiyo-naga, Tokii . . ". fl 1765-17S0 

Kiyo-nobu, Tokii (Sh5-bei) . . fl. xviiith century 

Klimt, Ernst 1864- 1892 

Klinger, Max (klin'ger) 1857- 

Klinkenberg, Johannes Christian Karel . 1852- 

Klodt von JUrgensburg, Baron Michael . 1832- 

Klumpke, Miss Anna E 1S56- 

Knaus, Ludwig (knous) 1829- 

Kneller (Kniller), Sir Godfrey (knel'ler) . 1 646-1 723 

Knight, Daniel Ridgway 1845- 

Knight, John Prescott 1 803-1 88 1 

Knille, Otto (knil'le) 1832-1898 

Knoller, Martin (knol'ler) 1725-1804 

Kniipfer (kniip'fer) 1603-1660 

Kobell, Ferdinand 1 740-1 799 

Kiibke, Christen Schjellerup 1S10-1848 

Ko-bo Daishi (Ku-kai) 774-834 

Koch, Joseph Anton (kod)) 1 768-1 S39 

Koekkoek, Barend Cornells (kook'kook) 1S03-1S62 

Kohler, Robert 1S50- 

Ko-H6gen, see Moto-nobu 

Kolstoe, Fredrik (kol'stij) 1S60- 

Komai Ki, see Gen-ki 
Kon-do Jiu-bei, see Hiro-shige 

Konig, Johann fl. 1610 

Koninck, Jacob de 1616-1708 

Koninck, Philip de 1619-1688 

Koninck, Salomon 1609-1663 

Koopman, Augustus 1S69- 

Korbecke, Johann fl. xivth century 

Korff, Alexander Hugo Bakker . . . . 1824-1882 

Ko-rin, O-gata 1660-1716 

Korner, Johann - 

KoskuU, Anders Gustav, Baron . . . 1831- 

Kost, Frederick W 1861- 

Ko-un-sho, see Nam-mei 

Krafft, E. Peter (Per) 17S0-1S56 

Krafft, Johan August ' 1798-1829 

Kramskoy, Ivan (kram'skSe) 1837-1S87 

Kretzschmer, Hermann (kretsh'mer) . . 1811-1890 

Krohg, Christian (kro'g) 1852- 

Kronberg, Julius 1850- 

Kronberg, Louis 1S72- 

Krouthen, Johan 1S58- 

Krriyer, Per Severin (kro'yer) .... 1S51- 

Kriiger, Franz (krii'ger) 1 797-1857 

Kriiger, Nils (krii'ger) - 

Kiichler, Albert 1803- 

Kiihl, Gotthard 1851- 

Ku-kai, see Ko-bo Daishi 

Kulle, Axel 1846- 

Kulmbach, Hans von ?-i522 

Kupetzki (Kopecky), Johann (koopets'ke) 1667-1740 

Kurzbauer, Eduard (kilrts'bouer) . . . 1840—1879 



TABLE 

= 5 

12 

27 
27 
28 

24 
28 

28 

9 

9 

16 

24 

23 

9 

14 

23 



9 
8 

'5 



26 

27 

8 

16 

23 

25 



8 
14 
14 
14 
=3 

7 

16 
28 

9 
= 5 
23 

9 
26 

24 
9 
= 5 
=5 
23 
25 
26 

9 
=5 
26 

9 

25 
7 
8 

9 



74 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



[Kwakki-Llorente 



DATES TABLE 

Kwakki, see Kwoh Hi 

Kwoh Hi (Kwakki) fl. xth century 28 

Kyhn, Vilhelm (kiin) 1S19- 26 

La Cour (la koor) - 26 

Lacroix, Gaspard Jean (laknva) . . . 1810-1S7S 20 

Ladbrooke, Robert 175S-1840 21 

Laer, Pieter van (Bamboccio) (lar) . . 1590-1658 15 

Laermans, Eugene (lar'mans) .... - 12 

La Farge, Jolin 183S- -3 

La Fosse, Charles de (la foss) .... 1636-1716 18 

Lafrensen, Nicolas (la'frensen) .... 1 737-1808 25 

Lagorio, Lev (lago'rio) 1826- 24 

Lairesse, Gerard de, the Elder .... 1640-1711 14 

Lambert, Louis Eugene (lanbar) . . . 1825- 20 

Lamen, Christoffel Jacob van der(la'men) 1615-1651 11 

Lami, Louis Eugene (lame) 1800- 19 

Lance, George 1 802-1864 21 

Lancerotto, Egisto (lancharot'to) . . . 1848- 6 

Lancret, Nicolas (lankra) 1690-1743 18 

Landseer, Charles 1799-1879 21 

Landseer, Sir Edwin 1802-1873 21 

Lanfranco, Giovanni (lanfranTto) . . . 1 580-1 647 5 

Lang, Heinrich 1838-1891 9 

Lanini, Bernardino (lane'ne) 15 10-1578 4 

Lansyer, Emmanuel (lansia) 'S35- 20 

Lantara, Simon Mathurin (lantara) . . 1729-177S 18 

Lanzani, Polidoro (landza'ne) .... 15^5-1565 5 

Largilliere, Nicolas (larsilyar) .... 1656-1746 18 

Larsen, Carl Frederik Emanuel . . . . 1823-1859 26 

Larsson, Carl 'S55- 25 

Larsson, Marcus 1825-1864 25 

Lastman, Pieter 1583-1649 14 

La Thangue i860- 21 

Lathrop, Francis 1849- 23 

Lathrop, W. L 1859- 23 

La Tour, Maurice Quentin de (latoor) . 1704-1788 18 

Lauder, Robert Scott 1803-1869 21 

Laurens, Jean Paul (loren) 1838- 20 

Laurenti, Cesare (louren'te) 1854- 6 

Lavery, John 1858- 21 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas 1769-1830 21 

Lawson, Cecil Gordon 1851-1882 21 

Lawson, Thomas B 1807-1888 22 

Lazarus, Jacob A 1823-1891 22 

Lazzarini, Gregorio (latsare'ne) .... 1657-1735 5 

Leader, Benjamin Williams J831- 21 

Lebedev, Mikhail (la'bedef) 1812-1837 24 

Le Brun, Charles (lebrbii) 1619-1690 18 

Lebrun, Mme Elisabeth Louise Vigee- 

(lebroii) 1755-1842 20 

Leczano, Angel (lektha'no) - 17 

Lee, Homer 1856- 23 

Leemans, Egide Fran9ois (la'mans) . . 1 839-1 876 12 

Leempoels, Jeff (lam'pools) 1867- 12 

Leemputten, Frans van (lampbt'ten) . . 1850- 12 

Lefebvre, Jules Joseph (lefavr) .... 1834- 19 

Lefevre, Claude (lefavr) 1632-1675 18 

Lefevre, Robert (lefavr) 1756-1830 18 

Legros, Alphonse (legro) 1837- 20 



DATES 

Leibl, Wilhelm (l!bl) 1846-1900 

Leighton, Frederick, Lord 1830-1896 

Leistikow, Walter (lis'tiko) 1865- 

Leleux, Armand (lelb) 1818-1885 

Leloir, Alexandre Louis (lelwar) . . . 1843-1884 

Leiy, Sir Peter (van der Faes) (le'li) . . 1617-1680 

Lembke, Johann Philipp 1631-1713 

Lemoyne, Fran9ois (lemwan) .... 1688-1737 

Le Nain, Antoine (le neh) 1 588-1648 

Le Nain, Louis (le neri) 1593-1648 

Le Nain, Matthieu (le neii) 1607-1677 

Lenbach, Franz (lanTaat^) 1836- 

Lens, Andries Cornells 1 739-1 822 

Leonardo, Jose (leonar'do) 1616-1656 

Leonardo da Vinci, see Vinci, Leonardo da 

Le Prince, Jean Baptiste (lepreiis) . . . 1733-1781 

Lerolle, Henri (lerol) 1851- 

Leroux, Hector (leroo) 1829-1900 

Leslie, Charles Robert 1794-1859 

Leslie, George Dunlop '835- 

Lessing, Karl Friedrich 1S08-1880 

Le Sueur, Eustache (le siiijr) .... 1616-1655 

Lethiere, Guillaume Guillon (letiar) -. . 1760-1832 

Leutze, Emmanuel 1816-1868 

Levitski, Dmitri 1735-1822 

Levy, Emile (lave) 1826- 

Levy, Leopold (lave) 1840- 

Lewis, John Frederick 1805-1876 

Leyden, Lucas van (li'den) 1494-1533 

Leys, Hendrik (lis) 1815-1869 

L'hermitte, Leon Augustin (lermit) . . 1S44- 
Liberale di Jacopo da Verona (libera'la 

dejako'po) 1451-1536 

Liberi, Pietro (Libertino) (liba're) . . . 1605-1687 
Libertino, see Liberi 

Lie, Jonas 1880- 

Lieb, Michael, see Munkacsy 

Liebermann, Max (le'berman) .... 1849- 

Lier, Adolf (ler) 1827-1882 

Elevens, Jan (le'vens) 1607-1674 

Liezen-Mayer (let'sen-mi' er) 1839-1898 

Liljefors, Bruno Andreas (lil'yefors) . . 1860- 
Li Lung-yen (Ri-riu-min or Ri-ko-riu) . fl. xith century 

Lindegreen, Amalia (Im'degran) . . . 1814-1891 

Lindenschmit, Wilhelm, the Elder . . 1806-1848 

Lindenschmit, Wilhelm, the Younger . 1829-1895 

Lindholm, Lorenz August 1819- 

Lindmann, Axel 1848— 

Linen, George 1802-1888 

Ling Liang (Rin-ri5) fl. xvth century 

Lingelbach, Johannes (lln'gelbac^) . . . 1622-1674 

Linnell, John 1792-1882 

Liotard, Jean Etienne (liotar) .... 1702-1789 

Lippi, Filippino (lip'pe) 1457-1504 

Lippi, Fra Filippo (ITp'pe) 1406-1469 

Lissandrino, II (Alessandro Magnasco) 

(lisandre'no) 1661-1747 

Llanos y Valdes, Sebastian de (lya'nos) . 1602-1668 
Llorente, Don Bernardo German de 

(lyoren'te) 1685-1757 



TABLE 

9 
21 

9 
19 
19 



18 
18 
18 
18 

9 
II 

17 

18 
20 
19 



9 
18 



24 
"9 
19 

21 

13 
12 

20 

3 

5 

23 

9 

9 

'5 

9 

25 
28 

25 

9 

9 

=5 

25 

28 
14 



3 
3 

5 
17 

'7 



Locher-Marziale] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



75 



OkTES 

Locher, Carl (lolcer) 1851- 

Lockwood, Wilton 1861- 

Loeb, Louis 1866- 

Lofftz, Ludwig von 1845- 

Lombard, Lambert (Susterman) . . . 1 505-1 566 

Lon, Gert von . ^ fl. 1505-152 1 

Long, Edwin 1829- 

Lonza. Antonio (lon'tsa) 1846- 

Loo, Charles Amedee Philippe van (16) . 17 19-1790 
Ix)o, Charles Andre van (Carle Vanloo) 

(15) ■• 1705-1765 

Loo, Jacob van (16) 1614-1670 

Loo, Jan van (15) 15S5-1661 

Loo, Jean Baptiste van (16) 1 684-1 745 

Loo, Louis van (15) 1641-1713 

Loon, Theodorus van, the Younger (Ion) 1595-167S 

Lorentzen, Christian A\igust (16'rentsen) 1749-1S28 

- Lorenzetti, Ambroggio (lorendzet'te) . fl. 1342 
Lorenzetti, Pietro (lorendzet'te) . . . ?-i350 

- Lorenzo da San Severino (lorend'zo) . . 1374-? 
Lorenzo di Pietro di Giovanni di Lando, 

see Vecchietta, II 

Lorenzo Monacco, Don (lorend'zo) . . 1370-1422 

Lorrain, Claude Gellee, called (klodlorren) 1600-1682 

Losenko, Anton 1737-1773 

Loth, Johann Karl (Carlotto) (l5t) . . 1632-1698 

Lotto, Lorenzo 1480-1554 

Lovigi, see Ingegno, L' 

Low, Will H 1853- 

Luigi, Andrea, see Ingegno, L' 

Luini, Bernardino (lue'ne) '475~I533 

Luminals, fivariste Vital (loomina) . 1822- 

Lund, Fredrik Christian 1826- 

Lundberg, Gustaf 1695-1786 

Lundbye, Johan Thomas (loon'biie) . . 1818-1848 

Lundens, Gerrit (lun'dens) . . . . fl. 1652-1673 

Lundgren, Egront Sellif (lund'gran) . . 18 15-1875 

Lundstrom, Ernst 1853- 

Luti, Benedetto, Cavaliere (loo'te) . . . 1666-1724 

Luyten, Henri (loi'ten) 1S59- 

Lyon, Jacob (li'on) 1586-1651 

Lys (Pan), Jan van der (lis) 1600-1657 

Ma Yiien (Ba-yen) fl. xiith century 

Mabuse, Jan (Gossaert) van (maboo'ze) . 1470-1541 

Macallum, Hamilton 1841-1896 

Macbeth, Robert Walker 1848- 

McChesney, Clara T 1861- 

McEwen, Walter i86o- 

Macgregor, Robert - 

McKnight, Dodge 1860- 

Mach, Hildegard von (mac^) 1S73- 

Macip, Juanes Vicente, see Juanes, Juan de 

Maclise, Daniel . 1806 (sometimes said iSii)-i870 

MacMonnies, Mrs. Mary F - 

MacNee, Sir Daniel 1806-1882 

Macomber, Mary L 1861- 

Macrino d'Alba (makre'no da'lba) . . . .'-1528 

MacWhirter, John 1839- 

Madou, Jean Baptiste (madoo) .... 1796-1S77 



TABLE 

26- 
23 
23 
9 
10 

7 

21'" 

6 
18 

18 
14 
14 
18 

14 
II 
26 



iS 

24 



4 
20 
26 

-s 
26 

14 

25 
25 

5 
12 

>4 

15 

28 

10 

21 
21 

23 



23 
21 

23 

3 

21 

12 



waseii) 



— Madrazo, Don Raimundo de (madra'tho) 

Madrazo y Agudo, Jose de (madra'tho e 
iigoo'do) 

Madrazo y Kunt, Federico de (madra'tho 
e koont) 

Maes, Godfried (mas) 

- Maes, Nicolaas (mas) 

Magnasco, Alessandro, see Lissandrino, II 

Mainardi, Sebastiano (minar'de) . . . 

Mainella, Raffaele (mlnel'la) 

Makart, Hans 

Makovski, Konstantin 

Makovski, Vladimir 

Malbone, Edward G 

Malmstrom, Johan August (malm'strom) 

Mancinelli, Giuseppe (mancheneHe) . . 

Mander, Karel van, the Elder . 

Mander, Karel van, the Younger 

Mander, Karel van, the Third . 

Manet, fidouard (mana) . . . 

Manglard, Adrien (rnahlar) 

Mannozzi, Giovanni (Giovanni da San 
Giovanni) (manot'se) . . . 

Mansueti, Giovanni (mansooa'ti) 

Mantegna, Andrea (manten'ya) . 

Manvoisin, Raymond A uguste (mahv 

Maratta, see Maratti 

Maratti (Maratta), Carlo, Cavaliere (ma- 
rat'ti) 

Marchal, Charles Francois (marshal) . 

Marcke, fimile van, see Van Marcke 

Marco d'Oggione (mar'k5 dodjo'na) . 

Marconi, Rocco (m'arko'ne) .... fl. 

Marees, Georg de (Desmarees) (mara'es) 

Marees, Hans von (maras') 

Marescalco, II, see Buonconsigho 

Margaritone (margan[t5'na) 

Mariani, Cesare (maria'ne) 

Mariani, Pompeo (marfa'ne) 

Marilhat, Prosper (marila) 

Marinelli, Vincenzo (marenel'le) . . . 

Marinus, see Roymerswale, Marinus van 

Maris, Jacob (ma'ris) 

Maris, Matthys (ma'ris) 

Maris, Willem (ma'ris) 

Markov, Aleksyey 

Mame, Jean Louis de (mam) .... 

Marr, Carl 

Marsh, Fred Dana 

Marstrand, Vilhelm Nikolaj 

Martens, Willem Johannes 

Martin, Elias (marten') 

Martin, Henri (martin) 

Martin, Homer D 

Martinetti, Giacomo (martenet'te) . . . 

Martinez, Jusepe (marte'neth) .... 

Martini, see Simone di Martino 

Martino da Udine, see Pellegrino da San 
Daniele 

Marziale, Marco (martsfale) .... fl. 



DATES 
1841- 

17S1-1859 



T»8LE 
17 



I8I5-IS94 


'7 


I 649-1 700 


II 


I632-I693 


'4 


•'-15 '3 


3 


1858- 


6 


1840-1884 


9 


'S39- 


24 


1846- 


24 


I 787-1 S07 


22 


1S29- 


25 


1813-1875 


6 


1 548-1606 


10 


1579-1665 


14 


1610-1672 


14 


1833-.883 


20 


1695-1760 


18 


1590-1636 


5 


1500 


3 


1431-1506 


3 


1 794-1870 


■9 


1625-1713 


5 


1825-1877 


20 


1470-1530 


4 


1 505-1 520 


4 


1697-1776 


25 


1837-1887 


9 


1216-1290 


2 


1826-1901 


6 


1857- 


6 


1811-1847 


19 


1820-1892 


6 


1837-1S99 


16 


•835- 


16 


18 15- 


16 


1802-1878 


24 


1754-1829 


18 


1858- 


23 


1872- 


23 


1810-1873 


26 


1838-1895 


16 


1 740- 1 804 


25 


- 


20 


1836-1897 


23 


- 


6 


1612-16S2 


17 



1 492-1 507 



76 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING [Mas v FoNnnviLLA-MioLA 



Mas y Fondevilla, Arcadio (mas e fon- 

devel'ya) - 

Masaccio, Tommaso (masat'cho) . . 1401-142S 

Masa-nobu, Ka-no 1424-1520 

Masa-taka, Sugi-mura Ji-hei . . . fl. xviith century 
Masolino da Panicale (masole'no) . . . 1383-1440 

Mason, George Heming 181S-1S72 

Masriera, J. (masrie'ra) - 

Massys, Cornells (mas'sis) 1511-1580 

Massys, Jan (mas'sis) 1509-1575 

Ma-ssys, Quenten (Quentin, Quinten) 

(mas'sis) -1 5 JO 

Master of the Altar of St. George (Georg- 

altar) fl. xivth century 

Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet fl. xivth century 
Master of the Bartholomew and Thomas 

Altar fl. ca. 1 500 

Master of the Death of Mary . . . fl. 1 530-1 550 

Master of Flemalle fl. 1450 

Master of the Glorification of Mary fl. xvth century 
Master of the Half-figures of Women fl. 1520 
Master of the Holy Kith-and-Kin fl. end xivth century 

Master of Liesborn fl. 1465 

Master of the Life of Mary .... fl. 1463-1492 
Master of the Lyversberg Passion . . fl. 1463- 1480 

Master of St. Severin fl. xvth century 

Master, see also Meister 

Mata-hei, Iwa-sa fl. 1600 

Matejko, Johann (matey'ko) 1838-1S93 

Matsu-moto, see Bum-pei 

Matsu-mura, see Gekkei and Keibun 

Matsys, see Massys 

Matteo di Giovanni (da Siena) (matta'o) 

Maurer, Christof (mou'rer) . . . . fl 

Mauve, Anton (mov) 

Max, Gabriel 

May, Edward Harrison . . 
Mayer, Constance (mayer) 
Maynard, George Willoughby 
Mazo, Juan Bautista Martinez (ma'tho) 
Mazzola, Francesco, see Parmigianino, II 
Mazzola, Girolamo (matso'la) 
Mazzolino, Lodovico (matsole'no) 
Mazzuola, Filippo (matsoo-o'lji) . 
Mazzuoli, Giuseppe (matsoo-o'le) 
Medola, Andrea, see Schiavone 
Medula, Andrea, see Schiavone 

Meer, Barend van der (mar) 1659-? 

Meer, Jan van der, the Elder (mar) . . 1628-1691 
Meer, Jan van der, the Younger (mar) . 1 656-1 705 
Meer, Jan van der, see also Vermeer 
Meire, Gerard van der (mi're) 
Meissonier, Ernest (massonya) 

Meister Berthold fl. 1425 

Meister Stephan Lochner fl. 1450 

Meister Wilhelm fl. 1370 

Melbye, Anton (mel'biie) 181S-1S75 

Melbye, Vilhelm (mel'biie) 1824- 

Melchers, J. Gari 1860- 

Melone, Altobello (melo'na) .... fl. 1490 



1435-M95 

1570 

1S38-1S88 

1840- 

1S24-18S7 

177S-1821 

1843- 
1610-1667 

1 520-1 580 

I47S-15::S 

?-i505 

?-i5S9 



1427-1474 
1815-1891 



'7 

3 

27 

28 

3 

21 

17 
10 
10 



7- 
7 

7 

7 

10 

7 
10 

7 
7 
7 
7 
7- 

28 
9 



3 

7 

16 

9- 

"9 

23 ■ 
17 

4 

4 
3 
4 



15 

IS 
■5 

10 
19 

7" 

7 

7 
26- 
26 



DATES 

Melozzo da Forli (melot'so da for'le) . . 143S-1494 

Melville, Arthur - 

Memling, Hans 1425-1495 

Memmi, Lippo (mem'me) ?-i356 

Meneses, Luis de MirandaPerreira (me- 

na'ses) 1S20- 

Mengs, Anton Raphael 1728-1779 

Mentessi, Giuseppe (mentes'se) .... 

Menzel, Adolf (men'tsel) 1815-1904 

Merian, Maria Sibylla (ma'rean) . . . . 1647-1717 

Merian, Matthaus (ma'rean) 1621-1687 

Merritt, Mrs. Anna Lea 1844- 

Mertens, Charles - 

- Mesdag, Hendrik Willem (mes'dati)) . . 1831- 
Mesdag-van Houten, Mrs. S. (mes'dac^- 

van ha<>oten) - 

Meshcherski, Arseni 1S34- 

Metcalf, Willard Leroy 1858- 

Metsu, Gabriel (met'sii) 1630-1667 

Mettling, Louis (metleri) 1847-1904 

Meulen, Adam Frans van der (mij'len) . 1632-1690 

Meulen, F. P. ter (mij'len) 1834- 

Meulener (Molenaer), Peeter (mb'lener) . 1602-1654 

Meunier, Constantin (mbnya) .... 1S31- 

Meyer, Ernst (mi'er) 1 797-1861 

Meyer, Johann Georg (Meyer von Bre- 
men) (mi'er) 1813- 

Meyer, Klaus (mi'er) 1856- 

Meyer von Bremen, see Meyer, Johann 

Georg 

Meyerheim, Eduard (mi'erhim) .... 1808-1879 

Meyerheim, Paul (mi'erhim) 1842- 

Meytens (Mytens), Martin von (mi'tens) . 1696-1770 

Michallon, Achille Etna (mishalori) . 1796-1S22 

Michel, Georges (mishel) 1763-1843 

- Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarrotti 

Simone (mikelan'jelo de lodove'ko 

boo-onarot'te semo'na) 1475-1564 

"Michetti, Francesco Paolo (miket'te) . . 1852- 

Michieli, Andrea (mikea'le) 1539-1614 

Michi-Nobu fl. xviiith century 

Miel, Jan (mel) 1 599-1664 

Mielich, Hans (me'licfl) '516-1573 

Mierevelt, Michiel Janszen van(me'revelt) 1 567-1641 

Mierevelt, Pieter van (me'revelt) . . . 1 595-1623 

Mieris, Frans van, the Elder (me'ris) . . 1635-1681 

Mieris, Frans van, the Younger (me'ris) . 1689-1763 

Mieris, Jan van (me'ris) 1660-1690 

Mieris, Willem van (me'ri.s) 1662-1747 

Migliara, Giovanni (milya'ra) 1785-1837 

Mignard, Nicolas (minyar) 1606-1668 

Mignard, Pierre (Le Romain) (minyar) . 161C-1695 

Mignon, Abraham (minyoii) 1 640-1 679 

»Millais, Sir John Everett (mil'la) . . . 1829-1896 

Millet, Francis D. (mil'let) 1846- 

Millet, Fran9ois (Frans Mille) (mil'let) . 1642-1679 

~Millet, Jean Fran9ois (miyii or milla) . . 1814-1875 

Minardi, Tommaso (minar'de) .... 1787-1871 

Minor, Robert Crannell 1840-1904 

Miola, Camillo (mio'la) 1840- 



TABLE 

3 



17 
8 
6 

9 
8 
8 

-3 
12 
16 

16 
24 
-3 
14 

20 

16 
II 

12 
26 

9 
9 



9 
9 
8 

19 
19 



4 
6 

5 
27 
1 1 

7 

14 
14 

'5 
16 

15 
16 

6 
18 
iS 

8 
21 
23 



Mion-Xavarrete] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



n 



0*TES 

Mion, Luigi (me'on) 

Miranda, see Rodriguez de Miranda 

Mitsu-nobu "445"' 543 

Mitsu-oki ?-'69i 

Mitsu-yoshi 1 701-1 772 

Moeijaert, Moeyaert, see Moyaert 

Mol, Peeter van 1 599" '65° 

Molenaer, Comelis (mo'lenar) .... 1 540-1 591 

Molenaer, Jan Miense (mo'lenar) . . . ?-i66S 

Molenaer, Nicolaas (Klaas) (mo'lenar) . ?-i676 

Moll, Karl 1S61- 

Molmenti, Pompeo (molmen'te) . . . 1S19- 

Molyn, Pieter de, the Elder (mo'lln) . . 1600-1661 
Molyn, Pieter de, the Younger (Pieter de 

Mulieribus or II Cavaliere Tempesta) 

(mo'lin) 1 637-1 701 

Momper, Frans de ?-i66i 

Momper, Jodocus (Joost) de 1564-1635 

Monchablon, Jean (moiishabloh) . . . 1S54- 

Monet, Claude (mona) 1840- 

Monks, J. A. S 1S50- 

Monnoyer, Jean Baptiste (moh-nwaya) . 1634-1699 

Montagna, Bartolommeo (montan'ya) . 1450-1523 
Montagna, Benedetto (montan'ya) 

fl. early xvith century 

Montagnana, Jacopo (montanya'na) . . 1450-1499 

Montenard, Frederic (moiitenar) . . . 1849- 

- Monticelli, Adolphe (monteselll) . . . 1834-1886 

Mooney, Edward 181 3- 

Moor, Karel de (mor) 1656-173S 

Moore, Albert 1841-1892 

Moore, Henry 1831-1895 

Mor, or Moro van Dashorst, Antonis 

(Antonio Moro) 1512-1576 

Morales, Luis de [of Badajoz] (mora'les) 1510-1586 

Moran, Edward 1S29-1901 

Moran, Peter 1841- 

Moran, Thomas 1837- 

Morando, Paolo (Cavazzola) 1486-1522 

Moreau, Gustave (moro) 1826-1S98 

Morelli, Domenico (Domenico Soliero) 

(morel'le) 1S26- 

Morelse, Paulus 1 571-1638 

Morero y Galicia (mora'ro e gale'thia) . - 

Moretto, II 1498-1555 

Morgenstem, Christian Ernst Bemhard . 1805-1867 

Morgenstern, Johann Ludwig Ernst . . 1 738-1819 
Mori, see So-sen 

Mori-kage fl. wiith century 

Mori-kuni, Tachi-bana 1670-1748 

Morland, George 1736-1804 

Moro, Antonio, see Mor, Antonis 
Moro, II, see Torbido, Francesco 
Moro van Dashorst, see Mor, Antonis 

iloro-fusa fl. .wiith century 

Morone, Domenico (moro'na) .... 1442-150S 

Morone, Francesco (moro'na) .... 1 474-1 529 

Moroni, Giovanni Battista (moro'ne) . . 1520-1578 

Moro-nobu, Hishi-gawa ?-i7ii 

Morot, Aime Nicolas (moro) 1850- 



TABLE 

6 



27 
27 
27 

1 1 

10 

'5 

'5 

9 

6 

■5 



'5 
1 1 
1 1 
20 
20 



4 
3 

20 
20 



21 
21- 



3 

20 

6 
15 

17 
4 
9 
8 



27 
28 



28 
3 

4 — 
28 

19 



DATES 

Morris, Philip Richard 183S- 

Morris, William '834- 

Morse, Samuel Finley Breese .... 1791-1S72 

Mose, Albert (moza') 1835- 

Moser, Lucas (mo'zer) fl. 1431 

Moshkov -1839 

Mosler, Henry 1S41- 

Mosso, Francesco 1849-1877 

Mostaert (Mostert), Frans (mos'tart) . . 1 534-1 560 

Mostaert, Gillis (mos'tart) 1 534-1 59S 

Mostaert, Jan (mos'tart) 1474-1556 

Motomitsu fl. xith century 

Motonobu, Ka-no (Ko-Hogen) .... 1477-1559 
Motte, fimile (mot'te or mot) .... - 

Moucheron, Frederik de (moosheron) . 1633-1686 

Moucheron, Isaak de (moosheron) . . 1670-1744 

Mount, William S 1807-1868 

Mowbray, Henry Siddon 1858- 

Moya, Pedro de (mo'ya) 1610-1666 

Moyaert (Moeijaert, Moeyaert), Nicolaas 

(mo'yart) 1 600-1 659 

Mudo, El, see Navarrete 

Muhrman, Henry H 1854- 

Miiller, .Adam August 1811-1S44 

Miiller, Morten 1828- 

MiiUer, Victor 1S29-1871 

Muller, William 1786-1863 

Mulready, William 1 786-1 S63 

Multscher, Hans (miU'cher) . . . . fl. xvth century 
Munari, see Pellegrino da Modena 

Munch, Edvard (miink) 1863- 

Munkacsy (Michael Lieb) (mun'kache) . 1846-1900 

Mufioz, Sebastian (munyoth') .... 1654-1690 

Munthe, Gerhard (mun'te) 1849- 

Munthe, Ludvig (mun'te) 1841-1896 

Murano, Giovanni da, see Alemannus, 

Giovanni 

Murillo, Bartolome Esteban (murel'yo) . 1618-16S2 

Murphy, Herman Dudley 1S67- 

Murphy, J. Francis 1853- 

Mussini, Cesare (moosse'ne) 1808- 

Mussini, Luigi (moosse'ne) 1813-1888 

Muziano, Girolamo (mootsia'no) . . . 1530-1592 

Muzzioli, Giovanni (mootsio'le) . . . 1S54-1S94 
Mytens, Daniel, the Elder (mi'tens) 1590-after 1658 

My tens, Johannes (mi'tens) '-1671 

Nabu-zane, see Fujiwara no Nobu-zane 

Naga-mitsu fl. late xvith century 

Naga-sawa, see Ro-setsu 

Nakken, Willem Karel 1835- 

Kam-mei, Haru-ki (Shiu-ki, Ri-sho, Ko- 

un-sho) fl. xixth century 

Nao-nobu 1603-1650 

Nasmyth, Alexander 175S-1S14 

Nasmyth, Patrick 1787-1831 

Natoire, Charles Joseph (natwiir) . . . 1700-1777 

Nattier, Jean Marc (niittya) 16S5-1766 

Navarrete, Juan Fernandez (El Mudo) 

(naviira'te) 1526-1579 



TABLE 

21 

21 

22 

6 

7 
24 
=3 

6 
10 
10 
13 
27 
=7 
12 

14 

14 

23 
17 

14 

23 
26 

25 

9 

21 

21 



=5 

9 

17 

25 
25 



23 
6 
6 

5 
6 

14 
14 



27 
16 

27 
27 
21 
21 
18 
18 



78 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING [Navez-Paret de Alcazar 



DATES 

Navez, Francois Joseph (nava) .... 1787-1S69 

Neagle, John 1799-1S65 

Needham, Charles Austin 1844- 

Neeffs, Peeter, the Elder (nafs) . . . . 157S-1656 

Neeffs, Peeter, the Younger (nafs) . . 1620-1675 

Neer, Aart van der (nar) 1603-1677 

Neer, Eglon Hendrik van der (nar) . . 1643-1703 

Neff, Timoleon Karl von 1805-1876 

Nelli, Ottaviano (nel'le) ?-i444 

Netscher, Caspar (nets'd)er) 1639-1684 

Netscher, Constantin (nets'cf)er) . . . 1668-1722 

Netti, Cavaliere Francesco (net'te) . . 1S32-1894 
Neuchatel (Nutschiedel), Nicolaus (nb- 

shatel) 15-7-159S 

Neuhuys, Albert (nb'hois) 1844- 

Neuville, Alphonse de (novel) .... 1836-1885 

Newton, Gilbert Stuart 1795-1S35 

Ngan Hwui (Gan-ki) . . . fl. early xiiith century 
Niccol6 da Foligno (Alunno) (nikkolo' da 

folln'yo) 1430-1502 

Niccolo di Pietro (Gerini) (nikkolo' de 

pia'tro) fl. 1380 

Nichols, Mrs. Rhoda Holmes .... - 

Nicol, Erskine 1825- 

Nielsen, Amaldus 1838- 

Nigris, Giuseppe (ne'gris) 181 2- 

Nittis, Giuseppe de (nitte) 1846-1S84 

Nono, Luigi 1S50- 

Noort, Adam van (nort) 1562-1641 

Nordenberg, Bengt 1822- 

Nordling, Adolf 1840-1S88 

Nordstrom, Carl '855- 

Normann, Eilert Adelsteen 1848- 

Northcote, James 1746-1S31 

Norton, William E 1843- 

Nourse, Elizabeth - 

Nutschiedel, see Neuchatel 

Nyberg, Ivar (niiberg) '855- 

Nys, Carl (nis) 1S58- 

Ochtervelt (Uchtervelt) (oc^'tervelt) . . ?-i7io 

Ochtman, Leonard (oc^t'man) .... 1854- 

Oesterlind, Allan (bs'terlind) '853- 

Oftermans, Antonij Jacob 1796- 

O-i, see Wang Wei 

Oka-moto Hoken (Hogen) (called Toyo- 

hiko) 1768-1845 

O-kio, Maru-yama '733"' 795 

Olis, Jan 1610-1655 

Oliver, Isaac 1556-1617 

Oliver, Peter 1 601-1660 

Ommeganck, Balthazar Pauwel (om'me- 

C^iink) 1755-1826 

Oost, Jacob van, the Elder (ost) . . . 1600-1671 

Oost, Jacob van, the Younger (ost) . . 1639-17 13 
Oostsaanen, see Comeliszen, Jacob 

Opie, John 1761-1807 

Orbetto, L', see Turchi, Alessandro 

Orcagna (Andrea di Clone) (orkan'yii) . 130S-136S 

Orchardson, William Quiller .... 1835- 



23 
II 

14 

14 
24 

3 
14 
16 

6 

10 
16 
19 



23 
21 

25 

6 
20 

6 
1 1 
25 
25 
25 
25- 

22 
23 

25 
12 

'5 

23 
25 
16 



28 
28 
14 



II 
II 

1 1 



DATES 

Orley, Bemaert (Barend van Brussel) (or'li) 1491-1542 

Orley, Jan van (or'l!) 1665-1735 

Orley, Richard van (or'li) 1663-1732 

Orlovski, Aleksander 1777-1832 

Orrente, Pedro (Bassano) (orren'te) . . 1 570-1644 
Ortolano, L' (The Gardener) (Giovanni 

Battista Benvenuti) (ortola'no) . . 1 467-1 525 

Os, Georgius Jacobus Johannes . . . 17S2-1861 

Os, Jan van 1744-1808 

O-shin 1791-1840 

Ossenbeeck (os'senbak) 1627-1678 

- Ostade, Adriaan van (osta'de) .... 1610-1685 

Ostade, Isaac van (osta'de) 1621-1649 

Otis, Bass 1784-1S61 

Ou. For names not listed under Ou, see U 

Oudry, Jean Baptiste (oodre) .... 1686-1755 

Ouless, Walter William ...... 184S- 

Ouwater, Albert van fl. xvth century 

Ouwater, (Gudewater) Gerard David, see 

David, Gheeraerdt 1 450-1 523 

Overbeck, Johann Friedrich 17S9-1869 

Owen, Samuel - 

Owen, William 1769-1825 

Owens, Jiirgen 1623-1679 

-Pacchia, Girolamo del (pak'kia) . . . 1477-1535 

Pacchiarotti, Jacopo (pakkiarot'te) . . 1 474-1 550 

. Pacheco, Francisco (pacha'ko) .... 1571 -1654 

Pacher, Michel (pii'djer) 1430-1498 

Padovanino, II (The feminine Titian, Ales- 
sandro Varotari) (padovane'no) . . 1590-1650 
Page, William 1811-1885 

- Pagliano, Eleuterio (palya'no) .... 1826- 
Palamedesz (Stevaerts, Antonis) (pala- 

ma'des) 1601-1674 

Palamedesz, Palamedes (Stevaerts) (pala- 

ma'des) 1607-1638 

Palizzi, Giuseppe (palit'se) 1818-188S 

Palm, Gustaf Vilhelm (also called Palma 

Vecchio) (palm) 1S10-1890 

Palma II Giovane (Palma, Giacomo, the 

Younger) (pal'ma 11 jo'vane) . . . 1544-1628 
Palma II Vecchio (Palma, Giacomo, the 

Elder) (pal'ma il vek'kio) .... 14S0-1528 
Palma Vecchio, see Palm, Gustaf Vilhelm, 

and Palma il Vecchio 

Palmer, Walter Launt 1854- 

Palmezzano, Marco (palmetsa'no) . . . 1456-1527 
Palomino de Castro y Velasco, Don Acislo 

Antonio (palome'no da kas'tro e 

velas'ko) 1653-1725 

Panetti, Domenico di Gasparo (panet'te) 1460-1512 

Pannini, Giovanni Paolo (panne'ne) . . 1695-1768 
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan (pantS'ha da la 

krooth) 1551-1609 

Paolino da Pistoja, Fra (paole'no da pis- 

to'ha) 1490-1547 

Pape, Eric 1S70- 

Pareja, Juan de (parS'hh) 1606-1670 

Paret de Alcazar, Luis (parat'da alka'thar) 1 747-1 799 



TABLE 
10 
II 

24 
17 

4 
16 
16 

28 
'5 
15 
15 



18 
21 
13 

10 

9 
21 
21 



4 

4 

17 

7 

5 
6 

15 

14 
6 

25 
4 
4 



23 
3 



17 
3 
5 



4 
23 
17 
17 



Pakmigianino-Pol'ssin] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



79 



DATES TABLE 

Parmigianino, II (Francesco Mazzola) 

(parmejane'no) 1504-1540 4 

Parrish, Maxfield 1870- 23 

Parsons, Alfred 1847- 21 

Parton, Ernest 1845- 21 

Pasini, Alberto (pase'ne) 1S26-1899 6 

Passerotti, Bartolommeo (passerot'te) . 1520- 1592 4 

Passignano, Domenico da (passinya'no) . 1550-1638 5 

Patel, Pierre, the father (piitel) . . fl. 1625 iS 

Patel, Pierre, the son (patel) 1605-1676 iS 

Patenier, see Patinir 

Pater, Jean Baptiste (patar) 1695-1736 18 

Paterson, James 1S54- 21 

Patinir (Patenier), Joachim de (pa'tiner) . 1490-1524 10 

Paton, Sir Joseph Noel 1821- 21 

Paudiss (Pauditz), Christoffer (pou'dlss) . 161S-1666 8 

Pauli, Georg (pou'le) 1855- 25 

Paulsen, Julius (pou'lsen) i860- 26 

Paulssen, Erik (poul'sen) 1 749-1 790 26 

Pauwels, Ferdinand (pou'wels) .... 1S30- 12 

Paxton, William M 1869- 23 

Peale, Charles Wilson 1741-1827 22 

Peale, Rembrandt 1787-1860 22 

Pearce, Charles Sprague 1851- 23 

Pedrini, Giovanni (Giampetrino) (ped- 

re'ne) fl. 1 520-1 550 4 

Peirce, H. Winthrop 1S50- 23 

Pelenov - 24 

Pellegrino da Modena (Munari) (pelle- 

gre'no) 146S-1524 3 

Pellegrino da San Daniele (Martino da 

Udine) (pellegre'no) 1460-1547 4 

Pelouse, Leon Germain (pelooz) . . . i845?-i89i 20 

Pencz, Georg (pents) 1 500-1 550 7 

Penni, Francesco (II Fattore) (pen'ne) . 14S8-1528 4 

Pepino, Josef D. (pepe'no) 1S63- 9 

Pepper, Charles Hovey 1864- 23 

Pepyn, Marten (pe'pin) 1575-1643 11 

Pereda, Antonio de (pera'da) .... 1599-1669 17 

Perov, Vasili 1833-1SS2 24 

Perreal, Jean (Jehan de Paris) (perraal) . 1455-1528 18 

Perry, E. Wood 1831- 22 

Perry, Mrs. Lilla Cabot - 23 

Perugino, Pietro (Pietro di Cristoforo 

Vannucci) (peruje'no) 1446-1523 3 

Peruzzi, Baldassare (peroot'se) .... 1 48 1-1537 4 

Pescador,Eduardo Fernandez (peskador') 1S36-1872 17 

Pesellino, Francesco (peselle'no) . . . 1422-1457 3 

Pesne, Antoine (pan) 1683-1757 18 

Peters, Clinton 1865- 23 

Peters, Vilhelm Otto (pa'ters) .... 1851- 25 

Peterssen, Eilif (pa'tersen) 1852- 25 

Pettenkofen, August von 1821-1889 9 

Pettie, John 1S39-1893 21 

Petzholdt, Ernst Christian (pets'holt) . 1S05-1838 26 
Philippoteaux, Henri Emmanuel Felix 

(felippoto) 1815-1884 19- 

Philipsen, Theodor (fllip'seii) .... 1840- 26 

Phillip, John 1817-1S67 21 

Piazza, Callisto (pea'tsa) '-1561 5 



DATES 

Piazzetta, Giovanni Battista (peatset'ta) . 1682-1754 

Picard, Louis (pekar) 1850- 

Picknell, William L 1852-1897 

Picot, Fran9ois Edouard (peko) . . . . 1786-186S 

Picou, Henri Pierre (pekoo) 1822- 

Pidoll, Karl von 1847-1901 

Pieneman, Jan Willem (pe'neman). . . 1779-1853 

Pieneman, Nicolaas (pe'neman) . . . . 1810-1860 
Piero, Guido di, see Angelico 
Pieter de Mulieribus, see Molyn, Pieter de 

Pietro da Cortona (pea'tro) 1596-1669 

Piglheim, Bruno (pigrhim) 1848-1894 

Piloty, Karl von (pelo'te) 1826-1886 

Pils, Isidore (pis) 1815-1875 

Pine, R. E 1742-1790 

Pinturicchio (pintiirrik'klo) 1454-1513 

Piola, Domenico (pio'la) 162S-1703 

Piombo, Fra Sebastiano del (piomTjo) . 1485-1547 
Pisanello, see Pisano, Vittore 

Pisano, Vittore (Pisanello) (pesa'no) . . 1380-1456 

Pissarro, Camille (pessaro) . . . . . 1S31- 

Pissarro, Lucien (pessaro) - 

Pizzolo, Niccolo (petso'lo) fl. 1470 

Plagemann, Carl Gustaf (pla'geman) . . 1805- 

Platt, Charles Adams 1S61- 

Pleydenwurff. Hans (pli'denviirf) . . ?-i472 

Pleydenwurff, Wilhelm (pli'denviirf) . . 1450-1494 

Plockhorst, Bernhard 1825- 

Podesti, Francesco (podes'te) .... 1800-1895 

Poel, Egbert van der (pool) 1621-1664 

Poelenborch, see Poelenburg 
Poelenburg (Poelenborch), Comelis van 

(poolenbijrc^) 1586-1667 

Poggenbeek, Georg (pog'genbak) . . . 1853- 

Pointelin, Auguste Emmanuel (pwijnteleii) 1 839- 

Pollajuolo, Antonio (poUayoo'olo) . . . 1 433-1 498 

PoUajuolo, Pietro (poUayoo'olo) . . . 1 443-1 496 

Pollastrini, Enrico (pollastre'ne) .. . . 1S17-1876 
Poraarance (Pomerance), Cristoforo delle 

(Roncalli) (pomeriin'cha) .... 1552-1626 
Pomarance (Pomerance), Niccolo delle 

(Roncalli) (pomeran'cha) . . fl. end xvith century 
Ponte, da, see Bassano 

Pontormo, Jacopo 1494-1557 

Poore, Henry R '859- 

Poorter, Willem de (por'ter) .... fl. 1635-1645 

Porcellis, Jan (porsel'lis) 1597-1632 

Pordenone, Bernardino Licinio da (porde- 

no'ne) . .'-1541 

Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio Licinio da 

(pordeno'ne) 14S3-1539 

Portaels, Jean Franjois (por'tals) . . . 18 iS- 

Porter, Benjamin C 1845- 

Post, Frans 1612-1680 

Potter, Paulus 1625-1654 

Potter, Pieter 15S7-1650 

■ Pourbus, Frans, the Elder (pur'biis) . . 1 545-1 58 1 

Pourbus, Frans, the Younger (pur'biis) . 1570-1622 

Pourbus, Peeter (pur'biis) 1 510-1 584 

Poussin, Gaspard (Dughet) (piSsseri) . . 1613-1675 



TABLE 

5 
20 

23 
'9 
19 
9 
16 
16 



5 

9 

9 

19 



5 

4 

3 

20 

20 

3 

=5 

23 

7 

7 

9 

6 

14 



IS 

16 

20 

3 

3 

6 

S 

5 

4 
-3 
■5 
14 



14 
14 
10 
10 
10 
iS 



8o 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



[POUSSIN-ROEINSON 



Poussin, Nicolas (ptissen) 

Powell, William H 

Poynter, Sir Edward John 

Pradilla, Francisco (pradel'ya) .... 

Pratt, Matthew 

Preller, Friedrich, the Elder 

Preller, Friedrich, the Younger .... 

Prendergast, Maurice B 

Preu, see Breu 

Previati, Gaetano (pravla'te) 

Previtali, Andrea (pravita'le) 

Prichetnikov, Vasili 

Prikker, Thorn 

Primaticcio (prematit'chn) 

Prinsep, Valentine Cameron 

Procaccini, Camillo (prokkatche'ne) . . 

Procaccini, Ercole, the Elder (prokkat- 
che'ne) 

Procaccini, Ercole, the Younger (prokkat- 
che'ne) 

Procaccini, Giulio Cesare (prokkatche'ne) 

Protais, Paul Ale.xandre (protii) . . . 

Prout, Samuel 

Prud'hon, Pierre Paul (priidoii) .... 

Puligo, Domenico (pule'go) 

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre (piive de 
shavan) 

Pyle, Howard 

Pynacker, Adam (pi'nakker) 

Pynas, Jan (pi'nas) 

Quadrone, Giovanni Battista (quadro'na) 

Quartley, Arthur 

Quast, Pieter 

Quellinus (Quellin), Erasmus (quelle'nus) 
Querfurt, August (quar'foort) .... 
Quidor, John ca. 

Rabus, Karl 

Raeburn, Sir Henry 

Raffaeli, Jean Fran9ois (raffaale) . . . 

Raffaello, see Raphael 

Raffet, Auguste Marie (raffa) .... 

Rahl, Karl (ral) 

Ramirez, Manuel (rame'reth) .... 

Ramsay, Allan 

Ranc, Jean (ran) 

Ranger, Henry W 

Raou.\, Jean (raoo) 

Raphael or Raffaello Sante (Santi, San- 

zio) (raffael'lo) 

Ravestyn, Anthony van (rii'vestln) fl. xvi 
Ravestyn, Arent van (ra'vestin) .... 
Ravestyn, Jan van (ra'vestin) .... 

Read, Thomas Buchanan 

Redfield, Edward Willis 

Redon, Odilon (redon) 

Regamey, Guillaume (reg'ama) .... 
Regemorter, Ignatius Josephus van (ra'dje- 

morter) 



DATES 


fABLE 


1 593-: 665 


18 


1S24-1879 


22 


1836- 


21 


1S47- 


'7 


1734-1805 


29 


1 804- 1 8 78 


9 


1838- 


9 


- 


23 


_ 


6 


1480-152S 


3 


1767-1809 


=4 


- 


16 


1 504-1 570 


4 


1S36- 


21 


1546-1626 


4 


1 520-1 591 


4 


1 596-1676 


s 


1 548- 1 626 


4 


1S26-1890 


19 


17S3-1S52 


21 


1758-1823 


20 


1492-1527 


4 


1S24-1898 


20 


'853- 


23 


1621-1673 


14 


1 580-162 1 


15 


1 844-1898 


6 


I 839- I 886 


22 


1602-1646 


14 


1607-1678 


11 


1697-1761 


8 


1875 


22 


1800-1857 


=4 


1756-1S23 


21 


1850- 


20 


1804- 1 860 


19 


1812-1865 


9 


- 


17 


1713-1784 


21 


1674-1735 


18 


1S58- 


23 


1677-1734 


18 


1483-1520 


4 


ith century 


14 


1645-1687 


14 


1575-1657 


14 


1822-1872 


22 


1868- 


23 


1862- 


20 


1837-1876 


•9 



1785-1873 



DATES 

Regnault, Henri (renyo) 1843-187 1 

Regnault, Jean Baptiste, Baron (renyo) . 1754-1829 

Rehn, Frank K. M 1848- 

Reid, Sir George 1842- 

Reid, John Robertson 1851- 

Reid, Robert 1863- 

Reinhart, Benjamin Franklin .... 1829-1885 

Reiniger, Otto (ri'niger) 1863- 

-Rembrandt van Ryn (rem'brant van rln). 1607-1669 

Remeens, David (ra'mans) i555-'625 

Renan, Ary (renah) 1S55-1900 

Rene of Anjou (rena) 140S-1480 

Reni, see Guido Reni 

Renoir, Firmin Auguste (renw'ar) . . . 1841- 

Renouard, Paul (renooar) 1845- 

Ren-zan ?-i859 

Repin, Elias, see Ryepin, Ilya 

Restout, Jean (restoo) 1692-1 76S 

Rethel, Alfred (ra'tel) 1816-1859 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua 1723-1792 

Ribalta, Francisco de (ribal'ta) .... 1550-1628 

Ribalta, Juan de (ribal'ta) 1597-1628 

Ribera, Giuseppe, see Spagnoletto, Lo 

(rlba'ra) 

Ribot, Theodule (ribo) 1823-1891 

Ricard, Gustave (rikar) 1823-1872 

Ricci, Marco (rit'che) 1679-1729 

Ricci, Sebastiano (rit'che) 1659—1734 

Riccio, see Brusasorci 

Richards, William T 1833-1905 

Richmond, William Blake 1843- 

Richter, Gustav (Karl Ludwig) (ric^'ter) . 1823-1884 

Richter, Ludwig (ridj'ter) 1803-1884 

Rico, Martin (re'ko) 1850- 

Ridinger, see Riedinger 

Riedel, August (re'del) 1802-1883 

Riedinger (Ridinger), Johann Elias (re'- 

dinger) 1698-1767 

Rigaud, Hyacinthe (rego) 1659-1743 

Ri-ko-riu, see Li Lung-yen 

Rincon, Antonio del (rinkon') .... 1446-1500 

Ring, Hermann torn 1521-1597 

Ring, Lauritz '854- 

Ring, Ludger torn, the Elder 1496-1547 

Ring, Ludger tom, the Younger . . . 1521-1584 
Rin-riS, see Lin Liang 

Rio-kai fl. xvith century 

Ri-riu-min, see Li Lung-yen 
Ri-sho, see Nam-mei 

Ritsu-w6 fl. xviiith century 

Ritter, Heinrich 1816-1853 

Rivaltz, Antoine (revalts) 1667-1735 

Riviere, Briton (rivlar) 1840- 

Rix. Julian Walbridge 1851-1903 

Rizi, Francisco (re'thi) 1608-1685 

Rizi, Fray Juan (re'thi) '595" '67 5 

Robert, Hubert (robar) 1733- 1808 

Robert, Leopold (ro'bert) 1794-1S35 

Robert-Fleury, Nicolas (robar-flijre) . . 1797-1890 

Robinson, Theodore 1852-1896 



TABLE 
20 

■9 

23 

21 
21 

-3 

23 

9 

14 

1 1 

20 
iS 

20 
20 



9 

21 

17 
17 



20 

20 

5 

S 



8 
18 

■7 

7 

26 

7 
7 

27 



27 

9 

18 

21 

23 
17 
17 
18 

9 
19 
23 



Robinson-Santa Leocadia] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



8l 



DATES 

Robinson, Thomas 1835-1888 

Roche, Alexander 1863- 

Rochegrosse, Georges (roshgross) . . . 1859- 
Rochussen, Karel (rod/oossen) .... 1814-1894 

Rod, Jorgen (rod) iSoS- 

Rodriguez de Miranda, I'edro de (rodre'- 

geth da miran'dii) 1696-1766 

Roed, see Rod 

Roelas, Juan de las (roa'las) 1558-1625 

Roelofs, Willem (roo'lofs) 1S22-1897 

Rogers, Frank \V 1854- 

Rohde, Johan (ro'de) 1856- 

Rokotov, Fedor i73?-i8io 

Roll, Alfred Philippe 1847- 

Rolshoven, Julius 1S58- 

Romanelli, Giovanni Francesco (roma- 

nel'le) 1610-1662 

Romanino, Girolamo (romane'no) . . . 14S5-1566 

Rombouts, J fl. 1660 

Rombouts, Salomon fl. 1650 

Rombouts, Theodor 1597-1637 

Romeyn, Willem (ro'min) 1624-1693 

Romney, George 1734-1802 

Roncalli, see Pomarance 

Rondani, Francesco Maria (rondii'ne) . ?-i54S 

Rondinello, Niccolo (rondenel'Io) . . fl. 1475-1500 

Ronner, Mme Henriette 182 1- 

Roos, Johann Heinrich (ros) 1631-1685 

Roos, Johahn Melchior (ros) 1659-1731 

Roos (Rosa), Joseph (ros) 1726-1805 

Roos, Philipp Peter (Rosadi Tivoli) (ros) 1655-1705 

Rops, Felicien (ro or rops) 1845-1898 

Roqueplan, Camille (rokplah) .... 1800-1855 
Rorbye, Martinus Christian Wesseltoft 

(ror'bue) 1803-1S4S 

Rosa, Joseph, see Roos 

Rosa, Salvator (ro'sa) 1615-1673 

Rosales, Eduardo (rosa'les) 1837-1873 

Rosen, Georg, Count von 1843- 

Rosenstand, Vilhelm Jakob (ro'senstan) . 1838- 

Ro-setsu (Naga-sawa) i755-'799 

Roslin, Alexander 171S-1793 

Ross, Christian Meyer 1843- 

Ross, Denman 1853- 

Rosseels, Jacques (ros'sals) 1828- 

Rosselli, Cosimo (rossel'le) 1439-1507 

Rosselli, Matteo (rossel'le) 1578-1650 

Rosset-Granget. fidouard (rossa-grahsa) . 1853- 
Rossetti, Gabriel Charles Dante (better 

known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti) . 182S-1S82 
Rossi, Rosso de' (II Rosso) (ros'so da 

ros'se) 1494-1541 

Rossi Scotti, Count Lemmo (ros'se skot'te) 1S48- 
Rotermund, Julius Wilhelm Louis (ro'ter- 

mund) 1826-1859 

Rothermel, Peter F 1817-1895 

Rotta, Antonio (rot'ta) 1828- 

Rottenhammer, Johann 1564-1623 

Rottmann, Karl 1797-1850 

Rouget, Georges (roo5a) 1 784-1869 



TABLE 

23 
21 
20 
16 
26 



>7 

16 

^3 
26 

=4 
20 

23 

5- 

4 
'5 
15 
II 

15 



4 

3 

16 
8 
8 
8 
8 
12 
19 

26 

5 
17 

=5 
26 
28 
25 
25 
-3 



5 
20 



6 

7 

9 

19 



DATES TABLE 

Rousseau, Philippe (roosso) 181 6-1 887 20 

Rousseau, Theodore (roosso) .... 1812-1S67 20 

Roybet, Ferdinand (rwaba) 1840- 20 

Roymerswale, Marinus van (roi'merswale) 1497-1567 10 

Rubens, Peter Paul (rb'bens) .... 1577-1640 11 

Rugendas, Georg Philipp (roogen'diis) . 1666-1742 8 
Ruisdael, Salomon van, see Ruysdael 

Rump, Christian Godfred 1816-18S0 26 

Runciman, Alexander 1736-1785 21 

Runciman, John 1744-1766 21 

Runge, Philipp Otto (riih'ge) .... 1777-1810 g 

Ruskin, John 1819-1900 21 

Russel, John 1744-1806 21 

Ruthart, Karl (root'hart) fl. 1660-1680 8 

Ruysch, Rachael (rois) 1664-17 50 16 

Ruysdael, Jacob van (rois'dal) .... 1625-1682 15 
-Ruysdael (Ruisdael), Salomon van (rois'- 
dal) 1600-1670 15 

Ryckaert, David, the Third (rll^art) . . 1612-1661 11 

Ryckaert, Marten (ri'kart) 15S7-1631 11 

Rydberg, Gustaf Fredrik (riid'berg) . . 1835- 25 

Ryder, Albert Pinkham 1S47- 23 

Ryepin, Ilya (Elias Repin) 1844- 24 

Sabbatini, see Andrea da Salerno 

Sacchi, Andrea (sak'ke) 1600-1661 5 

Sacchidi Pavia, Pier-Francesco (sak'ke) fl. 1512-1526 3 
Sade, Philip Lodewijk Jacob Frederik 

(sada') 1837- 16 

Saenredam, Pieter (san'redam) .... 1597- 1665 15 

Saftleven, Cornells (saft'laven) .... 1612-1682 15 

Saftleven, Herman (saft'laven) .... 1609-16S5 15 

Sala y Frances, Emilio (sa'la e franthas') 1850- 17 

Salai, see Salaino 

Salaino (Salai), Andrea (sall'no) . . . 1483-1520 4 

Saliba, see Antonello da Saliba 

Salimbeni, Ventura (salimba'ne) . . . 1 557-1613 5 

Salmson, Hugo Fredrik 1843-1894 25 

Salvi, Giovanni Battista, see Sassofer- 

rato, II 

Salviati, Cecchino del (salvia'te) . . . 1510-1563 5 

Sanchez, Mariano Ramon (san'cheth) . . 1740-1822 17 

Sanchez Coello, Alonso(san'cheth koel'yo) 1515-1590 17 
Sanchez Cotan, Fray Juan (san'cheth 

kotan') 1561-1627 17 

Sanchez de Castro, Juan (san'cheth da 

kas'tro) ?-i5i6 17 

Sanctis, Guglielmo de (sank'tis) . . . . 1S30- 6 

Sandberg, Johan Gustav 17S2-1S54 25 

Sande-Bakhuysen, Hendrik van (san'de- 

bak'hoisen) 1795-1S60 16 

Sandrart, Joachim von 1606-1688 8 

Sandreuter, Hans (sand'roiter) .... 1850-1901 9 
Sano (see Ansano) di Pietro (sa'no de 

pia'tro) 1405-1481 3 

San-Raku (Kimura), Kano '559~i635 27 

San-setsu (Da-soku-ken) 1592-1654 27 

Sant, James 1820- 2i 

Santa Leocadia, Pahlo de (san'ta leo- 

ka'dlii) — 17 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



[Santacroce-Signac 



Santacroce, Francesco da, see Francesco 

da Santacroce 
Santacroce, Girolamo da, see Girolamo 

Santacroce 
Sante (Santi), see Raphael 

Santerre, Jean Baptiste (saiitar) . . . 1658-1717 18 

Santi, Giovanni (san'te) 1435-1494 3 

Santi di Tito (sin'te de te'to) .... 1 536-1 603 5 
Sanzio, see Raphael 

Saporetti, Pietro (saporet'te) 1832- 6 

Sargent, John Singer 1856- 23 

Sartain, William 1843- 23 

Sarto, Andrea del 1 486-1 531 4 

Sartori, Giuseppe (sarto're) 1863- 6 

Sartorio, Aristide (sarto'rio) 1S61- 6 

Sassatta, see Stefano di Giovanni 

Sassi (sas'se) - 6 

Sassoferrato, II (Giovanni Battista Salvi) 

(sassoferra'to) 1605-1685 5 

Savage, Edward 1761-1S17 22 

Saver)', Roelant 1576-1639 11 

Savoldo, Gian' Girolamo (savol'do) . . 1480-1548 4 
Scarsella, Ippolito, see Scarsellino, Lo 
Scarsellino, Lo (Ippolito Scarsella) (skar- 

selle'no) 1 551-1621 4 

Schadow, Friedrich Wilhelm von (sha'do) 1789-1862 9 

Schaffner, Martin (shiif'ner) .... fl. 1500-1535 7 

Schalcken, Godfried (sc^al'ken) .... 1643-1706 14 

Schampheleer, Edmond de (sc^am'felar) . 1824-1899 12 

Schaufelin, Hans Leonhard (shoi'felen) . 1490-1540 7 

Scheffer, Ary (sheffar) 1797-185S 19 

Scheits, Mathias (shits) 1640-1700 8 

Schelfhout, Andreas (scijelf'hajjot) . . 1787-1870 16 

Schendel, Pietrus van (s({)en'del) . . . 1806-1870 16 
Schiavone, Andrea (Andrea Medula or 

Medola) (skiiivo'ne) 1 522-1 582 4 

Schiavone, Felice (skiiivo'ne) .... 1S03-1868 6 

Schiavone, Natale (skiavo'ne) .... 1777-1858 6 

Schick, Gottlieb (shik) 1779-18 12 8 

Schidone, Bartolommeo (skido'ne) . . . 1570-1615 5 

Schirmer, Johann Wilhelm (shir'mer) . 1807-1863 9 

Schleich, Eduard (shlicf)) 1812-1874 9 

Schlottmiiller, see Slott-MoUer 

Schmid, Mathias (shmit) 1S35- 9 

Schmitt, Albert Felix 1873- 23 

Schnetz, Jean Victor (snats) 1788-1S70 19 

Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Julius (shnorr 

fon kii'rolsfeld) 1794-1872 9 

Schofield, W. Elmer 1867- 23 

Schongauer, Martin (shbn'gouer) . . . 1446-1488 7 

Schonleber, Gustav (shbn'laber) . . . 185 1- 9 
Schooten, Joris van (Verschooten) (sd)6'- 

ten) 1587-1650 15 

Schotel, Pieter Jan (sc^S'tel) 1808-1865 16 

Schrader, Julius (shra'der) 1815- 9 

Schreyer, Adolf (shri'er) 1828-1899 9 

Schrodter, Adolf (shrii'ter) 1805-1875 9 

Schtschedrin, see Shchedrin 

Schiichlin, Hans (shiicf)'len) ?-'505 7 

Schuessle, Peter F 1824-1879 22 



Schuster-Woldan (shoos'ter-vol'dan) . , - 
Schuster-Woldan, Raffael (shoos'ter-vol'- 
dan) - 

Schut, Comelis (sc^Ut) 1597-1655 

Schwabe, Carlos (swab) - 

Schwartze, Johan Georg (scf)var'tse) . . . 1814-1874 
Schwartze, Therese (scf)var'tse) .... 1851- 
Schwarz, Christoph (shvarts) .... 1550-1597 
Schwind, Moritz von (shvind) .... 1S04-1871 
Sch. For names not listed under Sch, 
see Sh 

Sciuti, Giuseppe (shoo'te) 1S35- 

Scorel, Jan van (sko'rel) 1495-1562 

Scott, David 1806-1849 

Sears, Mrs. Sarah C 1858- 

Seekatz, Johann Koniad (za'kats) . . . 1719-1768 
Segantini, Giovanni (segante'ne) . . . 1858-1899 
Segers, see Seghers 
Seghers (Segers, Zeghers), Daniel (za'- 

d)ers) 1590-1661 

Seghers, Hercules (za'd)ers) 1589-1650 

Sei-mo fl. xvith century 

Seligman, Georg (sa'ligman) 1866- 

Semiradski, Genrikh (Hendrik) .... 1843- 
Semitecolo, Niccolo (semlta'kolo) . . . 1351-1400 
Sequeira, Domingo Antonio de (seka'ira) 176S-1S37 
Serov, Valentin, see Syerov 

Sesshiu 1420-1507 

Sesson (Shiuki) fl. xvith century 

Settei fl. xvith century 

Seurat, George (sbra) 1859-1S91 

Shannon, James Jebusa 1863- 

Sharpless, James 1751-1811 

Sha-san-ro, see Bun-cho 

Shaw, Byam 

Shchedrin, Semen 1745-1804 

Shchedrin, Silvestr 1791-1S30 

Shee, Sir Martin Archer 1769-1850 

Shiba, see Son-kai 
Shiba-ta, see Gi-to 

Shin-so OT- S6-a-mi fl. late xvith century 

Shi-on, see Gen-ki 

Shirlaw, Walter 1838- 

Shishkin, Aleksandr 1831-1898 

Shiu-bun fl. xvth century 

Shiu-bun Soga fl. xvth century 

Shiu-getsu fl. late xvth century 

Shiu-ho fl. xixth century 

Shiuki, see Nam-mei and Sesson 

Shiu-ko fl. early xvith century 

Sho-bei, see Kiyo-nobu 

Sh5-Gaku fl. xixth century 

Sho-haku, see Sho-Gaku 

Sho-kwa-do 1582-1639 

Shurtleff, Roswell M 1838- 

Sh. For names not listed under Sh, 

see Sch 

Siberechts, Jan (zeTaerec^ts) 1627-1703 

Sigalon, Xavier (sigaloh) 178S-1837 

Signac, Paul (sinyak) 1863- 



TABLE 

9 

9 
II 
20 
16 
16 
7 
9 



6 

'3 

21 

23 



II 

14 
27 
26 

24 



27 
27 
27 
20 

23 

22 

21 

24 

24 
21 



27 

23 

24 
27 

27 

27 



27 



27 
23 



II 

19 



Signorelli-Strom] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



83 



DATES 
Signorelli, Luca d' Egidio di Ventura de' 

(sinyorel'le) 1441-1523 

Signorini, Telemaco (sinyore'ne) . . . 1835- 
Silva y Velasquez, see Velasquez 

Silvestre, Louis de (silvatr) 1675-1760 

Simmons, Edward 1S52- 

Simone di Martino (Martini) (simo'na de 

marte'no) 1 284-1 344 

Simonetti, Alfonso (simonet'te) .... 1840-1892 

Simoni, Gustavo (simo'ne) 1846- 

Sinding, Elizabeth 1846- 

Sinding, Otto Ludwig 1842- 

Sisley, Alfred (sisla) 1840-1899 

SkSnberg, Karl 1850-1SS3 

Skarbina, Franz (skarbe'na) 1S49- 

Skovglrd, Joachim (skov'gdr) .... 1856- 

SkovgSrd, Niels (skov'gSr) 185S- 

Skovg3rd, Peter Kristian (skov'gdr) . . 1817-1875 

Skramstadt, Ludvig 1855- 

Skredsvig, Christian 1854- 

Slevogt, Ma.x (sla'fogt) - 

Slingeland (Slingelandt), Pieter Comelisz 

van (slin'ct)elant) 1640-1691 

Slingeneyer, Ernest (slin'tf)enier) . . . 1823- 

Slott-Mciller, Mrs. Agnes 1862- 

Slott-Mailer, Harold 1864- 

Smedley, William Thomas 185S- 

Smibert, John 1684-1751 

Smith, Joseph Lindon 1863- 

Smits, Eugene - 

Snayers, Peeter (sni'ers) 1592-1667 

Snell, Henry B 1858- 

Snellinck, Jan, the Elder 1 549-1 63S 

Snyders, Frans (snT'ders) 1579-1657 

Snyers, Pieter (sni'ers) 16S1-1752 

S6-a-mi, see Shin-so 

Sbdermark, Johan Per 1822-18S9 

Sbdermark, Olaf Johan 1 790-1848 

Sodoma, II Cavaliere (so'doma) . . . . 1477-1549 

Soest (Zoest), Gerard (sijst) ?-i68i 

Soest, Konrad von (sbst) fl. 1400 

Sofonisba, see Anguisciola Sofonisba 
S6-futsu-k6, see Tsao Fuh-hing 

- Sogliani, Giovanni Antonio (solya'ne) . 1 492-1 544 
Sogliaro, 11, see Gatti 
Sojaro, II, see Gatti 

So-ken fl. .\th century 

Solario, Andrea (Milanese) da (sola'rio) . 145S-1530 
Solimena (Solomene), Francesco, Cava- 
liere (solima'na) 1657-1747 

Son-kai, Shiba fl. xvth century 

Sonne, Jorgen Valentin (son'ne) . . . 1 801-1890 

Sorensen, Carl Frederik 181S-1879 

Sorgh (Zorg), Hendrik Maertensz . . . 1611-1670 

S5-rin fl. xixth century 

So-sen (Mori) 1 747-1 82 1 

Sostermans (Sustermans), Joost . . . 1597-16S1 

So-tan, O-guri fl. xvith century 

So-tatsu, named also Tawaraya Kose-toshi 1623-1685 

Soutman, Pieter (sa<)Ot'man) .... 1 580-1657 



3 
6 

18 
-3 



6 

6 

-S 

25 

20 

25 
9 
26 
26 
26 
25 
25 
9 

15 
12 
26 
26 
23 



1 1 
II 
II 

25 

25 

4 

8 

7 



27 
4 

5 

27 
26 
26 
'S 
27 
28 
II 
27 
27 
15 



D4TES 

S5yen (Josui) fl. late xvth century 

Spada, Lionello (spa'da) 1 576-1622 

Spaendonck, Comelis van (span'donk) . 1756-1840 

Spaendonck, Gerardus van (span'donk) . 1 746-1822 

Spagna, Lo (span'ya) ?-i530 

Spagnoletto, Lo (Giuseppe Ribera) (span- 

yolet'to) 1 588-1656 

Spangenberg, Friedrich (span'genberg) . 1843— 1874 

SpartaliStillman, Mrs. (Marie Spartali) . 1844- 

Speckter, Erwin 1806-1835 

Speekhaert, Leopold (spak'hart) ... - 
Speranza, Giovanni (speran'dza) . . fl. 1500 

Sperl, Ludwig - 

Spinelli, see Spinello 

Spinello Aretino (Spinello, Spinelli) (spe- 

nel'lo arete'no) 1333-14 10 

Spitzweg, Karl (spits'vag) 1808-1885 

Spranger, Bartholomeus (spran'c^er) . . 1 546-1 627 

Springinklee (sprin'glnkla) .'-1540 

Squarcione, Francesco (skwarcho'na) . . 1394-I474 

Staigg, Richard M 1820-1SS1 

Stanfield, William Clarkson 1793-1867 

Stanhope, R. Spencer - 

Stanzioni, Massimo (stantsio'ne) . . . 1585— 1656 

Stark, James 1 794-1859 

Stama, see Stamina 

Stamina, Gherardo (Gherardo d' Jacopo 

Starna) (stame'na) 1354-1413 

Stauffer-Bem, Karl (stou'fer-bem') . . 1857-1S91 

Steen, Jan (stan) 1626-1679 

Steen-wyck, Hendrik van, the Elder 

(stan'nik) 15 50- 1604 

Steenwyck, Hendrik van, the Younger 

(stan'wik) 1580-1649 

Stefano da Zevio (stefa'no da dza'vio) . 1393-1450 
Stefano di Giovanni (Sassatta) (stefa'no 

de jovan'ne) fl. 1436 

Steffeck, Karl 181S-1S90 

Steinle, Eduard (stin'le) 1810-1886 

Stella, Jacques (stella) 1595-1657 

Stemberg, Vasili 1818-1845 

Stetson, Charles Walter 1858- 

Stevaerts, see Palamedesz 

Stevens, Alfred (sta'vens) 1S2S- 

Stevens, Gustave-Max (sta'vens) ... - 

Stevens, Joseph (sta'vens) 1S22-1S92 

Stevenson, Macaulay R 1864- 

Stewart, Julius L '855- 

Stimmer, Tobias 1534-1582 

Stobbaert, Jean Baptiste (stob'bart) . . 1838- 
Stoltenberg-Lerche, Vincent (stol'tenberg- 

ler'c()e) 1837-1892 

Stone, Marcus 1840- 

Stone, William 1830-1875 

Stortenbeker, Pieter (stor'tenbeker) . . 1828- 
Story, George H 1835- 
Story, Julian 1S57- 

Stothard, Thomas '755-'834 

Strigel, Bemhard (stre'gel) 1461-1528 

Strom, Half dan 1863- 



5 

16 
16 

3 

5 
9 



9 
10 

7 
3 



II 

3 



-J 

7 

12 



16 



7 
25 



84 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



DATES 

■ Strozzi, Bernardo (II Capuccino) (stro'tsc) 15S1-1644 

Strudwick, John Melhuish 1849- 

Struys, Alexandre (strois) 1852- 

Stry, Jacobus van (stri) 1756-1S15 

Stuart, Gilbert 1755-1S28 

Stubbs, George 1 724-1806 

Stuck, Franz (stuk) 1S63- 

Suardi, Bartolommeo, see Bramantino 

Subleyras, Pierre (siiblara) 1699-1749 

Sully, Thomas 17S3-1S72 

Sundt-Hansen, see Hansen, Carl Sundt- 
Susterman (Sustermans), see Lombard, 
Lambert, and Sostermans 

Swanenburgh, Jacob Isaaksz 15S0-1639 

Swanevelt, Herman (swa'nevelt) . . . 1610-1655 

Swerts, Jan 1825-1879 

Syberg, Fritz (sii'berg) 1S62- 

Syerov, Valentin 1865- 

Sylvestre, Joseph Noel (silvatr) .... 1847- 

Taber, Edward M 1863- 

Taber, I. W 

Tada-hira fl. -xth century 

Tai-ga-do (Ike-no) 1722-1775 

Talcott, Allen B 1867- 

Tamm, Franz Werner . 1658-1724 

Tanner, Henry O - 

Tan-yu (Tan-yu-sai) 1602-1674 

Tarbell, Edmund C 1862- 

Tassaert, Octave (fassaar) 1800-1874 

Tawaraya, see So-tatsu 

Tejedor, Alcazar (tehedor') 1852- 

Tempesta, II Cavaliere, see Molyn, Pieter de 

■ Teniers,David,theElder(te'nerzrtrten'yers) 1582-1649 
Teniers, David, the Younger (ten'erz or 

ten'yers) 1610-1690 

Tenniel, John 1820- 

Ter Boch, see Terburg 

Terbrugghen, Hendrik (terT)rbd)en) . . 158S-1629 

Terburg (Ter Boch), Gerard (terljijrd)) . 1614-1681 
Termeulen, see Meulen, F. P. ter 

Tessan (Mori) fl. -vi.xth century 

Thaulow, Fritz (toulo) 1S47- 

Thayer, Abbott Handerson 1849- 

Thegerstrom, Robert (ta'gerstrom) . . . 1S54- 
Theoderich of Prague (teo'derld)) . . fl. 134S-1378 
Theotocopuli, Domenico (see Greco, El) 

(taotoko'pule) 154S-1625 

Tholen, Willem Bastiaan (to'len) . . . 1850- 

Thoma, Hans (to'ma) 1839- 

Thomas, S. Seymour 1868- 

Thompson, Cephas G 1809-1S88 

Thomsen, Carl (tom'sen) 1847- 

Thome, Alfred (tijr'ne) 1S50- 

Thornhill, Sir James 1676-1734 

Thulden, Theodoras van (tijl'den) . . . 1 606-1 676 

Thys, Peeter (tis) 1624-167S 

Tiarini, Alessandro (teare'ne) .... 1577-1668 

Tibaldi, Pellegrino (tibal'de) 1532-1592 

Tidemand, Adolf (te'deman) 1814-1876 



TABLE 

5 
21 
12 
16 



iS 



15 



=3 

=3 
27 
27 
23 
S 

23 
=7 
=3 
19 



15 
15 

28 
= 5 
23 

7 

■7 
16 

9 
23 

26 

= 5 
21 
II 
II 

5 

4 

25 



[Strozzi-U 


DINE 


DATES 


TABLE 


I 696-1 7 70 


5 


1727-1804 


5 


184S- 


23 


I 562-1637 


4 


1 518-1594 


4 


1S42- 


6 


■S53- 


25 


1751-1829 


8 



Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista (tia'polo) . 
Tiepolo, Giovanni Domenico (tia'polo) 

Tiffany, Louis C 

Tintoretto, Domenico (tintoret'to) , 
Tintoretto, Jacopo (tintoret'to) . 
Tiratelli, Aurelio (teratel'le) . . 

Tiren, Johan (tiran') 

Tischbein, J. H. Wilhem (tish'bin) 

Tisi, Benvenuto, see Garofalo, II 

Tissot, James (baptized Joseph Jacques) 

(tisso) 1S36-1902 20 

Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) (ti'shan) . . . 1477-1576 4 

Tito, Ettore (te'to) 1859- 6 

To-gan fl. xvith century 27 

T6-haku (Ha-se-ga\va) . . . . fl. late xvith century 27 

Toledo, Juan de (tola'do) 1611-1665 17 

Tolstoy, Count Fedor (Theodore) . . . 1783-1828 24 
Tommaso di Stefano, see Giottino 

Tompkins, Frank Hector (Henry) . . . 1847- 23 

Toorenvliet, Jacob (tor'enflet) .... 1641-1719 15 

Toorop, Jan (to'rop) i860- 16 

Torbido, Francesco (II Moro) (torbe'do) 1486-1546 4 

T6-rei fl. xviiith century 28 

Tosa Tsune-taka fl. 1240 27 

T6-shiu-ki, Ishi-kawa Izai-yemon . fl. xviith century 28 

Toulmouche, Auguste (toolmoosh) . . 1829-1890 19 
Toyo-hiko, see Oka-moto Hoken 

Traini, Francesco (tra-e'ne) . . . . fl. 1350 2 

Trigt, Hendrik Albert van 1829- 16 

Tristan, Luis (tristiin') 1586-1640 17 

Troger, Paul (tro'ger) 1698-1777 8 

Troost, Comelis (trost) 1697-1750 16 

Tropinin, Vasili 1 780-1857 24 

Troy, Fran9ois de (trwa) 1645-1730 18 

Troy, Jean Fran9ois de (trwa) .... 1679-1752 iS 

Troyon, Constant (trwiiyon) 1810-1S65 20 

Trubner, Wilhelm 1851- 9 

Trumbull, John 1756-1843 22 

Tryon, Dnight William 1849- 23 

Tsao Fuh-hing (So-futsu-ko) . . fl. iiid century a.d. 28 
Tschistyakov, Paul, see Chistyakov 

Tsune-nobu 1636-1713 27 

Tsune-nori fl. xth century 27 

Tsune-taka, see Tosa 

Tuckerman, S. Salisbury 1S30-1904 23 

Tuke, Henry Scott 1858- 21 

Tura, Cosimo (Cosme) (too'ra) .... 1430-1495 3 

Turchi, Alessandro (L'Orbetto) (tur'ke) . 1 582-1650 5 

Turner, Charies Yardley 1850- 23 

Turner, Joseph Mallord William . . . 1775-1851 21 

Tuxen, Laurits Regner (tooksan') . . . 1S53- 26 

Twachtman, John H 1S53-1902 23 

Ubertini, Francesco (ooberte'ne) . . . 1 494-1 557 4 

Ucello, Paolo (oochel'15) 1397-1475 3 

Uchtervelt, see Ochtervelt 

Uckermann, Kari 1S55- 25 

Uden, Lucas van (oo'den) 1 595-1672 11 

Udine, Giovanni da, see Giovanni da Udine 
Udine, Martino da, see Pellegrino da San Daniele 



Uffenbach-Villu.msen] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



85 



DATES 

Uffenbach, Philipp (uf'fenbac^) .... 1570-1640 

Ugryumov, Grigoii 1764-1S23 

Uhde, Fritz von (oo'de) 1848- 

Uitenbroeck, Moses van (oi'tenbrook) . 1590-1648 

Uitenwaal (Uytenwael), Joachim (oi'tenwal) 1 566-1638 
Ukiyo (Ukio) Matahei, see Mata-hei 

Ulrich, Charles F 1858- 

Uncker, Karl d' 1828-1866 

Unterberger, Michelangelo 1695-1758 

Urgel, Modesto (oorheT) - 

Ussi, Stefano (us'se) 1832- 

Uta-maro, Kita-gawa fl. 1800 

Uta-no-suke, see Yuki-nobu 

Utrecht, Adriaen van (oo'trec^t) . . . 1599-1652 

Utrecht, Jacob van (oo'tret^t) . . . fl. 1523 
Uytenwael, see Uitenwaal 

Vaccaro, Andrea (vakka'ro) 1598-1670 

Vaenius, Otho(Ottaviovan Veen) (va'niiis) 155S-1629 

Vaga, Perino del (va'ga) 1 500-1 547 

Vail, Eugene 1856- 

Valckenborch, Frederik van(varkenborc§) 1 570-1623 

Valckenborch, Lucas van (valTsenborc^) . 1530-1625 

Valckenborch, Marten van (val'kenborc^) 1533-? 

Valckert, Werner van fl. 1622-1627 

Valdivia, de (valde'via) 

Valenciennes, Pierre Henri (valahsyen) . 1750-1819 
Valentin, Le (Jean de BouUongne) (valah- 

ten) 1 591-1634 

Valkenburg, Hendrik (valTcenbbrc^) . . 1826-1S96 

Van Boskerck, Robert 1855- 

Van der Lyn, see Vanderlyn 

Vanderlyn, John (van'derlin) .... 1 775-1852 

• Van der Weyden, Harry (van der vi'den) 1868- 
Van Dyck, see Dyck, van 
Van Hove, fidmond (van ho'va) ... 

Van Laer, Alexander T. (van lar) . . . 1857- 
Van Loo, see Loo 

Van Marcke, Emile (van mark) .... 1827-1S90 

Vanni, Francesco, Cavaliere (van'ne) . . 1563-1609 
Vannucci, Pietro di Cristoforo, see Peru- 
gino 

■ Vanutelli, Scipione (vanootel'le) . . . 1834- 
Vanvitelli (van Wittel), Gaspare (vanve- 

tel'le) 1647-1736 

Vargas, Luis de (var'gas) 1502-156S 

Vamek, Aleksandr 1782- 1843 

Varotari, Alessandro, see Padovanino, II 

Vasari, Giorgio (vasa're) 1511-1574 

Vasilev, Fedor 1850-1873 

Vautier, Benjamin (votya') 1829-1S98 

Vecchietta, II (Lorenzo di Pietro di Gio- 
vanni di Lando) (vekkeet'ta) . . . 1412-1480 
VeceUi, see Vecellio 

Vecellio (Vecelli), Francesco (vechel'lTo) 1475-1560 
Vecellio (Vecelli), Marco (di Tiziano) 

(vechel'llo) 1545-1611 

Vecellio (Vecelli), Orazio (vechel'lio) . . 1515-1576 

Vedder, Elihu 183S- 

Veen, Ottavio van, see Vaenius, Otho 



7 Veit, Philipp (vit) 

24^»-Velasquez (Velazquez), Diego Rodriguez 

9 de Silva y (velas'keth) 

14 Velde, Adriaan van de 

1 5 Velde, Esaias van de 

Velde, Jan van de 

23 Velde, Willem van de, the Elder . . . 
25 Velde, Willem van de, the Younger . . 

8 Veneto, see Bartolommeo Veneto 

17 Venetsianov, Aleksyey 

6 Venne, Adriaan van der 

28 Venusti, Marcello (vanoos'te) .... 

Vera, Don Alejo (va'ra) 

1 1 Verboeckhoven, Eugene Joseph (verbook- 

13 ho'ven) 

Verdi, Francesco Ubertini dei, see Bac- 

chiacca, II 
5 Verdier, Francois (verdya) 

1 1 Verelst, Pieter fl. 

4 Vereshchagin, Vasili 

23 Verhagen, Joris van, see Hagen, Joris 
10 van der 

10 Verhagen, Pierre Joseph (verhagen) . . 
10 Verhas, Frans (ver'has) 

14 Verhas, Jan (ver'has) 

17 Verkolje, Jan (verkol'ye) 

19 Verkolje, Nicolaas (verkol'ye) .... 
Verlat, Charles 

18 Vermay, Vermayen, see Vermeyen 
i6=^-Vermeer, Jan (van der Meer) (ver'mar) . 
23 Vermehren, Johan Frederik 

Vermeyen (Vermay, Vermayen), Jan Cor- 

22 nelis (II Barbalonga) (vermi'en) . 

23 Vemet, Claude Joseph (verna) .... 
Vemet, Horace (verna) 

1 2 "•" Veronese, Paolo (varona'sa) 

23 Veronese, see also Cagliari 
Verrochio, Andrea del (verrok'kio) 

20 Verschooten, see Schooten, Joris van 

5 Verschuringh, Hendrik (vers-c^oo'rlng) . 
Vershuier, Lieve (vers'-hoier) .... 
Verspronck (Versprong), Jan .... 

6 Versprong, see Verspronck 
Verstraate, Theodore (verstra'te) . . . 

5 Veitunni, Achille, Baron (vertoon'ne) 
17 Verwee, Alfred Jacques (verwa) 

24 Veth, Jan (vat) 

Veyrassat, Jules Jacques (varassa) . . . 

5 Vibert, Jean Georges (vebar) .... 
24 Victoors, Jan, see Victors, Jan 

9 Victors, Jan 

Vien, Joseph Marie (veeii) 

3 Vigee-Lebrun, see Lebrun, Mme. 
Villavicencio, Don Pedro Nunez de (vH- 

4 yavTthen'thio) 

'^"Villegas y Cordero, Jose (vllya'gas e 

4 korda'ro) 

4 Villevalde, Bogdan (Godfrey) .... 

23 Villodas, Ricardo (vilyo'das) 

Villumsen, J. F 



DATES 


TABLE 


■793-'877 


9 


1 599-1660 


17 


1635-1672 


14 


1 590-1630 


'5 


159S-? 


■5 


1610-1693 


"4 


'633-1707 


14 


1779-1845 


24 


1 589-1662 


14 


151 5-1585 


4 


1S34- 


17 



799-1881 



65.- 


173° 


18 


643- 


1668 


14 


842- 


1904 


24 


728- 


I8II 


1 1 


827- 




12 


S34- 




12 


650- 


'693 


14 


673- 


1746 


16 


824- 


1890 


12 


63-^- 


1675 


14 


S23- 




26 


500- 


1559 


10 


712- 


1789 


18 


789- 


IS63 


19 


528- 


1 588 


4 



435-1488 



627-1690 


15 


630- 1 686 


IS 


597-1662 


IS 


S52- 


12 


826-1897 


6 


838-1S95 


12 


864- 


16 


828-1893 


20 


840- 


19 


620-1672 


14 


716-1809 


19 



17 



848- 


■7 


SI8- 


24 


S46- 


17 


856- 


26 



86 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



[ViNCENT-WlTTE 



DATES TABLE 

Vincent, Fran9ois Andre (vinsari) . . . 1746-1816 19 

Vincent, George 1796-1851 21 

Vincentino, see Andrea Michieli 
Vincenzo da San Gimignano (vmchen'dzo 

da san jiminya'no) 1 492-1 529 4 

Vinci, Leonardo da (vin'che) 1452-1519 4 

Vinea, Francesco (vina'a) 1846- 6 

Viniegra y Lasso, Salvador (vlnia'gra e 

las'so) 1862- 17 

Vinton, Frederic Porter 1846- 23 

Viotti, Giulio (veot'te) 1845-1877 6 

Vite, Timoteo (ve'ta) 1469-1523 4 

Vivarini, Antonio da Murano (vTvare'ne) ?-i470 3 
Vivarini, Bartolommeo da Murano (viva- 

re'ne) A- i45o-i499 3 

Vivarini, Luigi (Alvise), the Elder (vivii- 

re'ne) A- '4M 3 

Vivarini, Luigi, the Younger (vlvare'ne) ?-i503 3 

Vivien, Joseph (vlvyeii) 1657-1735 18 

Vlieger, Simon de (vle't^er) 1600-1660 14 

Vliet, Hendrik Comelisz van (vlet) . . 1611-1675 14 

Voerman, J. (voor'miin) - 16 

Vogel, Hugo (fo'gel) 1855- 9 

Volk, Douglas 1856- 23 

Vollon, Antoine (voUoii) 1833-1900 20 

Volterra, Daniele da (volter'ra) . . . . 1509-1566 4 

Volterra, Francesco da (volter'ra) . . fl. 1350 2 

Vonnoh, Robert W 185S- 23 

Voort, Comelis van der (vort) 1576-1624 14 

Vorobev, Maksim 1787-1855 24 

Vos, Cornells de, the Elder 1585-1651 11 

Vos, Marten de 1 532-1603 10 

Vos, Paulus de 1590-1678 11 

Vos, Simon de 1603-1676 11 

Vouet, Simon (vooa) . 1590- 1649 '8 

Vrancx (Francken), Sebastian .... 1573-1647 11 

Vries, Abraham de (vres) ?-i662 14 

Vries, Adriaan de (vres) 1601-1643 14 

Vries, Roelof de (vres) fl. xviith century 15 

Vrolijk, Jan Maerten (vro'lik) .... 1845-1894 16 

Vroom, Comelis Hendricksz (vrom) . . 1620-1661 15 

Vroom, Hendrik Corneliszen (vrom) . . 1566-1640 15 
V. For names not listed under V, see W 

Waay, Nicolaes van der (wea') .... 1855- 16 
Wachter, Eberhard Georg Friedrich von 

(vecl)'ter) 1762-1852 8 

Wahlberg, Alfred 1S34- 25 

Wahlbom, Kari 1810-1858 25 

Walden, Lionel 1862- 23 

Waldmuller, Ferdinand (v'ald'miiller) . . 1793-1865 9 

Waldo, Samuel 1783-1861 22 

Walker, Frederick iS4C^i875 21 

Walker, Henry Oliver 1S43- 23 

Walker, Horatio 1858- 23 

Wallander, Alf \ 1862- 25 

Wallander, Josef Vilhelm 1821-18S8 25 

Walton, James Trout 1S35-1867 21 

Wang Wei (O-i) A. viiith century 28 

Wappers, Gustave 1S03-1S74 12 



DATES TABLE 

Ward, Edgar M 1849- 23 

Ward, James 1769-1859 21 

Watelet, Louis fitienne (watela) . . . 1780-1866 19 

Waterhouse, John William 1849- 21 

Waterman, Marcus 1834- 23 

Watrous, Harry Willson '857- 23 

Watson, John 1685-1768 22 

Watteau, Antoine (watto) 1684-1721 18 

Watts, George Frederick 1817-1904 21 

Wauters, £mile (wouters) 1846- 12 

Weber, August (vaTjer) 1817-1S73 9 

Webster, Thomas 1800-1886 21 

Weeks, Edwin Lord 1849-1903 23 

Weenix, Jan (wa'nix) 1640-1719 14 

Weenix, Jan Baptista (wa'nix) .... 1621-1664 14 

Weir, John Ferguson 1S41- 23 

Weir, Julian Alden 1852- 23 

Weir, Robert Walter 1803-1889 22 

Weissenbrugh, Jan (wls'senbrijc^) . . . 1822-1880 16 

Weisshaupt, Victor (vis'houpt) .... 1848- 9 

Wendel, Theodore 1857- 23 

Wenneberg - 25 

Wentworth, Mrs. Cecilia de - 23 

Wentzel, Gustav 1859- 25 

Werenskiold, Erik (va'renskiold) . . . 1855- 25 

Werff, Adriaen van der 1659-1722 15 

Wergeland, Oskar Arnold 1844- 25 

Werner, Anton Alexander von (ver'ner) . 1843- 9 

West, Benjamin 173S-1820 22 

Westall, Richard 1765-1836 21 

Westin, Fredrik - 25 

Wet, Jacob de fl. 1636-1671 15 

Wet, Jan de (Johann Dliwett) .... 1617-? 14 

Weyden, Rogier van der (wi'den) . . . 1400-1464 10 

Weyer, J. Matthias (vi'er) ?-i690 8 

Whistler, James McNeil 1 834-1 903 23 

White, Edwin 1817-1S77 22 

White, John Blake 1781-1859 22 

Whitmore, William R 1861- 23 

Whittemore, William J 1S60- 23 

Whittredge, Worthington 1820- 22 

Wickenberg, Per 1808-1846 25 

Wiertz, Antoine Joseph (werts) . . . . 1806-1865 '- 

Wiggins, Carleton 184S- 23 

WijsmuUer, J. H. (wTs'mbller) .... - 16 

Wildens, Jan 1586-1653 11 

Wiles, Irving Ramsey 1S61- 23 

Wiles, Lemuel M 1826-1905 23 

Wilkie, Sir David 1785-1841 21 

Willaert, Fernand (wiriiirt) - 12 

Willems, Florent 1823- 12 

Williams, Benjamin, see Leader, Benja- 
min Williams 

Wilmarth, Lemuel E 1835- 23 

Wilson, P. MacG - 21 

Wilson, Richard 1713-1782 21 

Winge, Martin Eskil (vln'ge) 1825- 25 

Wint, de, see Dewint 

Wit, Jacob de i695-i754 '6 

Witte, Emanuel de (wTt'te) 1607-1692 14 



Witte-Zurbaran] 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



87 



DATES 

Witte, Caspar de (wit'te) 1624-16S1 

Witte, Peeter de (Candido) (wit'te) . . 1 548-1628 
Wittel, van, see Vanvitelli 

Witz, Konrad (vits) fl. 1430-1450 

Woensam ( Wonsam), Anton (von Worms) 

(vijn'sam) fl. 1 528-1 561 

Wolgemut, Michel (vSl'gemoot) . . . . 1434-1519 
Wonsam, see Woensam 

Wood, Thomas Waterman 1823-1903 

Woodbury, Charles H 1864- 

Woodbur)', Marcia (Mrs. Charles H. 

Woodbur)) 1865- 

Wootton, John ?-i765 

Worms, Anton von, see Woensam 

Wouverman, Jan (wa<)o'verman) . . . 1629-1666 

Wouverman, Philips (wa5)o'verman) . . 1619-1668 

Wright, Ethel 

Wright, Joseph 1756-1793 

Wu Tao-tsz' (Go Doshi) . . . . fl. viiith centur)' 
Wurmser, Nicolaus (viirm'zer) . . . fl. 1348-1365 

Wyant, Alexander H 1836-1892 

Wyck, Thomas (wik) 1616-1677 

Wylie, Robert 1839-1877 

Wynants, Jan (wi'nants) 1615-1679 

W. For names not listed under W, see V 

Yaiiez, Hernando (jan'yeth) - 

Yasunobu 1613-16S5 

Yeitoku . . . • 1545-1592 

Yon, Edmond Charles (yon) 1836-1897 

Yo-sai (Kiku-chi) 1787-187S 

Yoshi-hide fl. xivth century 

Yuki-nobu (Uta-no-suke) I5'3-I575 

Yvon, Adolphe (evon) 1S17- 



TABLE 
II 
10 



23 
23 

23 
21 

'5 
15 
21 
22 
28 
7 

15 



17 

=7 
27 
20 
28 
27 
27 
19 



DATES TABLE 

Zacho, Christian (tsaTvo) 1843- 26 

Zaganelli (Francesco da Cottignola) 

(dzaganel'le) ?-i5i8 3 

Zahrtmann, Kristian (tsart'man) . . . 1S43- 26 

Zai-chiu -'-1837 28 

- Zamacois, Eduardo (thama'kois) . . . 1842-1871 17 
Zampieri, Domenico, see Uomenichino 

Zaryanko, Sergyey 1818-1870 24 

Zeeman, Reimer (Remigius Nooms) (za-' 

man) 1612-1663 14 

Zegers, Geeraard (za'ct)ers) 1591-1651 11 

Zeghers, see Segers 

Zeitbloom, Bartholomaus (tsItTjlom) . fl. 1484-1517 7 

Zeloti, Giambattista (dzalo'te) .... 1532-1592 4 

Zenale, Bernardino (dzana'la) .... 1436-1526 3 

Zerezo, see Cerezo 

Zessos, Alessandro (dzes'sos) .... - 6 

Zevio, see Stefano da Zevio 

Zick, Januarius (tslk) I733~i797 8 

Ziem, Felix (tsem) 1821- 19 

Zimmermann, Ernst (tsim'merman) . . 1S52- 9 
Zoest, see Soest, Gerard 

Zoll, Kilian (tsoll) 1818-1860 25 

Zona, Antonio (dzo'na) 1813- 6 

Zoppo, Marco (dzop'po) 1445-1498 3 

Zorg, see Sorgh 

Zom, Andreas (tsom) i860- 25 

Zuccara, see Zucchero 

Zuccarelli, Francesco (tsiikarel'le) . . . 1702-17S8 5 

Zucchero, Federigo (tsuka'ro) .... 1 543-1609 5 

Zucchero (Zuccara), Taddeo (tsflka'ro) . 1 529-1 566 5 

Ziigel, Heinrich (tsii'gel) 1S50- 9 

Zuloaga, Ignacio (thooloa'ga) .... - 17 

Zurbaran, Francisco de (thurbaran') . . 1598- 1662 17 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 

Part Three 

A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE 
HISTORY OF PAINTING 



CHAPTER I 



INTRODUCTION 



A BRIEF SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING TO THE BEGINNING OF 
THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA 



To-day we sometimes distinguish between 
a colored drawing and a painting. No such 
distinction is possible as regards the early his- 
tory of art. All pictures, therefore, whether 
fundamentally drawings, with parts picked out 
in color, or not, may be claimed as legitimate 
instances by which to illustrate the develop- 
ment of painting. 

Color sense, implying delicacy of perception 
of color distinctions, is a recent acquisition, at 
least in so far as it is revealed in pictures. It 
is rarely found earlier than the Renaissance. 
Nevertheless, if we trace the forces that have 
culminated in one of Mr. Whistler's color sym- 
phonies as far back as we can, we arrive at one 
of the early Egj'ptian colored drawings. i If, 
however, we lacked accurate information and no 
remains of the past arts e.xisted, so that we were 
permitted to fill the gaps with seemingly reason- 
able guesses, we should look not so much for 
drawings with added bits of color, as for patches 
of color artistically combined without attempted 
imitation of actual forms. Such an art, how- 
ever, far from having belonged to the past, 
may perhaps be detected in the future by the 
prophet's eye. Our early ancestors were too 
much concerned with their own thoughts of the 
appearances of things to have created pictures 
seemingly at variance with them. 

Both in sculpture and in painting they en- 
deavored to reproduce objects of nature, most 
frequently animate nature, as intelligently as 
their skill permitted. They were familiar with 
them because they had seen them, and most 
especially because they had formed ideas of 

■ Mr. Whistler was greatly influenced by the Japanese. 
His art, nevertheless, cannot be called oriental in origin. 



them. At the time of drawing, these ideas were 
the nearer source of knowledge, so that the 
pictures conformed more closely to them than 
to actual shapes. This fact is so notable that 
if we were to speak of art not according to 
periods of history, - — Eg}'ptian, Greek, early 
Christian, Renaissance, and so forth, — but 
according to natural divisions, we should call 
the first the period when men drew according 
to their thoughts, and the second the period 
when they painted according to their vision. 
This latter period may again be subdivided ; for 
in its earlier stages the drawing alone was 
according to the vision, that is, in linear per- 
spective, while the color was still applied accord- 
ing to the thoughts of the people. Grass, for 
instance, was painted green, however different 
its actual color under the given light might be, 
because to most people grass is green. 

Roughly speaking, the first period comprises 
antiquity and the Middle Ages. The second 
period begins with the Renaissance in Italy and 
enters into its latter stage during the nineteenth 
centur}-. Since the characteristic achievements 
of one generation, however, are often fore- 
shadowed by those of an earlier one, we must 
not expect to find absolute demarcation lines. 
Perspective, for instance, was not unknown to 
the Greeks. They made use of it probably as 
early as the fifth century before Christ in the 
decoration of their stage settings. It certainly 
appears in the wall paintings in Rome and in 
Pompeii, where it is even better than that of 
Cimabue or Giotto, the fathers of Italian paint- 
ing. Never, however, before these men, did it 
enter into the composition as one of the most 
vital factors ; nor did it ever indicate that the 



91 



92 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



artist had ceased to ask what he and his public 
were thinking of and had begun to inquire what 
they were seeing. 

Egyptian painting extends to hoary antiq- 
uity, and surely dates back several millenniums 
before Christ. It is noticeable for its bright- 
ness and purity of unconnected colors, and gives 
indications in its drawing of the tenacity with 
which the ancient people clung to established 
forms. What once had been the most accu- 
rate expression of an untrained conception in 
later ages became a fashionable convention. In 
Ij early times Egyptian painting doubtless influ- 
enced the art of neighboring countries; later it 
I could no longer do this, because it was spirit- 
I less. To-day, better preserved than other paint- 
ings of antiquity, thanks to the climate of the 
country, it deserves attention as an interesting 
thing of the past. The pleasure which it gives 
is due to its fine drawing and its symbolic mys- 
tery. For the development of art it teaches 
little. 

Equally unimportant in this connection are 
t\\Q paintings of Babylonia, Assyria, Persia, and 
other countries of Asia Minor. And since the 
few remains there prove that their main pur- 
pose was the pleasing coloring of decorative 
bas-reliefs, their study belongs more properly 
to the field of sculpture. 

It is different with Greek painting, for paint- 
ing, if not actually the chief art of the Greeks, 
was a close second to sculpture. No one who 
knows Greek statues and reliefs can fail to notice 
at every turn the influence of the great painters. 
Unfortunately the ravages of time have so com- 
pletely destroyed their works that even a guess 
at their excellence is impossible. The copious 
references to them in ancient writings teach us 
little, because they rarely emanated from the 
pens of critics who knew anything of art or of 
its problems. The thoughtless opinions of the 
common people, which they repeat, do not form 
a sound basis on which to construct an estimate 
of Greek painting. If one were to judge by the 
highest praise bestowed on the most famous 
pictures, an indelicate sense of realism was char- 
acteristic of them. A curtain so cleverly painted 



that the spectator desired to remove it in order 
to behold the picture which he thought it con- 
cealed, is one of the transmitted stories. It 
reminds one of a similar one in Japanese writ- 
ings, where the king endeavored to brush away 
a painted fiy. Since, in Japan, extant pictures 
show how impossible it is to take the praise 
literally, one should doubtless hold the same 
attitude toward the Greek encomiums. The 
people believed deceptive realism to be the 
acme of perfection. When they desired to 
express admiration they could do no better 
than to repeat stories which, in fact, had no 
foundation. We also ought to remember that 
what might have deceived people two thousand 
years ago probably would fail to do so to-day. 

The names of the best known Greek painters 
are Polygnotos and Apollodoros, in the fifth 
century before Christ ; Zeuxis, Parrhasios, and 
Timanthes in the fourth century, and especially 
Apelles and Protogenes, two contemporaries 
of Alexander the Great. Even if we do not 
accept the exaggerated and prejudiced accounts 
of their successes, we cannot doubt that in 
single instances they anticipated some of the 
notable achievements of much later times. Per- 
spective they doubtless knew, and also probably 
some aspects of light and shade. How near 
they came to solving the problems of harmony 
of colors and of values — that is, to represent- 
ing the proper qualities of colors under different 
lights — we do not know ; and with their works 
destroyed and the accounts of them unreliable, 
we have no means of ascertaining. 

The many extant vase paintings are of little 
importance in this connection. They were influ- 
enced, it is true, by the creations of the masters, 
but give as little an idea of them as decorated 
pottery to-day gives of the paintings of our 
best men. The only thing that they actually 
prove is that the standard for all, even for the 
artisans, was high. These decorators of pottery 
had a touch of such delicacy that it might well 
be the despair of modern artists ; and, what is 
perhaps more, they had the skill to cope easily 
with all the problems that their particular 
undertaking offered 



INTRODUCTION 



93 



The true relation of Roman paiiiting to that 
of Greek painting continues to be a bone of con- 
tention. But here again, owing to scanty and 
unreliable sources of information, we should in 
justice confess our ignorance. The extant wall 
paintings from Italy enable us to study one 
phase of this art during the centuries immedi- 
ately preceding the Christian era; but we do 
not know how much Roman and, incidentally, 
Etruscan art, and how much Greek and Graeco- 
Egyptian art, is to be detected in them. 

The wall paintings are of various styles, gen- 
erally bright in color, as befits the decorative 
use to which they were put. Linear perspective, 
which enters into the composition of practically 
all, is consistently carried out in only a few. 
Aerial perspective, even in its crudest begin- 
nings, is entirely unknown. In the portrayal of 
character, realistic poses and gestures are more 
frequent than truth, and no attempt is made at 
making the settings of the scenes probable. 
Abstract and detached beauty in the faces is 
not unusual, but a penetrating eye does not fail 
to perceive that the original artist of these wall 
paintings was concerned with creating pictures 
which should appeal to the minds of the people 
rather than be true to the actual appearances 
of things. 

One other group of pictures of about the 
same age, and in part later, is important, — 
the tablets with portrait heads from the Fayum ^ 
in Egypt. They were placed in the outside cov- 
ers of mummy cases, and preserved the images 
of the dead. Their execution is often exquisite. 
They contain portraits of such ILfelikeness that 
they do not lose their high place even when 
they are judged by modern standards. Fre- 
quent faults in drawing, however, especially 
when a three-quarter profile view made demands 
on the artist's knowledge of perspective, indi- 
cate that this knowledge was incomplete. As 
to an equal skill of the artist in large composi- 
tions, it is erroneous to draw conclusions from 
the power of portraiture revealed in these 

' The so-called Cortona Muse, said to be a Greek easel 
picture, is best compared with these portraits from the 
Favum. 



heads. The extant Roman wall paintings con- 
tain single heads fully as beautiful as those 
from the Fayum, but they give no indications 
that the artists, who w-ere in some respects the 
equals of modern portrait painters, could meas- 
ure themselves in any other respect with the 
artists of the Renaissance or of the present day. 

With the rise of Christianity, the disappear- 
ance of pagan art, and the advent of the lowly 
converts placing their meager skill in the serv- 
ice of their church, a step backward is to be 
noted in the history of painting. The fervor 
of conception of the early Christians was so 
far beyond their power of expression, and the 
material things to them so insignificant com- 
pared with the eternal ideas to which they 
pointed, that their pictures were but symbols 
of those ideas. Symbolism, at first a pious 
necessity, soon became a stumbling-block of 
Christian art and eventually rang its death 
knell ; for when the thing painted is no longer 
of necessity a mere shadow and almost unre- 
lated indication of the thing meant, but by the 
perversity of the artist and the indolence of his 
character continues to be so long after a new 
form is demanded, all life departs and a mean- 
ingless shell remains. This was the case with 
art in the Eastern Empire, customarily called 
Byzantine art. Forms, often not without beauty, 
which once had meant much to the people, con- 
tinued to be used for generations without the 
addition of so much as a new idea. 

The imperial edict decreeing the destruction 
of the art remains of the "heathen" Greeks 
shut off one powerful source from which inspi- 
ration might have arisen. The iconoclasts wan- 
tonly destroyed the more immediate past, the 
conquest of Rome and the separation of the 
empire prevented any influence from the west, 
and the invasion of the Mussulmans, finally, so 
completely isolated the Byzantine artists that 
progress became impossible. If their art is, 
nevertheless, not entirely void of appealing 
points, this is due to the strong first impulses 
of Christianity. 

In the Western Empire, also, after the de- 
structive conquest by the northern barbarians. 



94 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



art found no fertile field. It was, however, less 
hampered by lack of outside influences. Even 
Byzantine art, when it became known, excited 
considerable interest and it was often imitated, 
so that some of the best known instances of it 
are found in northern Italy. 

Of paintings, in the proper sense of the word, 
few are extant, since mosaics as church decora- 
tions gradually had supplanted them. 

Surveying all that remains of paintings or 
mosaics earlier than the thirteenth century, one 
is little prepared for the remarkable develop- 
ment of painting from that time on, and feels 



inclined to agree with Vasari, the biographer of 
Italian artists, who believed that heaven itself 
had taken pity on the fine minds that Tuscany 
was then daily bringing forth, and had directed 
their activities into channels leading to success. 
If one judges early Christian and Byzantine 
art by itself, one cannot fail to be disappointed. 
But if one views it in the light of future achieve- 
ments, and seeks in it the germ of perfection, 
which blossomed forth suddenly in the Renais- 
sance, one begins to realize that even this seem- 
ingly sterile age must have contained some 
worthy elements. 



CHAPTER II 



ITALIAN PAINTING 



THE GOTHIC PERIOD AND THE EARLY 

RENAISSANCE 

At the time when the Gothic style in archi- 
tecture was developed in all other Christian 
lands to its highest glory, Italy alone seemed to 
follow different ideals. She could not entirely 
withdraw herself from the powerful influences 
known as Gothic, but she failed to espouse 
their cause with ardor. The Italian master 
who built the facade of the Cathedral of San 
Lorenzo in Genoa followed the style of French 
cathedrals, but destroyed their characteristically 
vertical lines by building the facade of alternate 
courses of white and black marble. The hori- 
zontal lines which he thus introduced were dear 
to the Italians but contrary to the principles 
of Gothic architecture. 

The fact was the Italians felt themselves to 
be not only the descendants but also the heirs 
of the classic people of their peninsula, whose 
art remains they had just begun to rediscover 
after centuries of neglect. 

Of even greater influence than the actual 
remains of the ancients, especially for the 
painters, was the imaginative reconstruction of 
early conditions. Classic artists, it seemed, 
had been leaders of society. Their taste had 
carried the masses, to the extent that individ- 
ual ideas of beauty had been the standards 
everywhere. The same, the new artists claimed, 
ought again to take place. While in the north- 
ern countries gifted men, now nameless, were 
willing to embody in their works the average 
conceptions of beauty, in Italy each artist strove 
to set up his own idea, and by excellent execu- 
tion to procure for it the approval of the people. 

In this endeavor the artists were confirmed 
everywhere by the powerful princes and com- 
munities, so that it is small wonder that many 



of them were fairly eaten up with conceit. The 
one factor which rendered this conceit harmless 
for the progress of art was that it had to be 
based on real merit. Never perhaps has the 
world seen a class of harder-working men than 
these artists of the Renaissance, and never men 
who were more ferv^ently impressed with the 
nobility and importance of their vocation. 

Italy at that time was prosperous, and the 
demand for works of art, most especially for 
paintings, was enormous. We do not hear mis- 
erable tales of worthy men starving for want 
of employment. Reputations, once made, stood 
the artists to good advantage, but they were 
never so secure that they prevented the rise 
of new men of genius. 

Heaven itself, as Vasari says, had taken com- 
passion on the fine minds of Tuscany, directing 
their endeavors into proper channels, so that the 
demands of the people for art could be filled. 
Altogether the history of the world offers no par- 
allel for these favorable conditions. Advances 
were made by leaps and bounds, problems were 
solved almost as quickly as they arose, and new 
difficulties found ever new men ready to cope 
with them. 

Italian painting is often misunderstood. It 
is believed to be religious, where in fact it is 
intellectual. The truly religious painter in the 
long list of these remarkably gifted men is the 
exception. The subjects are mainly religious, 
but this should not deceive the student. Given 
whatever subject, the Italian masters endeav- 
ored to treat it adequately. This meant skill. 
And skill, therefore, was their chief concern. 
If it had not been so, no such rapid progress 
as is recorded could have taken place. Many 
a man who painted a madonna of such beauty 
that the religious devotee to-day finds new 
inspiration in her, was as callous to the 



95 



96 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



precepts of Christianity as the most confirmed 
unbehever. Plato and Platonism and a refined 
love of the bright days of classic paganism 
ruled the finest minds of the day. 

The existence of such conditions far from 
lowering our estimate of the Italian painters 
should increase it. He is a truly great man 
who treats with reverence and justice a sub- 
ject which is emotionally not his, and which he 
has only learned to understand by reason of his 
intellect. And doubly great is he who in treat- 
ing such a subject does not permit even a 
shadow of the sneer to appear, which in every- 
day life is ready on his lips for those who 
actually beheve in miracles and the flaming 
sword of angels. 

Lest insincerity finally be charged against 
the Italian artists because they painted largely 
religious subjects when their minds were secu- 
lar, it must be remembered that no man can 
wisely withdraw himself from the conditions 
and requirements of his age ; and in their age 
few subjects other than those connected with 
sacred stories were deemed worthy of a great 
artist's brush. Even while people were losing 
faith in the historic accuracy of these stories 
they continued to feed their imagination on 
them. The eternal truths expressed in some 
Greek legends are not less powerfully felt by 
us to-day because we know that Zeus and 
Herakles and all the other gods and heroes 
were creations of fancy. 

Another and perhaps even stronger argu- 
ment may be based on the fact that the Italian 
painters did not readily break with the past. 
They continued, they improved, but they did 
not despise what had been done before. So 
imperceptibly, in fact, was the transition made 
from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance that 
it is impossible to designate any one man as 
the father of the new art of painting. 

With the Quattrocento ^ the Renaissance has 
truly begun. In the early century many men 

1 Quattrocento is the Italian designation for the space of 
time from 1400 to 1499, that is, those years where a 4 (quat- 
tro) appears in the space of the hundreds (cento). We call 
this space of time the fifteenth century. 



belonged as clearly to the Middle Ages as 
others unmistakably heralded the coming of a. 
new era. 

These latter men who had something to offer 
in addition to what had already been done 
issued largely from two places, Florence and 
Siena. They attempted to paint more pleas- 
ing forms than their predecessors had given, 
and to express both motion and emotion. Here- 
tofore the latter had to be supplied solely by 
the spectator ; now the figures themselves 
began to be swayed by it. Formerly they were 
symbols, blank checks, if one may say so, the 
values of which depended on the imaginative 
powers of those who beheld them ; now they 
issued from the painter's brush as definite 
characters. This, of course, brought action 
into the picture, so that after a while, instead 
of viewing lifeless scenes one felt drawn into 
the events portrayed as an intimate participant. 
Who can view the "Do not touch me" {Noli 
me tangerc) by Duccio in Siena without coming 
into close personal contact with Christ and the 
kneeling woman t 

Side by side with such stirring figures many 
others, of course, were painted which did not 
rise much above the level of Byzantine art. 
The effort to create the few really excellent 
characters was so great that the artist's 
strength was very soon spent. Skill, more- 
over, was in its infancy. Variety of forms and 
of conceptions, therefore, was impossible. This 
is most notable in the case of Giotto, whose 
square jaws and somewhat monotonous dra- 
peries falling in heavy smooth folds and large 
expanses of cloth cannot possibly excite our 
enthusiasm, however highly we esteem him for 
the amount of life and action which he suc- 
ceeded in imparting to his figures. 

Giotto was the first dramatist in art. His 
figures not only illustrated but also acted the 
incidents which he painted, so that the very 
demands which the national conditions made 
were singularly well satisfied by his art. Shortly 
before his time a religious revival movement 
had swept over the country, and had led to 
the establishment of the mendicant orders of 



r 



ITALIAN PAINTING 



97 



St. Francis and St. Dominic. The sacred stories, 
which the educated could read in books, were 
to be told to the illiterate by means of pictures 
on the walls of the churches. Such pictures, 
therefore, were no longer to be considered 
only as decorations, as had been the Byzantine 
mosaics. The peculiar development of Italian 
architecture, also, which offered broad wall 
spaces, while everywhere else the Gothic style 
suppressed these, was a favorable factor for the 
growth of Giotto's style. 

Barring a few panel paintings and fragments 
of an altar piece in St. Peter's in Rome, and a 
much restored mosaic at the same place, the 
extant works of Giotto are contained in the 
frescoes of the Upper and the Lower Churches 
of St. Francis in Assisi, the Arena Chapel in 
Padua, and two chapels of Santa Croce in Flor- 
ence. All these frescoes, with the exception of 
those in the Lower Church of Assisi, are entirely 
restored, so that it is difficult to realize the ex- 
act state of Giotto's art at the various stages 
of his career. 

In the Upper Church of Assisi he had an 
exceptionally satisfactory subject, the life of 
St. Francis. This had not before been painted, 
so that he was unhampered by tradition. The 
characters, too, were of such recent date that 
the introduction of real, almost portrait, types 
was in place. The break with the past was 
therefore made easy for Giotto, and popular 
favor was more readily won for him than would 
have been possible under different conditions. 
It should be noted, however, that recent critics 
believe that the frescoes in the Lower Church 
were painted first. Owing to the difference in 
subjects and in the state of preservation of the 
two sets of pictures, this question cannot be 
definitely settled. 

The frescoes of the two chapels of Santa 
Croce in Florence, which were rediscovered in 
1853 under the whitewash with which a barbar- 
ous later age preferred to cover the walls of 
churches, .show the greatest technical perfec- 
tion of which Giotto was capable ; but they 
cannot endear themselves to the spectator so 
immediately as the deeply felt, simple, and yet 



wondrously powerful scenes from the lives of 
the Virgin Mary and of Christ in the earlier 
frescoes in the Arena Chapel in Padua. 

Giotto had an almost unequaled feeling for 
form and a clear eye for realities. This must 
not be understood to mean that his paintings 
were realistic. He seems to have painted from 
nature only as he remembered her types, and 
was truer to the soul life than to the physical 
life of his characters. Everywhere he selected 
essentials, and never did he introduce people to 
fill empty spaces. Every one of his characters 
has his well-defined part in the drama. 

Very little is known of the life of Giotto. 
Vasari gives 1276 as the year of his birth, but 
a study of all available sources has led most 
people to substitute 1266 for the date given by 
Vasari. In 1298 he was already famous, and 
was called to Rome. Early in the ne.xt century 
he was in France, possibly for a considerable 
space of time. It is certain that he visited 
Dante (who had been exiled from Florence) in 
Paris, but it is very doubtful whether or not he 
accompanied him on the extensive travels which 
Dante undertook through the empires of Europe. 
Two years before his death Giotto returned from 
Naples, where he had been highly honored at 
the court of the king. Florence had called him 
home as architect of the cathedral. He designed 
the bell tower (campanile) of this church and 
probably sculptured several of its decorative 
panels, while others were finished from his 
designs by Andrea Pisano. 

In 1336 Giotto died. He had gained the 
highest reputation everywhere, and most espe- 
cially in his home, Florence. It is as if this 
city had intended to make amends for her 
treatment of Dante by showering favors on 
this other of her two famous sons of the early 
Quattrocento. 

The difference between the early schools of 
Florence and Siena is slight. The Florentines, 
it seems, strove after accuracy of drawing, for- 
getting almost everything else. The Sienese, on 
the other hand, developed early a love of sweet- 
ness of expression, and were somewhat less 
careful in execution. 



98 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



With Masaccio in the early Quattrocento 
the emancipation from the transmitted style 
of symbolism is completed. He is said to be 
the first painter of the new style, which is 
characterized by honesty of conception and 
sincerity of execution. His "Adam and Eve 
driven from Paradise," in the church of the 
Carmelite monks in Florence, are the first 
figures painted which are images of reality 
both in outlines of forms and in modeling 
by means of light and shade. They are true 
e.xternally and internally. The greatest achieve- 
ment of Masaccio, however, because the way 
for it was not prepared by even the slightest 
hint of any of his predecessors, was his peculiar 
use of light and shade not only for the sake 
of the modeling of his figures but also for the 
sake of agreeing with his clearly defined artistic 
intentions. This was the great step which with 
Masaccio art made into a new world, — the com- 
bination of the intentions of the artist with the 
imitation of nature. On the proper relation of 
these two factors and the worth of the first and 
the skill of the second depends the excellence 
of his achievement. Let his intentions predom- 
inate and the work is artificial ; suppress them 
and the result is grossly realistic. Avoid the 
imitation of nature and the picture is fantastic 
and in danger of losing solid worth; make it 
your guiding star and you soon deteriorate to 
a level where art cannot survive. The key to 
the proper mixture of these two elements is held 
only by the artist, who possesses it not as an 
achievement of intellect or of skill but as the 
result of experience, or more probably as a 
natural gift. 

Strangely enough, uninfluenced by Masaccio, 
Fra Angelico continued the earlier style in his 
famous pictures. His real name was Guido di 
Piero, but when he entered the monastery of 
Fiesole he was ^^e-baptized Giovanni. His con- 
temporaries knew him, even after he had 
removed to Florence, as Fra Giovanni da Fiesole. 
After his death, however, he was called " Fra 
Angelico, the monk of the angelic disposition." 

All his paintings reveal a soul as pure as 
that of angels. His piety rings true. His art 



was the last and noblest product of the mystic 
and adoring spirit of the Middle Ages. By 
nature raised above the common horde of men, 
he was lifted still higher by the subjects which 
he selected for his brush. Angels he preferred 
to paint, and by his angels he will always be 
known. " O mother dear, Jerusalem, when 
shall I come to thee .' " had sung the yearning 
soul of a French monk ^ ; and imagining he had 
reached his goal, he had added, " Then shall 
my sorrows be at end ; thy joy then shall I 
see." It was this joy of heaven that Fra An- 
gelico painted, — the heavenly choir, the blessed, 
the saints, the whole company to join which was 
the fondest hope of all true Christians. 

Compared with earlier artists, Fra Angelico 
commanded great skill. Some of his groups 
are almost unsurpassed, others, however, espe- 
cially where there is a transition from one plane 
to another, are awkward, for his knowledge of 
perspective was insufficient. The halos which 
he still painted as round disks troubled him much 
whenever he painted his figures with averted 
faces. He used much gold in his pictures, and 
also blue, the color of constancy and truth. 

No greater contrast is imaginable than exists 
between Fra Angelico, the great mystic, and 
the other famous painter monk of the Quattro- 
cento, Fra Filippo Lippi. Lippi was a man of 
the world, a child of his own time, as Fra 
Angelico was, one might say, the posthumous 
product of the best of bygone ages. Sensitive 
to the extreme, without the strong support of 
faith, Lippi was a man of God and a sinner 
in rapid succession. He eloped with a nun, 
and was the father of Filippino Lippi. Deeply 
religious he appears in some of his works, 
while in others he is truly secular. In skill he 
is superior to any of his predecessors. He is 
the first who knew how to paint the depth of 
an interior, such as that of a large church in the 
funeral scene of St. Stephen in Prato. His fig- 
ures often are studies from nature rather than 

1 St. Bernard of Cluny about 1140 wrote De Contemptit 
Miiiiiii. This poem, freely translated by Rev. John Mason 
Neal, has suggested most modem hymns treating of the 
heavenly Jerusalem. 



ITALIAN PAINTING 



99 



creations of a vivid imagination. He is versatile, 
and equally at home with the inhabitants of 
heaven and those of earth. The former, to him, 
however, are rarely more than exceptionally 
beautiful editions of the latter. In his madonna 
pictures he sets the example for the endless 
list of madonnas painted from life wherever a 
beautiful face meets the artist. The reprehensi- 
ble habit of looking only at the lines of the face, 
however, and of paying no attention to the char- 
acter expressed in them is distinctly a modern 
product. No such perversity of taste can be 
charged to any of the early Italians. 

In the pictures of religious subjects by Fra 
Filippo Lippi there is a certain affinity with 
those by his son Filippino Lippi, and by the 
teacher of the \aX\.w, Botticelli. Externally it 
shows itself in madonna pictures by the intro- 
duction of a third ^ little figure of prominence, 
sometimes an angel, or the little St. John, or 
another playmate. It is not the presence of 
this third figure that is characteristic, but its 
treatment as a figure intended to catch the 
immediate attention of the spectator. Often a 
look of worldly mischief makes of it an exqui- 
site foil to the thoughtful look of the Virgin. 
Another resemblance is found in the peculiar 
physical proportions of Mary, as if copied from 
a beautiful woman suffering with the dreadful 
malady, consumption. Some critics have actu- 
ally endeavored to prove that the model which 
Botticelli constantly followed was thus afflicted. 

This artist was undoubtedly the greatest of 
the three here under discussion. In his lifetime 
he was not appreciated, and even to-day, when 
the tide of his reputation is at its highest, he is 
not a universal favorite. This is due to his man- 
nerisms, to the peculiar flights of his fancy, which 
do not always impress one as wholesome, and to 
his coloring, which, like his fancy, is based more 
on individual preference than on truth. 

His delineation of character, however, is 
exquisite, and his lines are always graceful. 
His power of suggestion is limitless, and in 
an age when accuracy of execution was the 
chief aim, and intellect the guiding star, he 

1 Sometimes there are more than three figures. 



dared to dream and to strike strange notes of 
unknown music. 

Like Fra Filippo Lippi, but with even greater 
boldness, Botticelli often turned his back on the 
traditional religious subjects. With him the divi- 
sion between pictures for the church and pictures 
for the home was completed. For the latter he 
gathered his inspiration from classic legends 
or the descriptions of long-lost pictures, such 
as the "Calumny" by Apelles. 
. Some of his figures have a distinctly modem 
air, as if the man whose dreams seemed to 
shatter the bonds that bind ordinary mortals 
to space was not bound by time either. One of 
his pictures is genre pure and simple, although 
genre was not "invented " until later, or, to be 
more accurate, much time had to pass before 
the natural development of art demanded expres- 
sion in genre. The painting here referred to 
is in the collection Pallavicini in Rome. On 
the steps of a door which pierces a massive 
wall a girl sits sobbing, with her head in her 
hands. She has been expelled from the house. 
Her clothes, which have been thrown after 
her, lie at her feet in disorder. They are her 
entire worldly possession, but she pays no heed 
to them. Stooping far over she weeps. She is 
alone in the world ! 

Such a subject seems entirely outside the 
realm of Italian art, in fact it is outside of it. 
It is one of those rare phenomena foreshadow- 
ing future events long before they have taken 
place. It is prophetic. But it is not the only 
instance in which Botticelli has shown in which 
direction art was to turn. One of the pitfalls 
which, after the Renaissance, art failed to avoid 
was restlessness — restlessness for its own sake, 
and in order to attract attention, however ill 
founded it was in the spirit of art. It was this 
that culminated in the later style called rococo. 
Botticelli made use of it in several pictures. 
Fluttering draperies suggestive of motion, where 
rest was the keynote of the composition, are 
frequent with him. Restlessness, in fact, was 
perhaps not alien to him in anything. The 
nervous hands of his figures, their fine trans- 
parent draperies, and their scalloped flimsy hair 



lOO 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



dresses all point in the same direction. If it 
were not for his coloring and the setting of his 
large pictures, with their peculiar perspective of 
buildings gathered more massively on one side, 
while on the other side they stretch along a street 
leading to the distant mountains, or equally dis- 
tributed to the right and left with an extended 
view in the center, one would hardly believe 
that Botticelli had lived in the fifteenth century. 

Botticelli, like all the Florentines of this 
century, was little mindful of the magic power 
of color. Colors they knew, and how to place 
them side by side in harmonious order ; also 
how to accentuate this or that figure by brighter 
or more subdued hues. On the whole, however, 
their chief attention was bestowed on the com- 
position. They wrestled with the most intricate 
problems of linear perspective and did not know 
the charm of a well-blended color scheme. They 
would not have understood the remark of a 
recent painter, who defended his selection of a 
subject which his critic called homely, even 
ugly, by saying that there were no forms in 
nature so ugly but that the play of light and 
shade and the just blending of color would 
make them beautiful. 

The first to discover the truth of this remark, 
or rather to set out on the road which led to 
its discovery, were the Venetians. Where they 
acquired their love of color is matter of specu- 
lation. Some say they could not help it, being 
surrounded by it, — seeing it in the sky above 
them and the water around them. Others 
point to oriental influences transmitted by their 
traders. In truth, it was probably innate. The 
Venetians were a pleasure-loving people, fonder 
of splendor than of the glory of learning. They 
were sensuous in the finest sense of the word. 
And there is no power on earth better able to 
satisfy the demands of such a disposition than 
color. The very forces that made Venice great 
politically, and sent her sons over the waters to 
distant lands, and made her populace admire 
pageants and luxurious displays, made her 
artists revel in the beauty of color. 

A kind providence, moreover, sent them, 
when they most needed it, a new technique. 



In southern Italy Antoncllo da Messina had 
become familiar with oil paintings of Dutch 
and French artists, and had traveled to the 
Netherlands, according to an unauthenticated 
but very probable story, in order to master the 
new medium. When he later settled in Venice 
he taught the artists there the mysteries of the 
new invention. Before him the Italians had 
painted in distemper or al fresco. 
\ In Venice at this time two masters, Antonio 
da Murano, assisted by Giovanni Alemannus, 
and Jacopo Bellini, were laying the founda- 
tions for promising schools. The sons of 
Jacopo were Gentile and Giovanni, the latter of 
whom so far outstripped all his contemporaries 
that the future generation built almost exclu- 
sively on his achievements. 

Giovanni Bellini was forty-five years of age 
and had gained considerable reputation, when 
Antonello da Messina came to Venice and 
changed his life. Not that Giovanni began to 
have new ideas ; he simply had placed at his 
disposal the means of carrying out those which 
had been his always. The melodies which 
filled his soul he translated into poems of 
color ; while the transparency and diffusion of 
light, which the technique in oil permitted, 
enabled him to express what formerly could 
at best be only suggested. Thoughts are not 
really ours until they have been expressed, and 
surely they cannot form the starting point of 
a long train of orderly conceptions until they 
have been thus added to the storehouse of our 
assured ideas. It is for this reason that the 
achievements of Giovanni Bellini count for 
much. For the first time the color sense of 
people was satisfied, while this very satisfaction 
conclusively proved the existence of a need 
which had long been neglected. 

The most important Venetian artist of the 
Quattrocento, next to Giovanni Bellini, was 
Carpaccio, a pupil of Gentile Bellini. Unlike 
Giovanni, he was little interested in the possible 
transparency of oil pigments, but he knew 
how to render the effect of light, either in 
interiors or in out-of-door scenes, with an 
accuracy entirely his own. He filled the large 



ITALIAN PAINTING 



chambers of his scenes with an exquisite feel- 
ing of warmth, and successfully rendered the 
bright atmosphere of Venice in those pictures 
which treated of the glory of his native place. 
He was an amiable artist, so that with few 
exceptions his creations rank among the most 
lovable pictures of Italian art. 

One powerful influence felt in the work of 
Giovanni Bellini, but absent in that of Carpac- 
cio, is that of the genius oi A udrea Man- 
tegna of Padua. This man, brought up on 
the study of the antique, was big enough to 
learn its lesson of truth and sincerity without 
becoming a slave to imitation. His tempera- 
ment fitted him to be a realist, while his skill 
and powerful personality preserved him from 
gross materialism. In the characterization of 
his figures he was uniformly exquisite, and 
being essentially a dramatist he painted pictures 
full of life and action. Drawing and composi- 
tion were his strong points, so that his figures 
often impress one as almost plastically real. 
In this respect he merely followed the example 
of a well-known predecessor, Squarcione. 

Among the many other important artists of 
the Quattrocento, two, Signorelli and Perugino, 
stand out prominently. Signorelli, according 
to the opinion of Michelangelo, was the great- 
est of all the painters of the fifteenth century. 
He was a man of exceptional force, pointing 
directly to the titanic power of conception and 
skill of Michelangelo. Color in the sense of the 
Venetians he neither knew nor fancied, and 
drawing as the Florentines practiced it, with 
the resulting dignity and unity of composition, 
he deemed an unsatisfactory medium of expres- 
sion. He thought essentially in three dimen- 
sions, they only in two dimensions. The 
accurate representation of space was his great 
problem. There is a difference between a 
figure drawn according to all the laws of per- 
spective, and another which actually seems to 
detach itself from the background. In the 
former you forget the existence of parts which 
you do not see, in the latter you are made 
fully aware of them. You, too, are made to 
think in three dimensions. Sisrnorelli was the 



1 



lOI 



first of the Italians to paint actions in space 
rather than tableaux on a plane. This resulted 
in so frequent and bold foreshortenings that 
these may be said to be characteristic of his 
style. The vigor of his conceptions also dis- 
tinguished him from his contemporaries, and 
most especially from Perugino. 

Perugifio, known as a teacher of Raphael, was 
a man of easy-going manners and a like tem- 
perament. He had skill, but he was lazy, and 
his conceptions came to him as pleasant reveries 
rather than as mighty thoughts shaping his ar- 
tisticaims. He made a reputation early in lifeand 
did not add to it in later years. He gathered, as 
it were, the achievements of his predecessors, 
but failed to infuse into them anything distinctly 
new. To-day we should call a man like him an 
academician. Michelangelo, always impatient of 
men who rested by the wayside instead of press- 
ing on, called him a blockhead in art. 

In judging of Perugino one should distin- 
guish between his earlier and his later works, 
the latter being the emasculated editions of his 
earlier endeavors. In his youth he painted 
pictures which deserve attention for their grace 
and quiet dignify. His figures are pure and 
beautiful, their heads tilted sideways and 
upwards, a pose which was originally expres- 
sive of faith in heaven, but which was ulti- 
mately repeated with meaningless frequency. 
Often his figures stand below arches through 
which one sees distant landscapes spotted with 
remarkably beautiful trees. No one ever had 
painted such feathery branches and delicately 
graceful outlines, or known how to use equally 
successfully landscapes as foils to the figures 
in the foreground. Nor had any one before 
Perugino been so perfect a disciple of abstract 
and passionless beauty, beauty that neither stirs 
nor suggests, but simply is. 

If one draws the sum total of the achieve- 
ments of the painters in the Quattrocento, one 
is amazed at the completeness with which they 
cover the entire field of art. Drawing in its 
various forms, precise and refined, bold and 
vigorous, and following all the laws of perspec- 
tive, had come to be the common property of 



I02 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



all. Composition was perfected. Hardly a pic- 
ture could be painted that did not find its pro- 
totype in a creation of the fifteenth century. 
Color, by some artists at least, had been felt to 
be a factor as powerful as drawing or compo- 
sition ; and a technique finally had been intro- 
duced which enabled the artists to express them- 
selves readily and adequately. These were the 
achievements on which the new generation of 
painters in the early sixteenth century were 
to build. Weaker men would have rested on 
the laurels of their predecessors. These giants, 
however, pressed on, and added so many new 
accomplishments that they created an entirely 
new standard of art. 

THE HIGH RENAISSANCE 

Raphael, Michelangelo, and Titian are the 
three great names of the Italian High Renais- 
sance ; da Vinci, del Sarto, Correggio, Giorgione, 
Veronese, and Tintoretto are worthy seconds ; 
while the number of other artists -is so large 
that it defies concise enumeration. 

Raphael was a man whose genius for the 
beautiful, that is, for the essential poise of per- 
ceivable beauty, was absolute. He was skill 
personified. He drew not a line which did not 
support every other line, enhancing it and join- 
ing with it in the making of a perfect whole. 
No thought incapable of adequate expression 
with the means at his command ever seems to 
have come to him. The spectator may not 
always be in sympathy with the thought, but 
granting its existence, no better expression of 
it can be suggested than that of Raphael. 
There is nothing relative or indefinite in his 
work. Like truth, it is ; but unlike truth, it 
rarely concerns loftier ideas than those which 
mortals readily perceive. Raphael was a man 
of the world, and all his faculties were adjusted 
with unwonted nicety. 

Not so Michelangelo. His thoughts were 
snatched immediately from the peaks of heaven. 
Their adequate expression, therefore, was an 
impossibility. If ever divine conceptions came 
to a man, they came to him, and tortured him. 



His skill was great, — greater, in fact, than 
that of any of his predecessors, and in drawing 
probably superior to that of any artist before 
or since, but it failed to do justice to his con- 
ceptions. Everybody can understand Raphael. 
Michelangelo is approached only by those 
whose souls can take flights heavenward. 

To-day when we can look back over the 
course taken by art, and notice the perverse 
tendencies which the followers of Michelangelo 
introduced, because they copied his forms and 
were unable to understand his thoughts, we 
are tempted to blame him for the decay in 
art which he is said to have begun. He devi- 
ated from the quiet beauty to which the other 
Italians had aspired ; he shattered all tacitly 
accepted canons and almost despised them. 
Form as form was nothing to him ; it had its 
right of being only as the vehicle of some grand 
idea. This was the reason why he hated the 
pictures of Perugino, which were beautiful but 
had no further meaning ; and why Raphael was 
not so great in his eyes as in those of most 
people ; for Raphael's thoughts were rarely on 
higher planes than were accessible to all. 

Michelangelo suggests ideas ; Raphael ex- 
presses them. The works of the former grow 
with the growth of our own personality ; those 
of the latter are the same always. Michel- 
angelo elevates one and makes one realize the 
existence of the divine spark within one ; 
Raphael puts in harmony all the qualities of 
one's human nature. Breadth follows the study 
of Raphael ; elevation that of Michelangelo. 

Since the art of Michelangelo is essentially 
the art of suggestion, one is tempted to specu- 
late as to the possible result if Michelangelo 
had known the imaginative and suggestive 
power of color, such as was used, for instance, 
by Titian, and has since been wielded by the 
great colorists. The genius of Michelangelo, 
however, as revealed in his paintings and in 
his sculpture, was so distinctly that of form 
that it is not readily associated with the less 
tangible gift of expression by means of color. 
Drawing was his strong point, and even if the 
achievements of Titian had been better known 



ITALIAN PAINTING 



lO" 



to him than they were, it is little likely that he 
could have adopted them successfully. 

He admired Signorelli, and did not weary 
studying the bold foreshortenings and strong, 
rugged figures of this artist, while Raphael had 
started with Perugino. In early years Raphael 
actually copied the subjects of his teacher, but 
by apparently slight changes showed the beauty 
of expression of which they were capable. Later 
he advanced beyond Perugino and painted in 
various styles. His guiding stars, however, al- 
ways remained poise and noble charm of exqui- 
site appearance. 

Much insight into the works of both Raphael 
and Michelangelo is gained if one studies them 
in connection with those of Leonardo da Vinci. 
Leonardo was, in the words of Professor V^an 
Dyke, "a full-rounded, universal man, learned 
in many departments, and excelling in what- 
ever he undertook." His knowledge, however, 
" made him skeptical of his own powers. He 
pondered and thought how to reach up higher, 
how to penetrate deeper, how to realize more 
comprehensively, and in the end gave up in 
despair. He could not fulfill his ideal of the 
head of Christ, nor the head of Mona Lisa, and 
after years of labor he left them unfinished." 
To study the failures of Leonardo makes one 
realize how dearly many successes of Raphael 
are bought at the expense of elevated ideas, 
and how impossible it is to express adequately 
thoughts of superhuman nobility. 

The greatest positive accomplishment of 
Leonardo is his mastery of light and shade, 
— chiaroscuro, as it is called. The hands of 
his Mona Lisa, for instance, are for the first 
time hands full of life. There are no flat plains ; 
light and shade follow each other with the same 
mysterious charm that characterizes their play 
in nature. 

It was the new technique in oils which ena- 
bled Leonardo to perfect his chiaroscuro. He 
was one of the most ardent advocates of this 
medium, and did much to establish it not only 
in Florence but also in Lombardy, where he 
spent many years of his life. Here his per- 
sonality made itself strongly felt among the 



artists of the younger generation, the most 
amiable of whom was Luini. This painter, an 
almost universal favorite to-day, was distin- 
guished by grace and that coveted poise which 
by means of contrast strongly appeals to one 
in the hurry of modern life. 

Andrea del Sarlo, the fourth in the quartet 
of famous Florentine painters, as Michelangelo, 
Raphael, da Vinci, and del Sarto are often 
called, was warmer and richer in his coloring 
than any of the other three. His contempo- 
raries called him "the faultless painter." He 
was fond of the mystery of shadows, and in 
the pursuit of his ends often resorted to arti- 
ficial means, such as heavy draperies and their 
unwonted arrangement. Although most of his 
subjects were religious, he was not much ex- 
alted by them. The treatment and not the 
subject interested him. But so perfect was his 
art that it placed him, in spite of his one-sided 
attitude, by the side of the greatest of his 
contemporaries. 

Like a stranger among the masters of the 
Cinquecento, Correggio of Parma makes his 
appearance. Born in a town poor in art, it 
was his fate to work almost exclusively in 
similar places. And yet he made grand strides 
into the future, and is rivaled only by Michel- 
angelo in his influence on future generations. 
Essentially self-taught, he yet gathered together 
the achievements of all his predecessors. 
WTiat they had attained by hard labor was 
his as a birthright. Perspective and the prob- 
lems of light fascinated him. He also endeav- 
ored to bring his figures into closer relationship 
with the spectator, an attempt which, unfortu- 
nately, often resulted in profaning his religious 
characters. 

His art appeals preeminently to the senses. 
In fact, it is the acme of sensuous art, and 
judged as such is of unsurpassed perfection. 
Such worldly beautiful figures as his had not 
been painted before. They charm and please, 
they lure one ; but if one were to follow them, 
one would reach not heaven, but Tannhauser's 
Mountain of Venus. Even his children, angels, 
and genii are imbued with latent sensuosity. 



I04 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



Over all, however, hovers like a kind spirit of 
another world the element of exquisite refine- 
ment, the sense of proportion and of faith in 
the essential nobility of the human race. Some- 
times this veil of dignity is thin, a fact which 
accounts for the disrespect with which some 
modern critics regard Correggio. One may 
not like him, but one cannot deny his great- 
ness as a painter. He was undaunted by the 
most difficult problems, and not only solved 
those which existed but even created new ones 
of his own, such as figures raised straight up in 
the air and seen from below. The result is not 
always plea.sant, a " sprawl of legs " meeting 
the eyes of the spectators. The fact, however, 
remains that only the most perfect technician 
could have conceived such subjects and have 
executed them consistently. 

The problems of light which Correggio set 
himself to solve, and in which he anticipated 
some of the successes of the later Dutch and 
Flemish artists, are of greater worth. He was 
the first to acknowledge in his paintings the pos- 
sibility of unusual conditions, — a dark interior, 
for instance, with only one corner bathed in light 
and everything else in comparative darkness. 

Correggio's color is warm, — even to-day his 
flesh tints are rarely surpassed, — and it is almost 
the equal of that of the Venetians, who in the 
Cinquecento, as in the Quattrocento, were the 
noted colorists of Italy. 

The greatest of the Venetians was Titian. 
He made his reputation early in life, and added 
to it until he died at ninety-nine years of age, 
active to the last. At first he showed little 
self-reliance, leaning heavily on two of his con- 
temporaries, Giorgione and Palma il Vecchio. 
But suddenly, when Giorgione died and he 
himself was not far from forty years of age, 
he asserted himself, and by means of his strong 
and dramatic temperament assumed the leader- 
ship of Venetian art. His fairly impetuous 
activity was tempered with artistic wisdom, 
and for once the world saw the example of 
a man of so fiery a disposition that he readily 
conquered, but of such sobriety of thought 
that he was preserved from making mistakes. 



These two characteristics are rarely combined 
in one man, and more rarely still does such a 
man find himself born at a time when it is 
easy not only to start on the right road but 
also to persevere in it. 

Titian had an imagination fully as worldly 
warm as that of Correggio, but he combined with 
it sound common sense and a vigorous love of 
the ideal. His creations, therefore, are not only 
unmistakably real, but, in addition, infinitely 
noble. He knew well that what was needed 
to tell his stories were not types of men, but 
men. And again, that men, if they are fortui- 
tously copied from nature and are unmistakably 
real, cannot express those ideas which one associ- 
ates with people who take part in a powerful 
drama. It makes no difference whether this 
drama is based on the Bible, on the life of the 
saints, on an ancient myth, or on an ever)-day 
occurrence. The pictures of Titian in conse- 
quence are not epics but dramas. All the 
figures act together, making an appeal the 
more powerful, since it is single and not ad- 
dressed to several emotions. A peculiar charm 
of his art is found in the fact that its invariable 
subject, under whatever guise, is humanity. It 
is we ourselves, not as we are but as we should 
be, and Titian seems to say, as we might be, — 
noble, majestic human beings. 

His use of color is exquisite. He knows how 
to fill his pictures with poems in colors, just as 
the great musician pours them forth in sounds. 
One might almost say he thought in colors. 
And yet he never used them as a medium of 
expression distinct from the form to which 
they were attached. A Monet in a photograph 
has lost that distinctive quality which gives it 
its value. A Titian is exquisite even in a pho- 
tograph because of its composition, its action, 
and sometimes, although not always, its draw- 
ing. Nevertheless, those who have not seen 
the originals, however familiar they are with 
reproductions, do not know Titian ; for his 
greatest achievement is his use of color. 

In Titian everything is natural and orderly 
in appearance. Tintoretto and Veronese, on 
the other hand, were fond of the unusual and 



ITALIAN PAINTING 



105 



the surprising. Tintoretto especially gloried in 
selecting puzzling points of view and in over- 
coming all ensuing difficulties of light and 
perspective. The spectator often seems to be 
stooping and to be looking from an angle at 
the things portrayed, or to be raised aloft and 
looking down upon a scene the various occur- 
rences of which he could not possibly see from 
an ordinary standpoint. But he does not weary, 
for everything that Tintoretto spreads before 
him is interesting. This artist, in short, is not 
a mere trickster satisfied with playing his trick ; 
on the contrary, he is always ready to reward 
the spectator for his imaginative labor. In 
impetuosity and violence of conception he is 
almost the equal of Michelangelo, whose noble 
flights, however, he cannot reach. His contem- 
poraries called him " II Furioso," and a whirl- 
wind in the field of art he truly seems to have 
been. Some of his figures, nevertheless, are 
singularly graceful, while his coloring is superb. 

Veronese was of a more quiet disposition. 
He, too, delighted in surprises, in comple.x 
compositions which to the studious eye were 
yet as orderly as the simple stories which his 
predecessors had told. He was a master of 
color, and perhaps the first to divine the singu- 
larly decorative quality of finely colored paint- 
ings. He combined with a vivid imagination an 
ardent love of things real, and frequently intro- 
duced portrait heads of himself and his friends 
in events of the distant past. Crowds of people 
masterfully handled as mere accessories, and 
groups of massive architecture to shed its glory 
on the scene portrayed, are characteristic of 
his style. His love for pomp and splendor was 
inordinate, but his treatment and his use of 
color was so perfect that it never fails to excite 
one's admiration. 

" Paolo Veronese came," in the words of 
Professor Van Dyke, " on the very crest of the 
Renaissance wave, when art, risen to its great- 
est height, was gleaming in that transparent 
splendor that precedes the fall. . . . Those who 
came after brought about the decline by striv- 
ing to imitate his splendor, and thereby falling 
into extra varance." 



THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH 
CENTURIES, AND IN THE SIXTEENTH 
CENTURY THE FORERUNNERS OF THE 
LATE STYLES 

By the side of the great artists of the six- 
teenth century others of equal skill, perhaps, 
but of less individuality are found, whose work 
partakes of the general dignity pervading the 
creations of their age, but at the same time it is 
characterized by some peculiarities which sug- 
gest impending decline, and grow in prominence 
as time advances. According to these peculiar- 
ities the artists of the sixteenth century who 
first exhibited them, and those of the next cen- 
turies who followed them, are commonly classi- 
fied as Mannerists, Eclectics, and Naturalists. 
In Venice color continued to be the paramount 
issue, so that her sons are often treated sepa- 
rately. Several artists, finally, who did not rise 
to the level of great leaders, but were, never- 
theless, too independent to be carried away by 
any of the three or four main tendencies of art, 
are best grouped according to the places of 
their activity. 

The most famous of the Mannerists was 
Bro7izino. Like the other artists of this group 
he developed a style of precise and exaggerated 
forms, and resorted to lines which could have 
served as vehicles of mighty thoughts for no 
other reason than that they pleased his indi- 
vidual taste. Such lines were not infrequently 
inappropriate, and added to the pictures an 
element of deceitful unreality. Gradually they 
deteriorated into an unpleasant pompousness 
of expression which quickly led down the 
road of accomplished decay. In the hands 
of Bronzino this style is least objectionable, 
so that some of his pictures actually de- 
serve much of the admiration which they 
have received. They are, however, not well 
to live with ; for an observant eye soon feels 
their vanity. In his portraits this is least 
noticeable, for the character of the subjects 
supplied the necessary ideas, which the artist 
in his other pictures seemed to be singularly 
unable to grasp. 



io6 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



Vasari is another Mannerist noted not so 
much for his paintings as for his biographies 
of Italian artists, — books which are the most 
complete source of information concerning these 
men, although recent investigations have proved 
that they are not reliable in details. In his 
writings Vasari reveals himself as a man of 
keen appreciation. He loved the best ; he 
admired the noblest. Some of his statements 
are unsurpassed as expressions of sound prin- 
ciples of art ; and j-et, although he was a man 
of no mean skill, he has not painted a single pic- 
ture of great merit. This leads one to reflect 
with sorrow that the periods of creative power 
are briefer than those of appreciation ; that 
however rich an age may be in ideas, they soon 
have found their expression, and that consider- 
able time has to elapse ere new ideas are 
formed, or the old ones present themselves in 
new forms, and thus regain their power of rous- 
ing enthusiasm. And enthusiasm, of course, 
is the basis of all great art. 

The Eclectics were men of wide learning, 
filled with admiration for the creations of their 
great countrymen. They were earnest students 
of earlier works, and were able to appreciate the 
peculiar charms of several masters. The draw- 
ing of one, the color of another, and perhaps 
the composition of a third appealed to them 
as the acme of perfection. The best possible 
course, they thought, was to combine these 
several elements in a single picture. If they 
had been able to combine them also in a single 
spirit or inspiration, or to subordinate them to 
a masterful personality, their course would not 
have been bad. Few of them, however, rose mas- 
ters over their environments. They became the 
slaves of their eclectic admiration, and soon 
trod the downhill path as certainly as the 
Mannerists. 

The men of strongest personality among 
them were the Carracci, of whom Ludovico 
was the leader of the movement and Annibale 
the most important. In addition to the color 
of Titian, the form of Michelangelo, and the 
inimitable grace of Raphael they endeavored to 
copy the effects of light and shade of Correggio, 



and were thus led to paint pictures which fell 
below their several models in every respect. 
This could not be otherwise because their very 
mode of procedure compelled them to make 
allowances to all the considerations with which 
each one of the earlier masters had compro- 
mised for the sake of attaining his own peculiar 
ends. 

The Carracci, themselves, toward the end of 
their career, seem to have realized their mis- 
take and to have turned their minds to nature 
as a safer guide. Not so their pupils and a large 
number of successors, who persevered along the 
lines first indicated by Annibale and Ludovico. 

One of their contemporaries had come early 
to the study of nature, and, being a man of 
strength, had been able to form a school of his 
own, the so-called school of the Naturalists. 
Michelangelo da Caravaggio was a native of 
Naples, to which place this new movement was 
largely confined. He copied street types in all 
his pictures, irrespective of their appropriate- 
ness or lack of it in the settings which he gave 
them. And influenced, probably, by the low 
and sad surroundings of his subjects, he infused 
into his work an element of morbidness which 
often prevents the spectator from enjoying even 
those excellences which his pictures actually 
possess. Like his great predecessor Andrea del 
Sarto, who took his types from the street, he 
showed such an inordinate love of massive 
shadows that it "stood," as Professor Van 
Dyke remarks, " as an earmark of his whole 
school." 

Giuseppe Ribera, called Lo Spagnoletto on ac- 
count of his Spanish descent, and Salvator Rosa 
are the two famous followers of Caravaggio. 
Lo Spagnoletto should not perhaps be called the 
follower of any one, for he was an independ- 
ent man, believing of his own accord in the 
same principles in which Caravaggio had be- 
lieved. He, too, sought the salvation of art in 
close observation of nature, and was enamored 
of the mystic charm of shadows. 

Salvator Rosa, starting from the same prem- 
ises as his two immediate predecessors, drew 
somewhat different conclusions. His was an 



ITALIAN PAINTING 



107 



emotional nature. He was, however, a man of 
strength, so that all his work, although truly 
naturalistic, stands out with a fervor of its own. 
Rosa is, moreover, notable as one of the first 
landscape painters. The tender charm of quiet 
nature did not appeal to him. On the contrary, 
he painted desolate and rocky shores, huge 
forests, and anything else that was destined 
to overawe the "observer. In everything he 
played on the emotions, and he played hard. 

Before turning to the Late Venetians two 
men deserve mention, — Carlo Dolci and Guido 
Reni, both of whom were Eclectics. Carlo 
Dolci, like Salvator Rosa, was essentially emo- 
tional ; but he was softer. Rosa almost makes 
one shudder; Dolci makes one weep, and not 
rarely ashamed of having yielded to one's sen- 
timental instincts. His drawing, however, is 
exquisite, so that his work, in spite of its faulty 
sentiment, will doubtless continue a favorite 
with large classes of people. 

Guido Reni is almost the equal of Carlo Dolci 
in excessive sentiment ; but his compositions are 
often very beautiful and deserving of praise, pro- 
vided they are judged by their appearance alone, 
and not by their power of expressing ideas. His 
well-known picture, "Aurora," in the Palazzo 
Rospigliosi in Rome, shows him at his best. He 
has entered into the spirit of the antique, and 
has not only drawn beautiful forms but has also 
shown his skill in chiaroscuro and delicate color- 
ing. At first Guido was almost a realist, later 
he grew fond of ideal forms, and finally his style 
deteriorated, like that of the other Eclectics, into 
a meaningless reproduction of stereotyped forms 
intended to be beautiful. 

In Venice fine decorative paintings continued 
to be done long after the night of sluggish 
decay had closed in on the rest of Italy. // 
Padovanino and Pietro Libcri, two well-known 
Venetians, were contemporaries of the important 
Eclectics and Naturalists. II Canaletto, Belotto, 
Guardi, and Tiepolo, however, each of whom 
painted at least some pictures of worth, belong 
to a later century, and bridge the gulf from the 
late Renaissance to the reawakening of art in 
the nineteenth century. 



// Canaletto (Antonio da Canale), his nephew 
Belotto, sometimes also called II Canaletto, and 
Gttardi are deservedly known for their views 
of Venice and other places which they visited in 
their frequent travels. With unfailing certainty 
they knew how to select the proper point of 
view and to give to their pictures a character- 
istic atmosphere. 

The most gifted of all the Late Venetians was 
Tiepolo, in whose work the full ceremonious 
splendor of color, known in the Cinquecento, 
once more asserted itself. But Tiepolo was 
restless not only in conception but also in 
execution. He was the child of his own time. 
Had he lived two centuries earlier, his admirers 
assert, he would have been one of the greatest. 
Born, however, into an age that knew no rest 
and that needed the exaggerations of a rococo 
style in order to be interested in a work of art, 
Tiepolo found it difficult not to make allowances 
to these demands. The poise and dignity of 
some of his pictures, as, for instance, " The 
Feast of Cleopatra," in the Palazzo Labia in 
Venice, testify to the remarkable genius of the 
man who knew how to raise his art from the low 
level of imitation to a height approaching that 
of his greatest predecessors. 

Tiepolo may be considered the last of the 
famous Italians who faithfully followed the vision 
which the early men in the Gothic period and 
the Quattrocento had been the first to perceive. 
The vital power of this vision had gradually 
faded. It was necessary that new thoughts 
and new ideals should rise before another gen- 
eration of active masters could be expected. If 
one realizes the complete absence of such new 
ideas in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies — the age of Dolci, Reni, Carracci, Cara- 
vaggio and Tiepolo — and the dimness of the 
vision which had guided men for more than five 
generations, one's attitude toward the painters of 
the so-called Italian decline undergoes a change. 
From disappointment and criticism one almost 
turns to a sense of admiration; for without a 
guiding star they dared to proceed, and made 
their way through the gloom on the whole 
not discreditably. 



io8 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

It is difficult to recognize in the Italian 
painters of the nineteenth century the descend- 
ants of the great Renaissance artists. The 
aims and accomplishments of the moderns are 
fundamentally different from those of earlier 
ages, so that the technical skill of the artists 
alone can give evidence of a long and splendid 
descent. Individually these artists are, with 
possibly one or two exceptions, less great than 
the masters of the Quattrocento and the Cin- 
quecento. The very fact, however, that they 
do not aspire, as a class, to imitate their famous 
forerunners, but are eager to work along their 
own lines, is sufficient guarantee of consider- 
able worth. They are striving after truth ; and 
although the conquest of truth depends on 
breadth of vision suggesting the proper ap- 
proach, serious and continued search cannot 
fail to result ultimately in comprehensive cul- 
ture and success. 

The early nineteenth century was marked by 
a certain indecision as regards the proper path 
which art should follow. Some men still turned 
their eyes to the past and endeavored to create 
worthy pictures by combining the best elements 
of earlier works. The greatest of these Eclectics 
was Caniuccini in Rome, who only late in life 
began to feel the influences of the new ideals 
which had grown up in the north of Europe. 

It was largely the classic school of a French- 
man, David, which had begun to find ardent 
admirers also in Italy. Appiani of Milan es- 
poused its cause, and, being a man of consid- 
erable worth, succeeded in painting pictures 
which even to-day deserve praise. Other artists, 
such as Coghetti of Rome, sought inspiration 
in contact with the German Romanticists, the 
best of whom then lived in Rome. The Classi- 
cists and the Romanticists alike were attracted 
by historical subjects, so that historic and 
historico-religious pictures were the best to be 
found in Italy in the first half of the nine- 
teenth century. 

Ne.xt to history, genre proved to be a favor- 
ite of the Italians, probably because in it the 



artist can show his skill. He is not bound by 
accidents of nature, and may design an entire 
picture according to the dictates of his artistic 
intentions. To these dictates Masaccio, early in 
the Quattrocento, had been the first to make 
allowances, establishing thus the modern art 
of painting. Properly coupled with truthful 
representations of nature they form the foun- 
dations of good art. Exempted, on the other 
hand, from this union and made the leading 
motive, they give to pictures an air of artifi- 
ciality. The charge which is justly made against 
most Italian genre painters is that they have 
laid too much emphasis on their artistic inten- 
tions, disregarding the worth of their subjects 
and choosing costumes, poses, and actions which, 
because they are not based on truth, appear to 
be unreal and artificial. 

If these Italian genre pictures have, never- 
theless, pleased many people, it has been due 
to the scintillating brightness of their color 
schemes, which, real or unreal, has the power 
of creating an actual sense of physical pleasure. 
For many years, therefore, these pictures have 
had a good market. But this in turn has reacted 
on their quality, for most of them, doubtless, 
were painted with no higher motive than that 
of realizing a handsome price. 

In justice to some Italian genre painters it 
must be said that if they disregarded truth in 
the selection of their subjects, painting fanciful 
ease of living, dancing, joy, and never a bit of 
work, as if their poor country abounded in 
wealth, even they strove after truth in execu- 
tion. Their colors easily convey the irrespon- 
sible and thoughtless pursuit of pleasure which 
their subjects suggest. 

An entirely new mode of genre painting 
originated in Naples at about the middle of 
the century. Here Morelli had begun to search 
after "absolute truth," that is, truth founded 
on the realities of visible nature rather than 
of imagination. He and his followers made 
exact studies of their actual surroundings and 
traveled much, especially in the East, in order 
to quicken their observative powers. Their 
realism, as was natural in the bright lands 



I 



ITALIAN PAINTING 



109 



where they worked, was coupled with an exqui- 
site brightness of color. In this respect they 
had, moreover, the marvelous example of the 
gayest of colorists, the Spaniard, Fortuny, who 
lived among them. " Ah, Fortuny, Fortuny," 
a great French artist had exclaimed, " you are 
the master of us all. Even in our dreams we 
are haunted by the splendor of your pictures." 
" Their color indeed glitters and sparkles and 
cajoles the eye," in the words of Professor 
Gensel, "with the charm of poems woven into 
oriental rugs." 

Essentially different from the traditional 
genre painters and from the Neapolitan real- 
ists, Giovanni Scgantini of Milan rose to fame 
in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. 
He was of a singularly peaceful and dreamy 
disposition. He loved the quiet harmonies of 
eventide and saw the steadying influences of 
humble work well done, but also gladly thought 
of the moments of rest that follow it. The 
quiet and seemingly insignificant details of 
daily life appealed to him, because of the im- 
portance which they assumed in his imagina- 
tion. He was thus, unconsciously, led to carry 
out the principles of the two contemporary 
schools of Genre Painters and of Realists 
with whom he at first appeared to have abso- 
lutely no connection. Truth, however, pre- 
sented itself to him in a new aspect, and one 
that is akin to the conceptions of most great 
modern masters. 



Several younger men have begim to see 
things as Segantini saw them, using not only 
their bodily eyes but also their spiritual vision. 
Judging by the works seen in recent exhibi- 
tions they are in the ascendency, and eager 
to supplant the painters of genre pictures, 
that " superficial art manufactured for the 
benefit of the foreigner," as some one has 
appropriately called them. But as yet it is 
difficult to discern from which quarter the 
wind of inspiration will continue to blow. The 
minds of the people have been stirred, while 
from the heated discussions of twenty years 
ago as to what constituted the highest kind 
of truth the artists have settled down to solve 
actual problems ; they have begun to realize 
that theoretical discussions are valuable, but 
that in all ethical questions experience alone 
supplies satisfactory answers. 

The places which in earlier centuries led in 
the pursuit of art are coming to the fore again, 
but so general is the intercourse of modern life 
that no special characteristics are attributable 
to the various centers of painting. As yet Milan 
and Naples have produced the greatest men, 
— Appiani, Morelli, Segantini, — with Venice 
and Rome close seconds, and Turin and Flor- 
ence not far behind. Surveying what the 
Italians have thus far done, it needs no 
prophet's eye to tell one that in the coming 
century they will once more take their place 
by the side of the best. 



CHAPTER III 



GERMAN PAINTING 



THE FOURTEENTH AND EARLY 
FIFTEENTH CENTURIES 

In 1359, twenty-two years after the death 
of Giotto in Italy, the first official recognition 
was bestowed on a German painter. In this 
year Emperor Charles IV decreed notable hon- 
ors to his " Well-beloved Master and Court- 
Officer, Nicolaus Jl'/tniiscr." Similar honors 
were granted to the same man in 1364, and to 
another, Theodoricli of Prague, in 1 367. If 
the attribution of pictures to these men — the 
Crucifixion from the chapel of Castle Karlstein 
to Wurmser, and the other pictures from the 
same chapel to Theodorich — is correct, one 
can form a fairly accurate estimate of German 
painting in their time. The picture assigned to 
Wurmser is crude, obviously following a con- 
ventional type. The drawing indicates some 
proficiency, perhaps as the result of centuries of 
practice in text illustrations, while as a paint- 
ing the picture is decidedly poor. The peculiar 
tenderness, however, which was to characterize 
the whole of German art shows even in this 
early picture, especially in the figure of the 
sorrowful Mary. Another point of interest is 
the endeavor of the artist to be true to nature, 
not in everything, but in some details which 
happened to have come to his observation. He 
attempted, for instance, to portray in color the 
appearance of the surfaces of things, such as 
the skin, the hair, and the draperies. 

The pictures attributed to Theodorich, espe- 
cially the half-figures of St. Ambrose and St. 
Augustine now in Vienna, show a marked ad- 
vance, and give indications not only of a well- 
developed artistic sense in composition but also 
of a certain power of characterization. 

A famous contemporary of these two artists, 
working in Bohemia, was Mcister Wilhclvi of 



Cologne. He made his power so distinctly felt 
that even the historians of that time took cog- 
nizance of him and mentioned him in their 
writings, — a most unusual thing for them to 
do. Since no extant pictures, save a few dim 
fragments of the wall decorations of the city hall, 
now in the museum of Cologne, can be definitely 
attributed to him, one must draw one's conclu- 
sions as to his importance from those extant 
pictures which emanated from his school. This 
is the less dangerous, since he exerted, as is 
known, a powerful influence on his followers, 
and some of these pictures may even have been 
painted by him. 

Characteristic of all is their winsome sweet- 
ness. Most of them were not intended for 
churches, but for the home, to serve as means 
of private devotion. Admiring love rather than 
adoring reverence is their keynote. They are 
simple in composition, not free from technical 
mistakes, but generally so conceived and com- 
posed that they do not glaringly transgress the 
limits of the artist's powers. In color they are 
superior to anything painted in Italy at the 
same time. It seems that the Germans, who 
were less concerned with the principles of 
beauty and the problems of technique than 
with the expression of sentiment, had begun to 
feel the charm of color earlier than the Italians. 

The knowledge of perspective, in so far as 
it appears in these early pictures, was common 
property, and was resorted to merely as a con- 
venient means of telling a story. The Germans 
did not consider it to be a thing of inherent 
value, worthy to be studied for its own sake, 
or capable of becoming one of the most desir- 
able points of excellence of a picture. Tech- 
nical perfection, in other words, was not held 
to be of supreme importance in Germany. 
This fact readily accounts for the fundamental 



GERMAN PAINTING 



I I I 



difference between Italian and German art. 
The Italians demanded a beautiful expression 
for a beautiful thought, and provided the former 
was excellent, the latter need not always be of 
very great consequence. Not so the Germans. 
To them the meaning of the picture was every- 
thing, and consequently all devices were accept- 
able that were able to convey it. 

But this is not the only difference. There 
is one other which is constantly felt by stu- 
dents, but cannot well be formulated. It con- 
cerns the different temperaments according to 
which the two people are variously affected by 
what might seem to be identical ideas. Reli- 
gious and devotional thoughts of God and the 
Virgin Mary, for instance, do not necessarily 
result in the same emotions for both races. 
Love, too, a passion which one would think 
was the same the world over, affects people 
who submit to it variously, according to their 
national temperament. It is this different effect 
of passions or thoughts, for which there are }'et 
no different words, which places its unmistak- 
able stamp on the national art of a people. Being 
an elusive quality, it is only understood by ex- 
perience. To a certain extent it affects the tech- 
nique and everything that collectively may be 
called the "e.xterior" of a picture. And since 
this again is intimately connected with the gen- 
eral conditions under which art develops, the 
latter often shed valuable light on the differ- 
ences of character which are responsible for the 
peculiarities of a national art. 

Painting in Germany developed under very 
different conditions from those in Italy. Here 
the people had a glorious past to which they 
attempted to join their own endeavors. The 
elevation of men by means of universal learn- 
ing was their aim. Men of an all-round educa- 
tion were to be found in every walk of life. 
Art pleased all ; it was one of the manifesta- 
tions of the fullness of life. The princes, the 
nobihty, and the communities gave their patron- 
age, and every individual added his sympathy. 
The artists, like those for whom they worked, 
were people of culture, of general refinement, 
of taste. 



In Germany there was no glorious past of 
knowledge and light ; there were neither 
princes nor nobility who cared for anything but 
worldly power. A blind, one-sided, and scho- 
lastic pursuit of letters was the highest culture 
known. It was, moreover, distinctly out of 
touch with life. The people at large — the 
burghers, the city folk — neither knew of it, nor 
would they have cared for it had they known 
it. They were practical people, in the sense 
that they desired their natural needs to be sat- 
isfied. When they found the Catholic religion 
unsuited for practical use they threw it over 
and established a new faith. One of their natu- 
ral needs was an appeal to their sentiment, — 
Gemiit, — which is a very different thing from 
sentimentality. This appeal was made by their 
artists. Like the large masses of people, these 
artists were innocent of much, sometimes per- 
haps of any, learning. They lacked culture 
and the perception of the right proportion of 
things, which goes with it. Their art was like 
a garden which the wise gardener. Taste, had 
never visited ; where weeds and flowers had 
grown up together, but where, thanks to Heaven 
and favorable conditions, the flowers were not 
choked and gone. In the Italian flower garden 
of art Taste was busily engaged all the time. 
Nothing was permitted to grow that came not 
of noble stock, and many a plant was cropped 
because the stern eye of the master preferred 
it should develop in other ways. 

Taste, however, is sometimes innate in a man 
who follows its dictates even before he has 
acquired culture. But lest men of such particu- 
lar gifts should be imagined to have altered too 
powerfully the undisturbed and original growth 
of German art, one other factor is to be remem- 
bered. Painting in Germany was a trade like 
any other. There was the period of apprentice- 
ship, then the three years of journeying, • — ■ 
die Wanderjahre, — and finally, when fortune 
favored, the enrollment into a union and the 
acquisition of the title of Meister. The pay- 
was accordingly. The Meister received the 
commission ; but he who gave it knew that the 
Meister could have the underpaid assistance 



112 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



of apprentices and journeymen, and, giving his 
order generally in fulfillment of a vow, the 
donor was anxious to save as much money as 
possible. Rarely, moreover, was he a man of 
means, and never a judge of assthetic beauty. 
If the picture satisfied the demands of his sen- 
timents, he, too, was satisfied. 

Under these conditions the shortcomings of 
early German art are not nearly so surprising 
as its many points of excellence. Its virtues 
were not accidents ; its faults, however, were 
fairly sure to disappear as soon as the general 
standing of the people was raised to a higher 
level. If ever there was a national art in the 
sense of its being the expression of the unin- 
fluenced and unbiased ideas of the people, this 
was the art of Germany in the fourteenth and 
early fifteenth centuries. 

By the side of the men already noted one 
other deserves mention, — Meister Stephan,v/\\o, 
like Meister Wilhelm, belonged to the school 
of Cologne. His altar piece in the Cathedral 
of Cologne is perhaps the best of all early Ger- 
man paintings. In the center the adoration of 
the Magi is represented. From the left St. 
Ursula and her virgins, and from the right 
St. Gereon and his knights, draw near. On the 
backs of the doors of the shrine the Annuncia- 
tion is depicted. This latter scene is the only 
one in which the artist has endeavored to repro- 
duce space. The other pictures are more or less 
flat. They are filled with noble figures, not ill 
arranged and individually well characterized, 
but uniformly lacking in dramatic force. 

This is one of the many German shortcom- 
ings, — the inability to portray action. As an 
explanation it has been suggested that most 
German biblical pictures are based on impres- 
sive scenes from the religious plays, — Mys- 
terienspiele, — none of which were performed by 
skilled actors. The artists were thus satisfied 
with reproducing what they had actually seen, 
instead of visualizing the action which they 
endeavored to reproduce. 

One pleasing result of their basing their ac- 
counts on the Mysterienspiele is that all their 
characters are humanly near to the spectator. 



Be it God himself, Christ or Mary, the apostles 
or the saints, all appear in forms which are 
easily understood. This makes a closer bond of 
union between the spectator and the characters 
of the picture than even the noblest creation of 
an ideal conception could produce. And since no 
lack of reverence ever spoils them, they rank, 
in spite of their technical defects, among the 
very best religious pictures of any age. 

THE LATE FIFTEENTH AND THE SIX- 
TEENTH CENTURIES 

The intercourse between nations even in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was such 
that no one people could remain entirely unin- 
fluenced by any of the others. For German 
painting, strangely enough, the achievements of 
the Italians at that time were of little conse- 
quence. The northern artists rarely crossed the 
Alps, while they frequently passed, during the 
years of journeying required of them, down 
the Rhine and into the Netherlands. Of all 
Dutch and Flemish painters the influence of 
Rogier van der Weyden is most clearly felt in 
German art ; and as time progressed there 
entered into this art more and more of the 
point of view cultivated in the Netherlands. 
The great masters of the sixteenth century 
also paid attention to Italy and her art, but 
during the brief course of fine German art Italy 
did not become the center of ambitious study. 
The eyes of the people did not turn to her 
until the early seventeenth century, when Ger- 
man art, like Emperor Barbarossa of old, had 
to succumb to a long sleep of national inactivity. 

Northwestern Germany had been the seat of 
the rise of the national art, barring the two men 
working for Emperor Charles IV in Bohemia. 
Gradually the center of excellence shifted. 
The greatest artists worked in the southern 
half of the country. The transition from the 
half-crude pictures of the early Germans to the 
almost perfect work of Holbein, Durer, and 
Cranach is incredibly swift, and only few of the 
intervening personalities stand out with suffi- 
cient clearness. 



GERMAN PAINTING 



I I 



Martin Schongauer is one of them. He is the 
first really great German painter, and although 
few of his paintings are extant, his importance 
is none the less certain, for it is attested to by his 
numerous engravings. He coupled the realistic 
tendencies of his predecessors with a delicate 
sense for the ideal, and was distinguished by an 
individuality of conception which readily raised 
his work to an unwonted height of perfection. 
His technique, learned no doubt in the Nether- 
lands, where he had been a pupil of Rogier van 
der Weyden, was good and enabled him to do 
justice to his essential tenderness of thought 
and expression. 

The achievements of Schongauer were still 
further developed by a somewhat younger man 
of the same school, — Hans Holbein the Eider, 
an artist who has suffered in appreciation, owing 
to the yet greater importance of his son, Hans 
Holbein the Younger. Holbein the Elder had 
the good fortune of being born in a city of wealth. 
Augsburg was commercially successful, and was 
actually ^■}'ing with the rich city of Venice in 
splendor and in la-vish favor bestowed on art. 
Holbein thus found a fertile field for his great 
natural gifts, and succeeded by continually earn- 
est work in raising the standards of German art, 
at least in some respects, to the level of the 
High Renaissance in Italy. 

In his early pictures he showed the influence 
of Schongauer, and incidentally that of the 
Netherlands. He was an excellent draughts- 
man and composed his pictures well; he also 
had the gift of catching convincing poses and 
facial expressions, but failed to combine the 
several details into a uniformly satisfactory 
ensemble. His feeling for the ornamental and 
the telling use of architecture was considerable ; 
but his color was not always pleasing, and his 
execution not rarely seemingly careless. Withal 
he gave indications of being a gifted man of 
high ideas, yet one whose own elevation was 
not sufficient to obtain for him that comprehen- 
siveness of understanding which characterizes 
the really great artist. 

His son, Hans Holbeiti the Yoicnger, surpassed 
him in every respect, notably in what has 



properly been called "the free painter's quality." 
Like his father he had a clear eye for things as 
they are, and the gift of selecting the essen- 
tial, and, what is even rarer, the power of indi- 
cating, by never a line that overshot its mark, 
the spiritual attitude of his subjects. Holbein 
the Elder had possessed to some extent the 
gift of dramatic representation, which had 
been singularly absent in early German art ; 
the younger Holbein developed it to its highest 
point of perfection. With the smallest means 
and in a fashion that was as convincing as it 
was admirably simple, he succeeded in portray- 
ing actions of importance. A passionate love 
of beautiful forms, which may be discerned in 
many figures of his father, was characteristic 
of him in ever)thing; and, to make only one 
more comparison, the fine sense of color which 
his father had cultivated toward the end of his 
career was so marked in his own work that it 
must have been his by natural endowment 
rather than by acquisition. 

The young Holbein traveled extensively, he 
knew the art of all countries, and learned his 
lessons from them without losing his individ- 
uality. His constant study was nature, so that 
it is probable that the works of others inter- 
ested him only in so far as they gave him new 
points of view of already familiar objects. By 
far his best works are his portraits, in which 
he is often held to have been, and still to be, 
unexcelled. They are excellent hkenesses, but 
they are more ; they are records of characters. 
One comes into immediate contact with the per- 
son, and not alone, as is frequently the case, 
with that side of him which happened to appeal 
to the artist. In viewing most portraits three 
people may be said to be present, — the spec- 
tator, the artist, and the person portrayed. 
Holbein always effaced himself by setting 
before one the full complex personality of his 
subject. This is realism at its best, and that 
it is not attained by so-called realistic copying 
of nature is self-evident. It is the result of a 
wise selection of essentials. 

Aibrecht Diirer, the other great German 
painter, was the equal of Holbein in excellence 



114 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



of artistic achievement, but in everything else 
fundamentally different from him. Diirer was 
fervently imaginative, Holbein cool, observant, 
objective ; when Diirer was engaged on one 
thing he never forgot all the other things 
which his all-round personality had taught him 
to know ; Holbein could sink himself com- 
pletely into the task at hand, and in his best 
works effaced his personality. The character 
of Diirer, on the other hand, conscientious, 
thoughtful, fervent, and inspiring, is evident 
always. He has been called a hero of earnest 
labor. One almost sees him toiling for the 
realization of his ideal. Holbein also gives us 
the best in his power, but in such a fashion 
that we never doubt he gives it easily. 

A close bond between these two great artists 
is their common love of nature, although they 
approached her differently. Diirer's imagina- 
tion enabled him to take interest not only in 
men and beasts but also in plants, rocks, and 
water. The whole world was his, and nothing 
was too insignificant for him to take to his big 
warm heart. He was a religious man. Christ 
ruled him in his later life as surely as when he 
was a boy listening to the noble precepts of his 
parents. 

With this essentially spiritual nature Diirer 
coupled sound common sense and an intellect 
of no mean order. In this respect he has been 
compared with Leonardo da Vinci, who also 
never ceased pondering on theoretical problems. 

Unlike the majority of his German predeces- 
sors, Diirer was a man of learning in the Italian 
sense of the word. Twice he visited Italy, and 
he knew well both the antique and the Italian 
Renaissance. After his first visit he endeavored 
to attain in his works that exquisite beauty of 
line which characterized the Florentines, while 
after his second journey he turned his mind 
more to the admirable Venetian use of color. 
Throughout, however, he remained German ; 
and his subjects continued to be such as would 
naturally appeal to the German mind. 

Critics to-day, although quick to acknowl- 
edge the importance of Diirer, do not agree in 
their estimate of his work. Some praise it as 



among the best that has ever been done. 
Others, little mindful of the thoughts expressed, 
and judging of the technique alone, find many 
faults. These are thus summed up by Professor 
Van Dyke : " There is in Diirer a naive awk- 
wardness of figure, some angularity of line, 
strain of pose, and in composition oftentimes 
huddling and overloading of the scene with 
details. There is not that largeness which 
seemed native to his Italian contemporaries. 
He was hampered by that German exactness 
which found its best expression in engraving, 
and which, though unsuited to painting, never- 
theless crept into it." 

The last of the great German painters was 
Lucas Cranach the Elder. His works covered 
a large variety of subjects and were extremely 
uneven. He was at his best in his portraits and 
in his madonnas, some of which are properly 
reckoned among the noblest creations of Ger- 
man art. He was a prolific artist and deserves 
the credit of having made known the achieve- 
ments of the south also in the north and east 
of Germany. Here his name is even to-day 
more highly esteemed than those of Holbein 
and Diirer, although he was not their equal 
either in grandeur of conception or in tech- 
nique. His popularity is doubtless due partly 
to the fact that as a friend of Luther he was 
one of the first to embrace Protestantism, and 
partly to his astounding versatility, which makes 
it difficult to conceive of any emotion which he 
did not satisfy in at least one of his pictures. 
He was, moreover, a man of keen humor and 
knew how to sketch telling parodies of things 
and men. His color was very brilliant at first ; 
later, when the subjects and not their execu- 
tion absorbed his attention, it became duller, 
and gradually grew to be fairly cold. His 
chief defect was his ignorance, or his neglect, 
of the principles of chiaroscuro and of even the 
simplest laws of aerial perspective. 

Like Hans Holbein, he had a son of his own 
name, Lucas Cranach the Younger. But while 
the younger Holbein possessed all the good 
qualities of his father to a larger degree than 
his father, the younger Cranach is generally 



GERMAN PAINTING 



"5 



considered to have been a weaker edition of the 
older man. This view, however, has recently met 
with much disapproval; for it has been pointed 
out that several pictures heretofore assigned to 
the father were painted by the son. The latter, 
therefore, may have been unjustly judged; and 
possibly deserves a reputation equal to that of 
Lucas Cranach the Elder. 

If one compares the best Renaissance Ger- 
man art with that of Italy, one realizes that 
the Germans did not discover anything new. 
As regards the subject, they had a different 
paint of view from that of the Italians, and had 
different emotions to express ; but neither in 
drawing nor in color, that is, in what regards the 
technical side of their art, did they take a step 
in advance. If anything, they remained behind 
the Italians. Only Holbein with his easy mas- 
tery of difficulties and his keen perception of 
the dignity of essentials, even when the subject 
itself appeared insignificant to less observant 
eyes, contains a hint of a much later phase of art, 
and one that was to give new life to painting in 
the nineteenth century. For centuries, how- 
ever, this importance of the master remained 
unnoticed ; for his successors, unlike himself, 
could not study Italian art without becoming 
enslaved to it. 

The remarkable spectacle, therefore, is offered 
of a whole nation turning, as it were, against 
the achievements of its own great men and fol- 
lowing the example of another people, just as if 
Diirer, Holbein, and Cranach had not lived, and 
had not painted pictures worthy to hang by the 
side of the best works of any age and any nation. 

THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH 
CENTURIES 

The seventeenth century in Germany as well 
as in Italy ushered in the age of the imitators, 
"those who follow after," or the epigonoi, as 
they have been well named. That Germany fared 
worse than her neighbor across the Alps is not 
difficult to understand, because the Italians at 
least imitated what came natural to them, — 
the work of their own great men, — while the 



Germans did not even dare to look up to the 
achievements of Holbein and his contempora- 
ries. They sought salvation in the study and 
imitation of what had been conceived by men of 
very different ideals from their own. The splen- 
dor of Rome and of Venice made them pur- 
blind to their native art. To paint like the great 
Italians was their desire, and this of course being 
impossible, they failed to do even the best that 
they otherwise might have done. 

The blame, however, attaches not entirely to 
the artists. The people at large, it appears, had 
lost all interest in the pursuit of quiet ideals. 
Something new, something startling, seems to 
have been their desire. It was an age of rest- 
lessness, when the meaningless scrolls and 
volutes of the baroque and rococo styles rose 
to unwonted popularity. Viewed in this light, 
the artists who succeeded in keeping alive at 
least the memory of the noble art of the past 
may be said to deserve more praise than blame. 
They were not original, they were not great, 
but they believed in noble things, and by their 
imitation made it easier for their successors to 
find again the proper path. 

Perhaps the best known of these men was 
Adam Ehheimer, of Frankfort, who spent most 
of his life in Rome. Although not great in the 
sense of Michelangelo or Titian, he was yet a 
man of no mean powers, and succeeded in 
summing up the lesson of the Italian Renais- 
sance as no other could have done. Only in 
the Netherlands were there artists left to profit 
by his teachings, and to them he became truly 
the link by which Italian influences were trans- 
mitted. Elzheimer, moreover, was not a slavish 
imitator. To a certain extent he kept his Ger- 
man personality and welded it cleverly with his 
conception of the Italian character. His pic- 
tures, nevertheless, are to-day of little more 
than historic interest. 

His contemporaries admired his landscapes 
for which he took the subjects from the neigh- 
borhood of Rome. He did, however, not work 
directly from nature, but from his memory, and 
filled his pictures with strange creations of 
fancy. The ensuing " poetic " quality of his 



Ii6 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



work was formerly much praised. His pictures 
are "composed " not only according to masses 
but also according to values of color, and of 
light and shade. He was skilled enough to do 
justice to his intentions, — and to this extent 
his work is good, — but not wise enough to 
disguise them, which gives to most of his pic- 
tures an undesirable element of artificiality. 
What he most lacked was the reckless quality, 
as one might almost say, of the true artist who 
is willing to make compromises. He desired 
to have his pictures perfect in every respect, 
and consequently failed to paint a single pic- 
ture sufficiently excellent in any one respect 
to carry the spectator to the land where noble 
art alone can pass. 

Jolmnn Heinrich Roos, slightly younger than 
Elzheimer, spent some years in Italy and finally 
settled in Frankfort, the native place of the 
latter. He is best known for his animal pictures, 
some of which would be excellent, judged even 
by modern standards, if they were not overladen 
with fanciful ruins and landscapes which Roos 
remembered having seen in the Roman Cam- 
pagna. They add to the compositions an element 
of unreality which not even the well-conceived 
and skillfully painted cattle are able to dissipate. 

The early eighteenth century finds Germany 
even poorer in artistic talent than the preceding 
period. Only few men achieved a reputation that 
survived them, and hardly ever was even this 
short-lived recognition based on actual merit. 
Rugctidas, Denner, Graff, and Cltodoiviccki are 
the best known names. The last was an artist 
of note, but not so much painter as draughts- 
man. Rugendas is remembered as a spirited 
painter of battle scenes, while Denner cannot be 
forgotten on account of the crass and often ugly 
realism of his portraits. He imitated minutely 
every accidental detail of nature, — freckles, 
wrinkles, warts, and unshaven skin, — in which 
respect he is the very opposite of Holbein. 
Sometimes, nevertheless, he succeeded in paint- 
ing remarkably well-characterized heads, and is 
thus favorably distinguished from most of his 
contemporaries. His main fault was his inability 
to combine into one uniform whole the many 



details of nature, for all of which he had a sharp 
eye. A better portrait painter than Denner, but 
a man of less power, was Anton Graff. 

To this list of once famous names that of 
Daniel Gran should be added. He was the best 
representative of the decorative painters of his 
age, whose compositions were bold and some- 
times almost grand. They attempted regular 
tours dc force in perspective, and were not afraid 
of the most dazzling effects of light and shade, 
and of an almost sensuous use of color. 

The works of all these men from Elzheimer 
to Gran was to count little for the future ; for 
these artists drew their inspiration, if such it 
may be called, too directly from the immediate 
past to enable them to be original. In the 
middle of the eighteenth century, however, a 
new school arose. Again, the same antique that 
had served once before as an awakening force, 
when light began to dawn in Italy in the four- 
teenth century, was to exert its undiminished 
power. To-day, when problems of much vitality 
separate us from this second period of classical 
revival, we are apt to apply the term " classi- 
cists " to men of whom we desire to show our 
disapproval. Like ungrateful children, we have 
forgotten the means which once saved us from 
danger. But it is wise to reflect that in the 
entire history of the world there are only three 
periods of really great art,i — that of the antique, 
the Renaissance, and the nineteenth century, — 
each one of which is based either directly or 
indirectly on communion with the classic spirit. 

Among the German artists who were influ- 
enced by the classical revival three deserve 
notice, — Mengs, Carstens, and Angelica Kauff- 
mann. Rome was the center of their activity. 
Here Winckelmann had settled in 1755, and it 
was here he wrote his History of Art, which 
was the basis of the entire classical revival. In 
Mengs, who was then director of the newly 
founded Academy of Painters in Rome, he found 
not only a congenial friend but also a man who 
was willing to enforce his teachings with the 

1 This takes no account of the Gothic period of architec- 
ture, unless one considers this the natural development of an 
earlier phase of architecture ultimately based on classic art. 



GERMAN PAINTING 



117 



creations of his brush. To say of Mengs that he 
" soared after the sublime with eclectic wings " 
is doing him small justice. He seriously ap- 
proached the conceptions of the antique and 
wrestled honestly with fresh problems. For 
once no new interpretation of threadworn sub- 
jects was attempted, but a genuine expression 
of a deeply felt idea. That we who have learned 
much in one hundred and fifty years recognize 
the ideas not to be genuinely classic, nor the 
execution skillful or adequate, detracts little 
from the praise that should be bestowed on 
Mengs the pioneer. Technically, Caistens was 
hardly the equal of Mengs, but he entered into 
the spirit of the antique with more natural vigor, 
so that he is often called the Father of German 
Classicism. Once lauded to the skies, and then 
all but forgotten, he has recently been more 
justly judged. To look for a perfect artist in 
him would be asking for the impossible. His 
influence, nevertheless, was far reaching. Mengs 
would never have been able to kindle among the 
rising generation of artists the enthusiasm for 
the antique with which Carstens imbued them. 
Mengs admired the classic spirit intellectually ; 
Carstens loved it with every fiber of his emo- 
tional nature. 

Hardly the equal of either Mengs or Carstens, 
Angelica Kaitffmatin deserves a place of honor 
on account of her gentle spirit and her not in- 
considerable skill. She is best known for her 
portraits, which to-day, nevertheless, are gener- 
ally passed by as " simply pretty." Her classic 
pictures are well composed and exhibit a pleas- 
ing color scheme ; but they are weak, for her 
poetic nature failed to grasp the full meaning 
of powerful ideas. 

Not even the most sanguine could have 
prophesied at the turn of the century the won- 
derful development of art that the next one 
hundred years were to see. The very dullest, 
on the other hand, could not have failed to see 
that the caldron had at last begun to boil, that 
some revival was pending. Equally impossible 
it would have been to mistake the direction in 
which art was to turn. The only school which 
showed latent life was that of Mengs, based on 



the never waning power of classicism. Men 
may temporarily withdraw themselves from the 
influence of this power, but they have never 
failed to be filled by it with inspiration when- 
ever they have turned to it as honest seekers 
after truth. 

To study German painting of the eighteenth 
century without reference to the other periods 
of paintings or to the general conditions of the 
country or of the world at large is manifestly 
unjust. Neither to the Italians of the Renais- 
sance nor to the lovers of the best modern art 
can this painting appeal as worthy in itself. 
The student of history, however, — the all- 
round man, — who has learned to appreciate 
not only positive but also relative values, finds 
in it much of interest. In fact, more than once 
he is called upon to rest in his survey that he 
may bestow some admiration on men who in 
an uninspired age preserved with zeal the 
memory of fine and noble ideals. 

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

If it is true that one fails to understand the 
art of a people unless one readily enters into 
its spirit, and is willing to judge it not only by 
arbitrary standards but also by the relation 
which it bears to the conceptions of the people, 
this is conspicuously true of modern German 
art. American standards are almost exclusively 
French. We sympathize with the aims of French 
artists, and rank a picture by the evidence which 
it gives of endeavors along these lines. We even 
persist in doing so, notwithstanding we have 
learned that the meager means at the disposal 
of a painter prevent him from doing justice to 
more than one point of view. This realization 
should make us charitable, and eager to study 
the works of those whose aims are different from 
our own. To study them is the more necessary 
since our own point of view becomes more 
clearly defined when it is compared with that 
of other people. 

Subject and technique are the two notable 
factors in a picture. The artist may place the 
emphasis on both alike, or on one to the 



ii8 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



detriment of the other. Broad classifications 
are not always helpful, but in the case of most 
German artists of the nineteenth century it 
may be said that, in contrast to their French 
contemporaries, they were concerned with wliat 
they should paint and not how they should paint 
it, the latter question interesting them only in 
so far as it is impossible to do anything with- 
out a certain amount of technique. "A painter 
should know how to paint," King Louis of 
Bavaria exclaimed in disgust when his protege, 
Cornelius, too glaringly disregarded the how of 
his art. 

As time advanced greater emphasis was 
naturally placed, even in Germany, on the per- 
fection of the technical side of painting ; but 
the strong undercurrent of the importance of a 
worthy subject did not disappear. There may, 
of course, be an honest difference of opinion as 
to what constitutes a worthy subject, and in the 
lighter vein of art the character of the people to 
whom it is meant to appeal must be considered. 

To disapprove of the German technique and 
to condemn the German subject because the 
American mind finds no satisfaction in it, is ob- 
viously unjust. Many Americans have sneered 
at Punch because their sense of humor de- 
manded other jokes and sallies than the English 
paper contained, and have, after an acquaintance 
with the English people, learned to appreciate 
as funny what formerly they called silly and 
meaningless. With many people the pleasure 
in little things is as keen as the delight in great 
things is with others ; and the appeal to the 
former is fully as legitimate as that to the latter. 
To disapprove of the endeavors of an artist who 
is pleased with little things simply because we 
ourselves need more powerful ideas to arouse 
our emotions is unjust. 

The German people as a whole, especially of 
a generation ago, had the gift of ennobling with 
proper sentiment the small conditions under 
which they lived. Some of their great favorites 
were artists who understood this faculty. " I 
know," said Ludwig Richter, "what art is and 
what are her demands. I delight in her many 
gradations and directions, I know her errors and 



dangerous side tracks, and I am happy and con- 
tent with the little corner where my place is 
ordained to be." Shall we condemn the work 
of such a man because he has no message for 
us, and sneer at the thousands of people who 
have understood him } 

A more broad-minded attitude toward Richter, 
and the many men who have worked like him, 
than is customary to-day will dispose of much 
unjust criticism of German art. 

Characteristic of another class of artists who 
are much misunderstood are Anselm Feuer- 
bach and Friedrich Overbeck. The former 
wrote, after a visit to Florence, these words : 
"My future path stood before me clearly. I 
seemed thus far to have painted only with my 
hands. Suddenly I had come to be the possessor 
also of a living soul." And Overbeck said, "My 
art is like a harp on which I desire at all times 
to sound psalms in the honor of God." Differ- 
ent as these two men were, the one from the 
other, they were alike in their belief that a 
great artist is not only a technician but also, 
and above everything else, a noble man. The 
justice of their position will not be denied, and 
it will be granted that if we call neither of 
them masters of painting because they were 
lacking in skill, fairness demands that we do 
not rank them lower than those of our own 
artists who have technical skill but fail to give 
indications of nobility of conception. 

In recent years a school of open air {plciu 
air) painters has risen in Germany, — the so- 
called Impressionists, or, as they are better 
known. Secessionists, because since 1883 they 
have withdrawn from participation in official ex- 
hibitions. None of their works, unfortunately, 
were seen in St. Louis in 1904 because of the 
antagonistic attitude of the government. Their 
point of view is very much akin to that preva- 
lent in America, so that an exhibition of their 
paintings would have done much to increase 
the American estimate of German art. 

The classic enthusiasm kindled among Ger- 
man artists in the eighteenth century by 
Carstens and Mengs continued in the early 



GERMAN PAINTING 



119 



nineteenth century with Genelh, Preller, and 
Rottmann, all of whom sought inspiration in 
the study of the antique. 

Gaielli was the only one of this trio who 
was not interested in landscapes. His forte 
was the human figure, especially in motion. In 
the best works by Prcllcr the figures are only 
insignificant parts of the picture. Often they 
are disturbing, for Preller did not know how to 
make them necessary to his compositions. He 
was a man of vivid imagination, who in his 
mind peopled the rocks and coasts which he 
studied on a journey to Naples, and drew from 
them his famous illustrations to the Odyssey. 
Rottmann was the greatest of the heroic land- 
scapists, but he also suffered at times from the 
erroneous notion that a landscape without fig- 
ures cannot arouse in the spectator proper emo- 
tions. Without being familiar with the much 
later school of open air artists, he delighted in 
phases of nature which are characteristic of 
them, — sunsets, storms, and moonlight. With 
him they were means of appealing to the emo- 
tions, owing to the things which they suggested, 
— the grandeur of nature and the mystery of 
life. The open air painters resort to them be- 
cause of the studies in light and shade which 
they enable them to make, and the resulting 
color schemes. 

In all their works the German classicists are 
clearly distinguished from their contemporary 
Frenchmen known by the same name. Both 
received their inspiration from the antique, but 
while the Germans endeavored to sink them- 
selves into the spirit of antiquity, the French- 
men learned from ancient art their fine tech- 
nique. With them it was the how, with the 
Germans the -what, that mattered most. 

There is a strong similarity of aim between 
the German classicists and those other Ger- 
mans who did not go quite so far back for their 
inspiration, but sought it in the Middle Ages. 
These men are known as Romanticists, and 
since their leaders were deeply religious men, 
most of them Roman Catholics who loved to 
tell the story of Christ, they are also called 
Nazarenes. 



The best representative of the Nazarenes 
was Overbeck, who lived for years together with 
a few friends in the recently abandoned monas- 
tery of San Isidore near Rome. He found his 
masters in the great men of the early Italian 
Renaissance, and was especially fond of Signo- 
relli and Masaccio. Raphael was not appreciated 
by the Nazarenes, for in his works they detected 
signs of the uninspired skilled technician, whom 
they were wont to call an artisan rather than an 
artist. Their attitude in this respect is pardon- 
able, for they had to combat the traditional art 
tendencies which were based on skill alone. 

In the pursuit of their studies it was natural 
that Overbeck and his friends should endeavor 
to revive the technique of their early predeces- 
sors and begin to paint again al fresco. The 
man who did most to introduce this technique 
into Germany was Cornelius, who, starting as a 
classicist, had been drawn into the circle of 
Overbeck, and later, as director of the acad- 
emies in Diisseldorf and still later in Munich, 
had made himself a power in his native land. 

Cornelius was a great man but not a great 
painter. Fighting against those who believed 
skill to be the alpha and omega of art, he went 
to the other extreme and may be said to have 
actually neglected it. Moreover, he did not 
know how to confine himself to those subjects 
which can properly be treated in painting, and 
consequently failed in almost all of his under- 
takings. His influence, however, as the expo- 
nent of the importance of matter versus manner 
was felt in Germany for many decades, and 
has not yet entirely disappeared. 

That neither Overbeck nor Cornelius nor 
any of their friends and followers developed a 
color scheme as bright and pleasing as that of 
the French Romanticists is quite natural, for 
the only reason why the latter had turned to the 
study of an ideal past was that its subjects 
suggested gay colors. Nor was a great step in 
advance along these lines to be taken by the 
immediate followers of the Nazarenes. 

The failure of Cornelius made the success 
of his pupil, Wilhclm von Kaulbach, appear to 
great advantage. This man was preeminently 



I20 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



an executing genius, but he lacked the deep 
spirituality of the other great Nazarenes. He 
composed well and worked with ease. His draw- 
ing was exquisite and his coloring pleasing, al- 
though, judged by standards of later colorists, 
far from perfect. 

The greatest influence on the development 
of German art was exerted by the last of the 
Nazarenes, WilJiehn von Sc/iadoiv, who suc- 
ceeded Cornelius as director of the academy in 
Diisseldorf. Himself a man of many and noble 
ideas, he conceived his duty as teacher to be to 
give to his pupils a sound foundation in tech- 
nique, trusting that if they had this they would 
become great artists,- provided they had the 
proper personality. Without it he knew that 
not even the most conspicuous natural gifts 
would make them achieve successes. Schadow 
never lost his faith in the essential requirement 
for a great artist, — a noble character, — but he 
wisely distinguished between the studio of an 
artist and an art school. In the latter emphasis 
should be placed on the hoiv ; in the former the 
what should receive at least equal consideration. 
To-day, after generations of remarkable growth 
everywhere, the works of the Diisscldoif school, 
which have since been improved upon in most 
particulars, are no longer held to be master- 
pieces. The importance of Diisseldorf, however, 
both for Germany and America, — for many of 
the earlier Americans studied there rather than 
in France, — is so firmly established that no 
amount of ingratitude can shake it. 

Three classes of pictures were especially 
cultivated in Diisseldorf, — landscapes, genre 
pieces, and historico-romantic incidents. An- 
dreas Achenbach and Lessing were the best 
landscape painters, the latter excelling also in 
historic pictures, notably in a series of inci- 
dents from the life of Huss. The most popu- 
lar genre painter was Knaiis. These three men 
and their many friends and followers were 
characterized by seriousness of purpose, faith- 
fulness of execution, and considerable skill. 
The problems, however, which had already 
begun to stir France, — color, and light and 
shade, and the intimate relationship between 



the artist and the life which he portrays, — 
were unknown to them. 

The same was true of the rival schools in 
Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and Vienna. Every- 
where the purpose was good and the skill more 
or less adequate, but the great causes in the serv- 
ice of which later artists placed their endeavors 
had not yet appeared. Blcclicii in Berlin was 
perhaps an exception, for he seems to have had 
a natural sense for the values of colors. He 
alone, for instance, at that early date, conceived 
as artistically beautiful the motive of thin blue 
smoke escaping from a factory chimney into 
the soft air of evening. 

Early in the forties a remarkable change took 
place. The eyes of the people were opened to 
the charm of color after they — the countrymen 
of Holbein — had been insensible to it for cen- 
turies. In 1842, when two Belgian painters, 
Gallait and de Bi6fve, made their appearance in 
Germany, the whole country went wild over 
them. What the Germans most admired in them 
was their realism in composition and their un- 
restricted use of pronounced colors. That their 
realism, in fact, was more theatrical than true, 
and their coloring void of the more delicate shad- 
ings, did not disturb their admirers ; for from 
the technical point of view the Germans had 
seen nothing equally perfect. The result was 
that art received a new impetus. Especially in 
Munich the new ideas were firmly established, 
with Pilot}' as the pioneer of the movement. 
But Piloty, as was natural with a man who 
sought to accomplish a definite end with a new 
technique, did not avoid showing his intentions, 
which gave to his pictures the appearance of 
artificiality. Every detail was carefully worked 
out, and the unity of the whole consequently 
neglected. The figures were posed for effect, 
just as they are on the stage, and the neces- 
sary truth of actual occurrences was forgotten. 
The word "theatrical" properly describes most 
of the pictures of the Piloty school. 

Makart was the most gifted pupil of Piloty. 
Surrounded with wealth and luxury, and wor- 
shiped almost like a god by his contempo- 
raries, he poured forth with almost incredible 



GERMAN PAINTING 



121 



velocity the most sensuously beautiful sym- 
phonies of color that had ever issued from the 
brush of an artist. For values in the modern 
sense of the word he had no eye. The slow 
and thoughtful art of Whistler he would not 
have understood. His colors were many and 
rich ; they were meant to win admiration by 
storm, and had no message for those who love 
to think and dream over a picture. Makart died 
a young man, rushing through life, a meteor on 
the art heaven of Germany. And like his life was 
his art. "Much he had learned from Titian," 
says Professor Gensel, " and more perhaps from 
Veronese, but he lacked the essential force and 
wholesomeness of either of these men." 

It is impossible to study the development 
of painting in the nineteenth century in Ger- 
many without feeling convinced that at some 
time men would arise to combine the -what of 
the Classicists and Romanticists with the how 
of the Dijsseldorf and Munich schools. These 
men actually have arisen in the great quartet, 
properly called the German Individualists, — ■ 
Bocklin, Feuerbach, Klinger, and Marees. The 
only thing that binds these men together is their 
general attitude toward art and the allowances 
which they make to individual preferences. They 
hated impressionism, — "transcribing nature as 
you pass along," — and were equally convinced 
with Carstens that " art is a speech of emotions. 
Where expression in words fails, art begins." 
And they would also have subscribed to the def- 
inition of art as "nature seen through a tempera- 
ment," provided nature were made to include 
both the visible and the invisible. In their selec- 
tion and interpretation of subjects and in their 
mode of execution they were strangely unlike. 

Feuerbach preferred the antique. His pic- 
tures of ancient people, however, are the result 
of an emotional rather than of an intellectual 
study. His masterpiece is a picture of Iphi- 
genia seated not far from the sea, "her yearn- 
ing soul in search of Greece and home." This 
picture is good because the artist has put his 
whole soul into it, and because the soberness 
of his style is in perfect accord with the sim- 
plicity of his subject. 



Feuerbach was somewhat affected with 
Wcltschvierz, a painful yearning for things 
unknown. It showed in all his work and in- 
troduced an unreal element into his pictures, 
unless his subjects lent themselves to such an 
interpretation, as for instance Iphigenia. His 
coloring, never gay, grew thinner and gloomier 
as years advanced and he failed to gain the ap- 
proval of the people. He became discouraged, 
for he knew that his compositions were of 
greater worth than those of the Munich color- 
ists which yet were greeted everywhere with 
bursts of admiration. 

Unlike Feuerbach, who died young, Bocklin 
lived to see his art crowned with material suc- 
cess. Ridiculed at first, he finally received 
indiscriminate praise from high and low. He 
may be likened to a teller of fairy tales. His 
subjects were not based on facts, and therefore 
could not be painted as such. 

To claim Bocklin as antique in spirit may at 
first seem to be absurd. His fanciful coloring, 
his unreal figures, his heavy forms, all seem to 
prove him the most modern of the moderns. 
And yet, if one goes deeper and sees how for 
him every tree had its spirit of life, how the 
breakers of the sea suggested a woman playing 
her harp, and how the silence of the woods at 
eventide was translated by him into a strange 
figure on a strange animal making its way alone 
through the forest, one realizes that here one 
has something akin to that Greek spirit which 
peopled the trees and rivers and glens with 
nymphs and demigods, and could not think of 
nature apart from such creations of fancy. 

Bocklin was a careful and painstaking painter. 
He had his fairy tales well thought out before 
he attempted to paint them. Asked what was 
the most difficult part of his art, he replied, 
"Not to lose pleasure in painting." He knew 
the importance of technique without which he 
could not express himself, but he firmly believed 
that even the best technique is of no account 
if the artist has no clearly defined ideas ready 
for expression. 

Delicate eyes are often offended by his harsh 
color schemes, in which pronounced blues and 



122 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



greens predominate, while truth to the appear- 
ances of things is all but unknown. To the 
objector who exclaims, " Who ever saw such 
trees ? " Bocklin would have answered, " I ! I saw 
them in a vision "; and he might have added, 
" Come with me to my Isle of the Blessed, and 
you, too, will see them." 

Alax Klinger, the youngest of the great Indi- 
vidualists, is not unlike Bocklin in some of his 
works. But he is less consistent and more versa- 
tile. While Bocklin has visions, Klinger has hal- 
lucinations. A more gruesome picture than his 
" Mother and Child" has never been sketched ; 
but it is fascinating. One feels like the old 
Greek, of whom Plato writes, who, passing the 
corpses of shipwrecked mariners, was filled with 
awe and hurried along ; but after a few steps 
was forced to turn back against the will of his 
nobler self, and, opening wide his eyes, shouted 
to them angrily, " There, you brutes, see your 
fill." In Klinger's picture the mother is dead. 
A heavy pillow has pressed her head forward 
until it is almost at right angles with her flat 
body.' Her simple catafalque is placed in front 
of an arch, which suggests the solemnity of a 
church, and through which one looks out into 
the even greater silence of a shadowy grove. 
On the dead mother's flat breast crouches rider 
fashion her naked child. He has been playing 
with her lifeless form, and at the spectator's 
approach has turned his head without altering 
his position. In his face a transformation seems 
to be taking place ; smiling but a moment be- 
fore, it has begun to reflect the horror which 
has seized the spectator at the pitiful sight. The 
sad stillness of death, the invariable grandeur 
of nature, the helplessness of man, — these are 
brought out with wonderful strength and great 
beauty of lines. The picture itself, with its fine 
distribution of light and pleasing masses, gives 
the eye a sense of physical pleasure. The idea 
expressed in it makes one shudder. 

Klinger is fond of solving technical problems, 
but in his larger compositions he is not free 

1 The decapitated head of Egmont in the picture by 
Gallait, now in the Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of 
Arts and Sciences, is joined at a similar angle to the body 
lying in state by the side of the body of Horn. 



from technical defects. Being also a sculptor, 
he delights in well-defined bodies, and although 
his modeling is good, he often fails to be con- 
vincing. In this respect he is surpassed by Hans 
von Marees, whose figures detach themselves 
easily from the background and seem to be 
standing free in space. " They mean nothing," 
Professor Gensel says, "do not intend to mean 
anything, and are satisfied with merely being." 
Their very existence, however, generally nude 
in simple landscapes, gives expression to the 
artistic intentions of Marees. He never tried to 
copy actual scenes of nature or events from life. 
That would have been prose ; he was a poet. 

The pioneer realist of Germany was Lcibl, 
whose maxim seems to have been that creations 
of fancy cannot be so valuable as transcripts 
from life ; life if properly studied being more 
interesting than any dreams about it. He was 
a man of considerable skill within certain limits 
which he was wise enough not to transgress. 
"Figures at rest he can paint," said a rival of 
him ; " but try him on moving figures and you 
will see his inferior skill." But Leibl continued 
to paint quiet figures and to achieve success with 
them. He is a realist in the best sense of the 
word, not copying every detail as he saw it, but 
centering his attention on what should give the 
spectator the impression of the original. 

A greater man than Leibl was ATenzel, of 
whom it has been said that he tried to do only 
what he could do, and that he could do every- 
thing. He was a man of astonishing versatility, 
who achieved success in almost every branch of 
drawing and painting. He had an eye to details 
and built his pictures around those which were 
important. The accuracy of his apperceptions 
was equaled only by that of his brush, while 
both stood unrivaled. His early works on the 
life of Frederick the Great were characterized 
by remarkable historical fidelity coupled with 
lifelikeness in the figures, and were painted in 
a style that seemed to foreshadow the technique 
of the later illusionists. As he grew older his 
coloring became richer, and he solved many 
interesting problems of light and shade. Toward 
the end his works were often sketchy in contrast 



GERMAN PAINTING 



123 



to the precision of his earlier creations, but even 
in these late pictures he showed that he had not 
lost the power of observing essentials. 

Interest in everything was a notable factor 
of his character. Everywhere he found desir- 
able subjects for his compositions, but while 
his German admirers maintain that his selec- 
tions were invariably wise, less biased observers 
believe that he was not always successful. His 
great picture of the Factory Forge, for instance, 
gave him the opportunity of bringing order out of 
a seemingly hopeless chaos and proving himself 
a technician second to none, but gave his oppo- 
nents likewise the chance of pointing to the unde- 
sirability of permitting one's delight in technical 
difficulties to determine one's choice of a subject. 

Equally as great as Menzel, but only in a 
narrowly circumscribed field, Franz von Lcnbacli 
vies with him in popular favor. He has not 
only confined himself to portraiture but is even 
within this single branch of art restricted to a 
certain mode of representation, painting only 
the heads and treating everything else as unim- 
portant accessories. In his younger years his 
color rivaled that of the great Venetians ; re- 
cently, however, he paints only in browns. His 
women still retain gayer colors, but they are 
not his masterpieces. His men have made his 
reputation, and with them he will live. 

Lenbach is a psychologist. He reads charac- 
ter and paints it, without doing it, however, any 
impersonal justice. In his pictures one does 
not see Bismarck or Moltke or Liszt, but Len- 
bach's Bismarck and Lenbach's Moltke and 
Lenbach's Liszt. His point of view, however, 
is always interesting, so that his pictures are 
gainers rather than losers. There may be better 
painters than he, and more brilliant men, but 
there are none who equal him in the power of 
drawing ineffaceable images of well-known per- 
sonages. If one has seen a portrait by Len- 
bach, one cannot henceforth think of that man 
in any other way. And this, it will be remem- 
bered, is the same praise that was bestowed in 
antiquity on the Olympian Zeus by Pheidias. 

Unlike Lenbach, Friedrich August von Kaul- 
back is best known for his portraits of women. 



He seems to worship at the shrine of womanly 
beauty, and has the power of convincing the 
spectator that this beauty is one of the best 
and noblest forces in the world. 

The remaining realists of note differ each 
from the other in everything except their desire 
to paint real things so that they shall seem to 
be real. Anton von Werner selects his sub- 
jects from the modern history of Prussia, 
Franz Defregger delights in the peasant life of 
the Tyrol, Eduard von Gebhardt reconstructs 
scenes from the Bible and fills them with deep 
feeling, while Munkdcsy, whose real name was 
Michael Lieb, selected as his subjects whatever 
gave him the chance of displaying his dramatic 
pathos and remarkable power as a colorist. 

Many of the so-called realists had been 
actively engaged in solving problems of color 
and light and shade, so that it is not surprising 
that also in Germany men should have drawn 
thenatural inferences which the French painters 
of open air had drawn before them, and should 
have started the school of the so-called Im- 
pressionists, or, as they are known in Germany, 
Secessionists. Max Liebcrmann may be said 
to be the father of the movement. At present 
the list of the Secessionists includes the names 
of many excellent men. On the whole, how- 
ever, none of them have probably achieved 
anything beyond what had been accomplished 
by their French or Belgian brethren, although 
many may have, in certain instances, equaled 
the best work of the Frenchmen. 

The government and therefore, naturally, the 
majority of influential Germans have taken an 
antagonistic attitude toward the Secessionists, 
a fact which has tended to widen the breach 
between them and the other artists, and which 
will probably prolong the life of the movement. 
Since, however, all artists have begun to learn 
what is valuable in the teachings of the Seces- 
sionists, the latter will sooner or later cease to 
be members of a distinct school. And when 
the sum total of German art is drawn, it will be 
seen that the emphasis is still placed on the 
meaning of the subject rather than on the 
manner of its e.xecution. 



CHAPTER IV 



FLEMISH PAINTING 



THE FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH 
CENTURIES 

Unheralded by any now remembered event, 
two artists make their appearance in the world 
of art with such commanding virility of per- 
fection that one accepts them as another of the 
many inexpHcable wonders of life. Hubert and 
Jan vati Eyck were contemporaries of the Ital- 
ian Masaccio, but unlilie that pioneer of a new 
phase of art, these two Flemish painters prac- 
ticed a style as perfect as it was new. The first 
painters of note of their country, they remained, 
in some respects, unequaled by the long list of 
gifted successors. They introduced not one but 
practically all the distinct characteristics by 
which the art of their country was to be known. 

The van Eycks knew the power of color. 
Just as the Italians had perceived by the grace 
of heaven, to speak with Vasari, the principles 
of harmony of form, so the Flemish artists had 
grasped those of the harmony of color. Softer 
and more bewitching was the color of the great 
Venetians a century later, but a more beautiful 
color than that of the early Flemish artists the 
world has not seen. 

Tradition credits the van Eyck brothers with 
the invention of the oil technique. This tech- 
nique was known long before them, so that their 
achievement probably consisted in adapting it 
to the delicate uses of art, while it had often 
before been used for rough work. The fact, 
nevertheless, remains that the van Eycks were 
the first to achieve success with it. It enabled 
them not only to express more clearly their 
feeling for color but also to reproduce more 
accurately their conceptions of nature. 

They were ardent students of everything real 
and have, therefore, been called Realists. To 



obviate the ambiguity of this doubtful designa- 
tion, it has been well said that the real was 
their ideal. Their attitude of mind toward their 
subjects was much akin to that of the Italians; 
their subjects were different. Nevertheless, it 
is this fact that makes Flemish pictures, which 
in appearance are very different from the 
Italian, not unlike the latter in the eyes of 
thoughtful observers. 

In their study of nature and their reproduc- 
tion of her forms the Flemish painters worked 
on virgin soil and were entirely uninfluenced 
by any classic standard, of which they knew 
nothing. The Italians approached the human 
form with very definite ideas in mind as to what 
was the standard of beauty. The complete 
absence in Flemish art of any prejudice, how- 
ever well founded in fact, gave the artists excep- 
tional latitude and threw them on their own 
resources. Faces of perhaps no artistic value 
had to be raised to higher levels by their treat- 
ment. Their form could not dominate the pic- 
ture ; this had to be done by their expression and 
by their coloring. And so again the artists were 
driven to lay emphasis on the harmony of color. 

It must not be supposed, however, that be- 
cause classic standards of beauty were unknown, 
others could not be created. Early Flemish art, 
nevertheless, remains marked by a certain inde- 
cision as to the perfect form which, together with 
the excellence of execution, gives to the pictures 
the charm of things in the process of growth. 
Their suggestive power is exceedingly great. 

The masterpiece of the two van Eycks is 
the altar piece of Ghent. Only the center is 
still in Ghent, the remaining pieces being now 
in Brussels and Berlin. Nothing else by the 
brush of the older brother Hubert is preserved. 
Jan has left several pictures, small madonnas. 



124 



FLEMISH PAINTING 



125 



and a few portraits. Of the latter, one represent- 
ing a man and his wife in the National Gallery 
in London is of special interest, because it con- 
tains an inscription in which the artist states 
that he painted the picture in the very room in 
which he portrayed the figures as standing. 
Through a window at the left rays of light 
illuminate the wall in the background. Here, 
therefore, for the first time we have an instance 
of an artist painting from actual nature not 
only figures and objects but also the effects of 
light and shade. These had been studied and 
painted by the Italians also, but never for their 
own sake. They were introduced with the view 
of adding to the reality of the figures. Correg- 
gio filled his compositions with wonderful con- 
trasts of light and shade; the people of the 
Netherlands, however, were the first to be 
charmed by the delicate play of light on the 
actual wall of a room. 

It was fortunate for the world that the van 
Eycks found two highly gifted successors, Rogicr 
va7i der Weyden and Hans Mcmliiig. The for- 
mer was a man of fine poetic feeling, who was 
akin to the Germans in depth of sentiment, and 
was therefore eminently well suited to serve as 
a means of influence on German art. It was 
through him that Flemish painting came to be 
known in the land of the Teutons.^ He was the 
equal, it seems, of Jan van Eyck in ever)' respect 
save one: his work lacked the external charm 
which characterized the creations of Jan. He 
knew how to express deep feeling ; his color 
was beautiful, but his lines were often hard. 

Memling, on "the other hand, had a soft and 
graceful touch, and was one of the most amiable 
artists of the entire Flemish school. He had 
studied Italian art, but in all but a few external 
matters had remained distinctly Flemish. One 
charming madonna picture by him, now in 
Florence, is framed in an arch from which hang 
heavy garlands in the style of Luca della Robbia. 
They are held by naked putti of such beauty 
that they easily rival the best of Donatello. 
Barring this Italian setting, however, the entire 
picture is Flemish. In spite of the exquisite 

1 Rogier van der Weyden also visited Italy. 



sense of tranquillity which it exhales, it is full 
of action and suggestions of life, not the least of 
which is the farmhouse and broad stretches 
of fertile fields in the background to the right. 

Here again is a difference between the paint- 
ing of Italy and that of the Netherlands. The 
former is rich in suggestions, which carry the 
spectator to where noble thoughts and fan- 
cies freely flow. The latter frequently includes 
scenes of useful activities. 

In the sixteenth century the development of 
Flemish art suddenly halted, as if to gather 
strength for the tremendous leap it was to take 
a hundred years later. Uncertain whether their 
native art could successfully support them, the 
Flemish painters looked abroad, and soon fas- 
tened their attention on the works of the High 
Renaissance in Italy. They had thoughts and 
ideas of their own, and also skill, although not 
to the remarkable degree which had come to 
be second nature with the Italians. In van 
Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, and Memling 
the Flemish artists had proved their natural 
aptitude ; now came their period of serious 
schooling. During the sixteenth century they 
acquired many external means which were to 
stand them in good stead in the future. They 
also learned to concentrate their powers, and 
realized that nothing was gained by crowd- 
ing pictures with many ideas. In consequence 
there were developed clearly defined classes of 
pictures, — historical scenes, portraits either of 
individuals or of groups, genre, landscapes and 
architectural pieces, marines, still life, and flower 
pieces. Each one of these classes seemed to 
follow its own peculiar spirit, and so well was 
this division made that it survived until the 
nineteenth century when it was overthrown by 
entirely new conceptions of the artist's attitude 
toward his art. 

The growth of another clear demarcation line 
can be traced in the sixteenth century, that 
between the Flemish and the Dutch. Before 
this time little more than a geographical line dis- 
tinguished the two people ; afterwards each had 
its own well-defined aims. "A preference for 
dramatic subjects full of pathos, a convincing 



126 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



representation of them by means of lively 
action, hard modeling, generally in bright clear 
tones, and in landscape great clearness extend- 
ing even to the far-distant horizon, visible pleas- 
ure in splendid architecture, — these were," 
says Professor Zommermann, " Flemish traits. 
Scenes full of peace, pleasure in the harmonious 
combination of men and of their surroundings, 
deep rich colors, exquisite modeling, the power 
of clear characterization, truth in landscapes, 
persuasive presentation of everyday life, — 
these were the aims of the Dutch." 

The historical events of the sixteenth cen- 
tury tended to accentuate these growing differ- 
ences between the two people. In 1477, when 
Maximilian married Mary of Burgundy, the 
Netherlands had come into the power of the 
Hapsburg dynasty. Under the government of 
Margarethe of Austria, from 1506 to 1530, the 
country flourished by commerce and grew rich. 
The Spanish rule, which threatened to undo 
all the earlier achievements, began in 1 5 56 and 
soon led to much internal strife, during which 
a wave of iconoclasm destroyed many works of 
art. In 1 566 took place the revolution, from 
which the northern provinces came forth vic- 
torious as a flourishing Dutch republic, while 
the Flemish people in the south, although not 
independent politically, gradually regained ma- 
terial prosperity. 

One of the best known Flemish artists of 
the sixteenth century was Qiientin Massys, 
who first introduced Italian influences into his 
paintings, and permitted the native pathos to 
degenerate into a sentimental and supernat- 
ural expression. He was a man of power, who 
apparently was misled by his desire to paint 
" energy of expression." 

As portrait painters Antonis AIoi; Pccter 
Pourbus, and Joost van Clecf hold high rank 
without being in any way the equals of their 
famous successors in the next century. 

Two artists of the name of Brueghel are also 
favorably known. The elder Peeter Brueghel 
is noted for his remarkably active genre scenes 
of low life and his love of uncouth farmers. 
The younger Jan, distinguished from a later 



namesake as Jan Brueghel the Elder, goes 
under the name of Velvet Brueghel because of 
his velvety color and his sense of refinement. 

Calvacrt, like Jan Brueghel, best known as a 
landscape painter, entered into the spirit of 
Italian art even more completely than most of 
his compatriots. He finally settled in Italy,where 
he was known as Dionisio Fiammingo. 

He was thus an exception ; for most of the 
better painters remained in the home country, ac- 
quiring skill and preserving for their successors 
the rich inheritance of the preceding century. 

THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

The modern student of Flemish painting is 
impressed by the directness with which all early 
achievements of this school point to one man, 
Peter Paul Rubeiis, and how completely the art 
of this man has placed in the shadow even the 
greatest successes of those who followed him. 
Unlike Holbein in Germany and Velasquez in 
Spain, who gave expression to the noblest ideas 
of which their people were capable, and who 
might have lived in any age, Rubens was dis- 
tinctly the child of his own time. It is impos- 
sible to think of him in any other period than 
that of the baroque style ; for its fundamental 
spirit of restlessness dominated his work. But 
so great was Rubens that he rose master over 
it, and changed to a seeming fancy of his own 
what with others was a fated necessity. 

In Italy art had reached its summit in the 
preceding century, so that the Italian contem- 
poraries of Rubens were handicapped by the 
very fact that they were epigonoi, while in his 
own country the full development of art coin- 
cided with the period of his activity. 

In the early stages of growing art it is not 
unusual to find men capable of summing up, as 
it were, the achievements of their predecessors. 
Nature seems to take this precaution to avoid 
waste of time and energy. To have a man of 
power however, and one in himself capable of 
growth at the very time when the blossom 
of art is opened at its fullest, is unique. Such 
a man was Rubens. 



FLEMISH PAINTING 



127 



He began by doing what Flemish artists had 
done for generations, — he turned to Italy. Ven- 
ice attracted him first, but he studied with equal 
zeal the other art centers. His favorite masters 
were Titian, Veronese, Tintoretto, da Vinci, 
Michelangelo, Correggio, and especially Giulio 
Romano. All of them, however, appeared to 
him to be distant, unattainable ideals. His real 
masters were the living Caravaggio, Carracci, 
and Elzheimer. He resided in Mantua, whence 
he made frequent excursions, and only the news 
of his mother's last illness induced him to leave 
Italy after a sojourn of eight years there. Fate 
decreed that he should not return. He was 
showered with favors in his own country, 
where after some years the Italian influences 
as appreciable external factors in his works 
disappeared and left their traces only indirectly 
in the full development of his powers. 

Then began about 16 12 what is called the 
middle period of his activity. He lived almost 
royally and was esteemed for his art by high 
and low. Singled out with favor by the rulers 
of his country, he was intrusted with impor- 
tant diplomatic missions, and thus visited many 
interesting countries. Best of all, however, he 
enjoyed in his home the companionship of a 
wife whom he loved passionately, Isabella 
Brant. Such continued good luck would have 
spoiled a lesser man ; Rubens was in his ele- 
ment and did his best. The incredibly large 
number of his works is equaled only by their 
almost uniformly high quality, which is the 
more astonishing as he had to leave much to 
his assistants. Often he only sketched the de- 
signs and retouched the finished pictures. His 
personality, however, was so masterful that it 
completely dominated all the works that left 
his studio. 

The last period of his activity was brief, 
dating from about 1630. He died in 1640. 
After seventeen years of happy companionship 
his wife had died in 1626, while his patron, 
Isabella, the governor of the country, died in 
1633. With her death the diplomatic career of 
Rubens ended. He stayed more persistently at 
home, and bought the old castle of Steen near 



Mecheln, where he spent his summers and grew 
very fond of the beautiful scenery, so that most 
of his famous landscapes date from this period. 
Seven years after the death of Isabella Brant, 
when he was fifty-three years of age, he mar- 
ried again. His second wife was Helene Four- 
ment, a beautiful girl of sixteen. Her portrait 
dominates the types of women of his last period, 
as that of his first wife had dominated those of 
his middle period. 

To summarize the art of Rubens is a Hercu- 
lean task. Himself a Hercules of mind and 
body, his most prominent characteristic was a 
sense of fairly uncontrollable health. 

A consumptive Venus a la Botticelli is incon- 
ceivable in connection with Rubens. The idea 
of sickness did not exist in his world of thoughts, 
except in his first Italian period, where it may 
have crept in at times as the result of uncon- 
scious imitation. In all his other creations 
there is fullness of life and joy in the tangible 
present. Nothing interested him so much as 
the human body. To him it was not the seat of 
a divine soul, or the image of God, but a body 
pure and simple, the most mysteriously beautiful 
thing of creation. He cared little for so-called 
noble or ignoble suggestions, most of which have 
their origin in the minds of those who receive 
them. He loved the human body for its own 
sake and because it enabled him to express 
his wonderful poetry of color. That his rest- 
less spirit should have found greater delight in 
full-developed bodies, even those where fat and 
wrinkles caused a rich play of light and shade, 
than in lean and classically beautiful forms is 
natural, and explains why his paintings often 
seem coarse to the modern taste. 

The same love of contrast in light and shade 
that made Rubens select bodies rich in flesh is 
noticeable in his landscapes. The best of them 
picture the end of a rainstorm with the sun 
struggling through the clouds, or the evening 
glow with parts of the country already hidden 
in shadows, or again the first rays of the sun 
scattering the darkness of the night. Rubens 
was nearing the end of his career when he 
began to be enamored of landscapes. In them 



128 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



he found a medium of expression readily under- 
stood by modern minds. They possess, there- 
fore, the key to an appreciation of his other 
works which are less akin to the modern 
mode of thinking. 

Other explanations of the seeming coarseness 
of his figure pieces have been given, and deserve 
attention because they, too, tend to destroy 
current prejudices concerning Rubens. " He 
conceived things largely," says Professor Van 
Dyke, "and painted them proportionately, — 
large Titanic types, broad schemes of masses 
of color, great sweeping lines of beauty. One 
value of this largeness was its ability to hold 
at a distance upon wall or altar. Hence, when 
seen to-day close at hand, in museums, people 
are apt to think Rubens' art coarse and gross." 

Some truth may also be attached to the asser- 
tion that he had inherited from his father, a man 
of irregular modes of living, the turn of mind 
which admires the merely physical, or, as we 
are apt to call it, animal side of man. If this 
is so, it certainly was coupled with a remark- 
ably refined instinct for the nobler side of 
human life, as appears most clearly in his por- 
traits of himself and Isabella Brant. 

The general preferences of his age doubtless 
had something to do with his selections. People 
then knew nothing of prudishness, and were 
able to appreciate fully the beauty of his coloring 
even when it was bestowed on bodies which we 
can no longer admire. 

As a painter, that is, as a man who uses colors 
and expresses himself by their means, Rubens 
takes rank as one of the greatest. Titian and 
perhaps Velasquez are his only peers. He was 
freer and more independent than either of these 
men, but seems to have had a less clearly defined 
sense of the essentially possible or impossible in 
art. The same indomitable spirit of robust health 
that characterized his types characterized also 
himself, and consequently prevented him from 
perceiving niceties of artistic distinction in the 
selection of subjects, which either of the others 
found naturally easy to understand. Exuberance 
of life and limitless pleasure in its manifold 
beauty is the keynote to the work of Rubens. 



The most famous of the direct pupils of 
Rubens was Antooti van Dyck, or, as he is fre- 
quently called. Sir Anthony van Dyck. Born 
in I 599, he entered at an early age the studio of 
Hendrik van Balen, whom he left, probably in 
1618, in order to associate himself with Rubens. 

Temperamentally different from his new great 
master, he was never in serious danger of losing 
his own personality, as was the fate of most of 
those who placed themselves under the instruc- 
tion of Rubens. Antoon van Dyck was a ten- 
der yoiith, not at all the equal of his master 
in masculine virility either of mind or of body. 
His leanings were toward romanticism and 
mysticism. The portrayal of powerful actions 
and exuberant love of life were not his forte, 
but he knew how to express strongly felt emo- 
tions. He was modest in his attitude toward 
nature, and yet perceived all her details with an 
unfailingly keen eye. He had, moreover, an 
innate sense of the propriety and delicacy of 
what is noblest in life, and could not fail to 
sympathize with the point of view of his most 
cultured contemporaries. All this qualified him 
to be an excellent portrait painter, especially of 
nobility. As such he is most widely known, and 
although he painted many other pictures, his 
reputation rests most securely on his portraits. 

Like Rubens he spent several years in Italy, 
and derived the greatest benefit from his studies 
there, after he had returned home. At first the 
example of Rubens was too great for him to 
withdraw himself from it easily. Several of his 
compositions, his " Crucifixion " for instance, 
were based on pictures by his master, and re- 
vealed little of his own genius. His madonnas, 
however, were early imbued with a peculiar 
sweetness, for rarely have artists understood 
how to portray the gentle home life of the 
sacred family as he did. 

Portrait painting had already attracted Van 
Dyck in Italy ; his best work along these 
lines, however, dates from about 1627. In 
1632 Charles I called him as court painter 
to England, where he remained, with the excep- 
tion of a few years spent at home and a few 
short visits to foreign lands, until he died in 



FLEMISH PAINTING 



129 



1 64 1. During the last years of his Hfe his 
work grew less careful, and his color grayer 
and colder. He did his best, however, even 
then, whenever he was called upon to portray 
his royal master or the princely children. 

The external earmark of all his portraits is 
their aristocratic appearance. One does not so 
much understand what kind of man the sitter 
was, as how he looked and how he carried himself. 
Long graceful hands had a fascination for the 
artist, and are prominent in most of his pictures. 

Rubens had excelled in all manner of subjects, 
— history and figure pieces, landscape, genre, 
animals, still life, and so forth. After him few 
men excelled in more than one line. In genre 
Rubens was equaled, or perhaps even surpassed, 
by Adriaen Brouwer and David Teniers the 
Younger, and in animal pieces by Frans Snyders. 

Bromuer, although a Flemish artist by birth, 
is frequently assigned to the Dutch school 
because he was a pupil of Frans Hals. He was 
not a popular painter with his contemporaries, 
and has been rediscovered only recently after 
centuries of neglect. He was essentially pic- 
turesque and gifted with an exquisite color 
sense, both of which qualities are in vogue 
to-day. He was, moreover, vigorous and always 
original, and took his types invariably from the 
lower walks of life, just as he found them, with- 
out the least veneer of refinement. Nothing- 
was farther from his mind than to teach a 
moral lesson with his pictures. 

In this respect he is the very opposite of 
David Tenters the Younger, whose love of point- 
ing a moral is so great that he shows it even 
when he is depicting scenes from the Bible or 
popular legends. He, too, painted with prefer- 
ence the lower classes of the people, but not 
infrequently introduced also more cultivated 
folks. In composition he was refined, looking at 
low life through the spectacles of the educated 
man. The same fine taste distinguished his color, 
which was often exquisite not only in its general 
effect but also in all its particulars. Later in life 
he grew weaker in artistic capacity. He fre- 
quently copied himself, and painted with little 
more than the skill of a self-sufficient artisan. 



By far the most important animal painter of 
the Flemish school was Frans Snyders, a pupil 
of Fieter Brueghel the Younger and Hendrik 
van Balen. He was a friend of Rubens, with 
whom he had spent several years in Italy, and 
with whom he continued on intimate terms 
throughout life. He was the first to paint ani- 
mals life-size and to introduce in this kind of 
work a style of distinctly monumental and 
decorative qualities. In the plumage of birds, 
the fur of animals, and the surface of fruit he 
is unsurpassed. In figures, however, he was 
weak, so that Rubens or some other friend sup- 
plied them whenever they were needed in his 
larger compositions. Such combination of work 
was nothing unusual at that time, when, with 
the exception of Rubens, most artists were spe- 
cialists along certain lines. It began in the six- 
teenth century and lasted for several generations. 
Some notable instances of this kind are found 
in the works of Jan Brueghel, who was proficient 
only in landscapes and whose figures were fre- 
quently supplied by Hendrick van Balen. 

By the side of these few famous contempo- 
raries of Rubens many others were active who 
rose at times distinctly above the level of medi- 
ocrity. Occasionally they painted pictures which 
almost equaled the work of the master himself, 
but if one takes a comprehensive view of the 
entire period, one realizes that the greatest 
achievements of Flemish painting began and 
ended with Rubens. 

THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH 
CENTURIES. BELGIAN PAINTING 

The dearth of great men is nowhere so con- 
spicuous as in Flemish art of the eighteenth 
century. The genius of Rubens had completely 
dominated his contemporaries and immediate 
successors, so that not even the germs of indi- 
vidual ideas had been able to subsist. With 
Rubens gone there was not a man who could 
lead, and it almost seems not even one who 
could ha\'e followed a leader. Only Verkagcn, 
the portrait painter, slightly rose above the low 
level of art, and for this reason rather than for 
any intrinsic merit deserves passing attention. 



I30 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



With the dawn of the nineteenth century the 
long Flemish sleep of artistic inactivity ended. 
David, the great French Classicist, woke the 
people from their lethargy. He was a born 
leader, so that the Flemish, or, as they are now 
called, the Belgian artists, naturally flocked 
about him when after the fall of Napoleon he 
settled among them an exile. The Belgian 
national sympathies, however, were not with the 
classic tendencies which David represented. 
When once the Belgians had received from him 
their incentive to art they soon turned to their 
own master, Rubens, for inspiration. They did 
this the more eagerly because their country in 
1830 had declared its political independence, 
and a newly born patriotism had taken hold of 
the people. Soon an era of historical painting 
began. Huge canvases were filled with scenes 
taken from the history of the nation. Huge- 
ness and accuracy of drawing do not go hand 
in hand. Color, however, lends itself well to 
the decoration of large-sized canvases. Color, 
moreover, had been the distinctive mark of 
Rubens, and as such made also a sentimental 
appeal to the people, not to mention the fact 
that their national character is probably such 
that it is better able to appreciate the beauty 
of color than that of line. 

Gallait was the best representative of the 
new art tendencies. Leys had much in com- 
mon with him, but unlike him studied the old 
German masters in preference to Rubens. In 
consequence there is noticeable in many pic- 
tures a harking back to the Middle Ages whence 
also the German and French artists, known as 
Romanticists, had sought inspiration. They, too, 
had emphasized color and placed themselves in 
opposition to the Classicists. This explains why 
also the Belgian artists of the Gallait and Leys 
type are called Romanticists. It is, however, a 
noteworthy fact that the conditions which led 
to the Romantic movements in the three coun- 
tries were different each from the other. In 



Germany it was the subject-matter and in 
France the interest in the technical manner 
that had given rise to the new schools. In Bel- 
gium the Romantic school was the natural re- 
sult of a national temper reasserting itself, and 
of a newly born and almost fanatic patriotism. 

Love of fatherland shows not only in admira- 
tion of its public men but also in appreciation 
of the peaceful conditions under which the low- 
lier people live. Braekeleer and Madou, there- 
fore, contemporaries of Gallait and Leys, 
delighted in scenes for which they found the 
prototypes in the pictures of their great coun- 
tryman, Teniers. 

In all these pictures the attitude of the artist 
towards his subject gradually grew to be of 
greater interest than the subject itself, so that 
the Belgians were singularly well prepared for 
the lessons of the French landscapists of Barbi- 
zon who had discovered the "paysage intime," 
the kind of landscape painting which appears 
when the artist endeavors to perceive the moods 
of nature. 

The skill of the Belgian painters has grown 
in the nineteenth century with a luxuriance 
comparable only to the growth of a plant which 
a clever florist has kept back for a season that 
it may blossom forth at the appointed time 
with unusual brilliancy. Nothing is too difficult 
for the Belgians to-day. The solution of all 
the modern problems on which school after 
school of nineteenth-century artists have labored 
seems to be theirs easily. And what adds a 
special charm to their pictures and singles them 
out at all exhibitions is their freshness and 
youth. Like a young athlete who gracefully 
jumps a pole and, forgetful of the difficulty, 
seems to enjoy more the beauty of the per- 
formance and the control of his body than the 
magnitude of the task, so the Belgians appear to 
delight in skill not for its own sake but for the 
freedom of expression and beauty of execution 
which it vouchsafes. 



CHAPTER V 



DUTCH PAINTING 



In the north of the Netherlands, the Dutch 
country, the arts were not so flourishing during 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries as they 
were in the south, — Flanders or Belgium. This 
was due less to a dearth of artistic talent than 
to the fact that the south offered better oppor- 
tunities. Many so-called Flemish artists were 
of Dutch extraction. Some scholars, therefore, 
prefer not to distinguish between Flemish and 
Dutch art during the early centuries, but to dis- 
cuss both together as the art of the Netherlands. 

The most famous of the Dutch painters who 
remained at home were Bosch, Engelbrechtsen, 
and Lucas van Leyden in the fifteenth century, 
and Cornelisz, Scorel, Aertszen, and Cornelis- 
zen in the sixteenth century. 

Bosch is remarkable on account of his inti- 
mate understanding of his subjects, based no 
doubt on broadness of character and correct 
observation. He has been called a psychologist, 
and such he is, but not in the sense of a learned 
professor who knows a thing because he is 
familiar with all its details, but in the sense of a 
noble person who understands things by intui- 
tion. Bosch, in addition, was a man of fancies, 
who often painted grotesque figures. His well- 
developed sense of the fitness of things, how- 
ever, preserved him from painting, as did several 
of his successors, what is physically painful 
because it is organically impossible. 

Engelbrechtsen is best known as the teacher 
of Lucas van Leyden, who learned from him 
the desire to portray emotions, that is, to think 
of his figures as possessors of souls, and to 
please the eye with graceful lines and well- 
balanced compositions. The pupil surpassed 
the master. Lucas lived his brief life sumptu- 
ously, gratifying his senses and filling many 
canvases with figures as delightful to the 
eye as they are pleasing to the imagination. 



Unfortunately few of his paintings are extant, so 
that he is to-day better known as an engraver 
than as a painter. He was especially great in 
portraying the niceties of visible character ex- 
pressions, such as gestures and poses, for their 
immediate spontaneity delighted his observant 
eye. Facial expression, however, was beyond 
his skill, nor did his experience suffice to make 
him avoid painful omissions or exaggerations. 

The influences of Italian art, which during 
his lifetime began to gain ground in Flemish 
art, affected him less than most men, least of 
all in his engravings. They are, nevertheless, 
to be felt in some of his paintings, notably in 
a madonna in Berlin. In the sixteenth century 
these influences grew more powerful in Dutch 
art, until the genius of Rembrandt finally 
stemmed the tide. 

Jacob Cornelisz is, in his role of relater of 
events, truly Dutch. He too attempted to por- 
tray passionate feelings, but not infrequently 
ended by painting contorted bodies. His knowl- 
edge of the human form was insufficient, and 
since he loved to paint details he failed to dis- 
guise this fact. The same love of details, how- 
ever, was the cause of many beautiful bits of 
drapery or landscape in his compositions. 

The foremost representative of Italianized 
Dutch art was Jan Scorel, who had visited the 
Holy Land in 1521 and on his return had 
spent several years in Rome. He introduced 
into Holland the art tendencies of the Italian 
High Renaissance, and at times painted pictures 
that vied with those of his masters. Frequently, 
however, he fell far below their standards 
because his knowledge of the movements of 
the human form was very meager. In this 
respect he was surpassed by Cornells Corite- 
liszen, whose skill in anatomy and perspective 
was surprisingly great. This artist spent 



132 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



many years in Italy, and deserves a higher 
place in the history of art than is generally 
accorded to him. Since most of his pictures 
are lost and known to us only in engravings by 
Goltzius, it is excusable that he should have 
been passed by as less important. If the en- 
gravings by Goltzius may be used as an argu- 
ment, Cornelis Corneliszen was an excellent 
portrait painter. 

More distinctly Dutch and less influenced by 
Italian art than either Scorel or Cornelis Cor- 
neliszen, Pieter Aertszen has properly been 
called the last great Dutch painter of the six- 
teenth century. He was a gay portrayer of 
Dutch life and an eager worker on the dis- 
tinctly Dutch problem of light and shade. He 
too studied Italian art, but sought to profit only 
by its technique. The exaggerated pathos of 
its subjects had no attraction for him. 

The development of painting in Holland was 
thus not unlike that in Flanders; for while Italy 
in the sixteenth century dominated the minds of 
most artists, there were found not only in the 
south but also in the north of the Netherlands 
some men of worth who continued the national 
tendencies of their art. Here as there the fif- 
teenth century can boast of a few great men, 
while the sixteenth century is a period of 
growth of skill, largely under the influence of 
the masters of the Italian High Renaissance. 

THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

While trumpets sounded and soldiers marched 
through the land peace reigned in the pictures 
of the Dutch people in the seventeenth century. 
Their political independence was of recent and 
seemingly fragile growth, but their love of 
home and peace was the stronger, as the one 
was only recently freed from intruders and the 
other was eagerly coveted. No wonder, there- 
fore, that the quiet pleasures of an undisturbed 
home life should have appealed to the artists, 
and that they should have seen common things 
from uncommon points of view. Perhaps it is 
not far from true to say that this power of see- 
ing in a noble light circumstances which in 



themselves are commonplace is characteristic 
of the whole of Dutch art in the seventeenth 
century. The subject itself is rarely so exalted 
that it ennobles the picture. It is the artist's 
conception of it and his attitude toward his art 
that account for his success. 

The technical skill of the greatest men was 
so perfect that no lack of it ever prevented them 
from expressing themselves well. It enabled 
them, on the other hand, to let their fancies 
play, especially in the use of light and shade. 
This use often was arbitrary and wholly subject 
to the dictates of the painter's artistic inten- 
tions. Since these, however, were convincingly 
based on a thorough understanding of art and 
her requirements, the willful choice of the artist 
actually appears to be a faithful rendering of 
exceptional but perfectly natural conditions. 

Just as the personality of Rubens dominates 
Flemish painting, so Rembrandt is easily the 
first of the Dutch; but while onl)' few of the 
Flemish could approach Rubens, there were 
scores of Dutchmen who in one way or another 
equaled Rembrandt. At no other time in the 
history of the world, and in no other place, have 
so many great artists been active as in Holland 
in the seventeenth century. Not even Florence 
at her best could boast of an equally large 
number. 

Portraiture, genre, landscape, still life, — all 
branches of art had their worthy representa- 
tives in Holland, nor were they confined to 
any one particular school. Amsterdam and 
Harlem were the most active art centers, but 
Delft, Dordrecht, The Hague, Leyden, Rotter- 
dam, and Utrecht were not less favorably known, 
while some good men could be found in almost 
any of the many smaller Dutch towns. Often 
men changed from one place to another, so that 
it is difficult to assign them to definite schools. 

Rembrandt was born in Leyden, but spent 
most of his life in Amsterdam. Although the 
son of a miller, he received a good education, 
and attended the University of Leyden, study- 
ing at the same time with the artist Swanen- 
burgh. Later he entered the studio of Lastman 
in Amsterdam. He did not visit Italy, and 



DUTCH PAINTING 



133 



received his knowledge of Italian art through 
the Dutch and Flemish followers of Elzheimer. 
If knowledge of nature makes a man a natural- 
ist, Rembrandt certainly was a naturalist. If, 
on the other hand, the power of seeing in com- 
mon things more than other people see in them 
makes one an idealist, then Rembrandt was 
also an idealist. There is not a detail of 
nature which he did not represent so that it 
seemed to be replete with fascination and human 
interest. Rembrandt undoubtedly was the most 
human of all artists. All persons who showed 
their character either in their faces or their de- 
meanor Rembrandt selected as his subjects. 
Fashionable portraits, on the other hand, he 
rarely painted, for the veneer of society is apt to 
destroy the marks of individuality. The beggar, 
the farmer, the artist and artisan, the poor 
man, and, thanks to his racial seclusion, the 
European Jew, are all people whose features 
and gestures are apt to be expressive of char- 
acter. These then were the favorite subjects of 
Rembrandt. In addition he often painted him- 
self, and his mother, and his wife. He rarely 
made portraits for money. 

The designs of most of his pictures were not 
arranged with an eye to drawing, or balance of 
masses, or rhythm, or any of the customary 
principles, but according to light and shade. 
This preeminently determined the disposition 
of the features, and in larger pictures that of 
the several figures. The latter is a more diffi- 
cult feat than the former, for it is easier to 
select salient features than entire forms, and 
to permit the spectator to imagine beneath the 
shadow those features which are not represented 
than those figures which have failed to receive 
clear outlines. In his large compositions, there- 
fore, Rembrandt is less uniformly successful. 
His selections are not always according to the 
dictates of good taste. In his smaller pictures 
he is unsurpassed. Things, persons, and ideas 
that in fact have their existence only in his 
imagination he represents with such convincing 
straightforwardness that one accepts them as 
real; and others which are commonplace he 
transforms into scenes of much dignity. 



Rembrandt's walk through life was not sunny. 
He lost his dearly beloved wife, Saskia, forfeited 
popular esteem by an unfortunate love affair, 
which his enemies turned into a scandal, and 
went bankrupt because he had spent too much 
money on his collection of art objects. He had 
only a small coterie of faithful friends and did 
not receive much popular recognition. Perhaps 
his misfortunes quickened his natural gift of 
selecting essentials and fortified his conviction 
that beauty of expression and coarseness of con- 
ception are two incompatible elements. The 
art of Rembrandt is always pure, which is note- 
worthy, since the same could not be said of the 
art of Rubens. 

The two most famous painters of genre 
in Amsterdam contemporary with Rembrandt 
were Gabriel Metsti and Pictcr dc Hooghe. 
The former prefers fashionable people, whom 
he arranges in convincing and natural groups. 
They are dignified always, often listening to 
music or thoughtfully composing a letter; not 
rarely enjoying an early repast and generally 
held together by a bond of gallant flirtation. 
Unlike Metsu, Pieter de Hooghe paid less 
attention to the figures themselves, and more 
to the room in which he placed them. The 
charm of his interiors is unsurpassed. One 
actually feels the peacefulness of their atmos- 
phere, and lest a too clearly defined character 
disturb one's musing, his generally solitary 
figures are introduced with their backs to the 
spectator. In order to provide some variety for 
the eye, de Hooghe often represents an open 
door in one corner of the back wall through 
which there is a vista into a well-lighted room 
or into a courtyard. At times he is too studied 
in the disposition of the various objects which 
he paints in his rooms. A slipper here or a 
small greyhound there detracts from the simple 
charm of his first conception. 

The same peace that shows in the genre 
pieces of the Amsterdam painters emanates 
from their landscapes, and is best seen in the 
works of Paulus Potter and the much younger 
Meyndert Hobbema. Potter, who died a young 
man, thirty-one years of age, is unsurpassed in 



134 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



his landscapes and animals. He tried his hand 
also at other work, although less successfully, 
and often introduced figures in his landscapes 
which would have been better left out. His ob- 
servation of nature was remarkable ; he repre- 
sented her with fidelity, but had so keen an eye 
for essentials and such skill in overcoming tech- 
nical difficulties and, moreover, such love for 
his subject that his best pieces fully deserve 
the admiration which they have received. 

Meyiidert Hobbema painted landscapes exclu- 
sively. He was a pupil of Ruysdael of Harlem, 
and although very popular to-day, was little 
known to his contemporaries. This may have 
been due to the fact that he seems to have left 
painting for business when he married in 1668. 
Trees and their disposition in landscapes were 
his greatest successes. His most famous and 
probably best picture is the "Avenue near 
Middleharnis " in the National Gallery in Lon- 
don. It is dated 1689, but there are good 
reasons to doubt such a late date. In this pic- 
ture the peace and lovableness of his native 
land appear to the best advantage. Here also 
he has shown how cleverly the artistic inten- 
tions of a painter may transform an ordinary 
landscape into a scene of poetry and beauty. 
The monotony of a straight perspective is 
avoided by the omission of several trees in the 
center, by the road leading off at the right to 
the farmhouse, and by the tower on the hill in 
the background on the left. The value of all 
these devices is perceived when one compares 
the picture by Hobbema with others of actual 
avenues. 1 

The greatest of the contemporaries of Rem- 
brandt was Frans Hals tlie Elder, who, howe\'er, 
was not as many-sided as that master. He was 
a figure painter, — portrait painter, one might 
say, for even his genre pieces partake of portrai- 
ture. Himself a " jolly good fellow," he painted 
with preference people in gay moods, — smiling, 
laughing, even shaking with boisterous hilarity. 
Their mirth is not born of surprise at humorous 

1 One of them was recently published in The Independent 
(New York), June 15, 1905, portraying an avenue near 
Orleans in France. 



incidents, but of complete satisfaction with 
their existence. And it is this that makes them 
delightful. Even the lonely toper who laughs 
at his empty mug ingratiates himself by his 
optimistic outlook on life. He seems to have 
something of the character of the artist him- 
self. Born of noble parents and fairly success- 
ful in his profession, — his contemporaries ap- 
preciated him less than the moderns do, — he 
found himself, nevertheless, often penniless. 
He drank a good deal and had to promise once 
before the magistrates that in future he would 
remain sober and be a more considerate hus- 
band, and at another time his possessions were 
sold at auction to pay a debt ; but he did not 
lose his good nature, and continued his gay 
and irresponsible walk through life until he 
died penniless in 1666. 

Like many of his contemporaries, Rembrandt 
included, he painted also Doelcnstukken, large 
groups with portrait heads. Such pictures 
have less interest to-day, for their artistic pos- 
sibilities are slight. The accidental connection 
of people who have met at a dinner or at an 
operation, as in the case of the famous pic- 
ture by Rembrandt, robs the picture of the 
desirable unity, most especially since the well- 
finished portrait heads offer the spectator ever- 
changing centers of interest. In the best of 
these pictures one admires the skill of the 
artists who have extracted from the subjects 
all the charms of which they are capable ; but 
one cannot overlook the fact that in making 
allowances to popular demands the artists were 
obliged to undertake a thankless task. 

Gerard Terburg, whose sphere of activity 
was as circumscribed as that of Frans Hals, is 
best known as a genre painter. Since he was 
a pupil of Frans Hals, he is listed as belonging 
to the school of Harlem, but he was a restless 
genius, flitting from place to place, until he 
finally settled in Deventer. He knew Eng- 
land, Italy, Spain, and Germany, and was in 
one sense of the word a cosmopolitan ; in an- 
other sense, however, he was distinctly pro- 
vincial. He knew human nature and all the 
delicate shades of its varying moods, but to 



DUTCH PAINTING 



135 



portray them he selected almost exclusively his 
own countrymen and their familiar surround- 
ings. Like his master, he preferred few figures 
in his compositions, but these few he character- 
ized and posed with an accuracy and freedom 
that reveal the great artist. Only once he 
was called upon to paint a large picture of 
many figures, and then he absolved himself of 
the task most creditably. He happened to be 
in Miinster, in Germany, in 1648 and received 
the commission to paint the peace ratification 
there between Spain and Holland. With this 
exception, he painted genre pure and simple. 
In this style of painting he had a long list of 
forerunners and followers, generally known as 
the Dutch Little Masters, a somewhat arbitrary 
designation of the many genre painters in 
Harlem, Amsterdam, and elsewhere, who de- 
lighted in portraying the everyday incidents 
of both high and low life in their native land. 
Their rendering is generally full of suggest- 
iveness, and not rarely adds poetic charm to 
subjects which to the unobservant eye are com- 
monplace. Sometimes, however, these artists 
overshot their mark and, carried away by their 
love of detail, presented liberal transcriptions 
from life ; and then these pictures are pleasant 
only for a momentary glance because the 
artistic intentions have too small a place in 
them. 

Landscape painting was e\'en more flourish- 
ing in Harlem than in Amsterdam, and can 
boast of two of the best Dutch names, IVouver- 
77ian and Ruysdael. The former was a careful 
student of nature, but no literal transcriber, for 
in utilizing his studies he seems to have relied 
on his memory. Since he was also greatly 
interested in figures, these form important parts 
of his compositions. He often painted battle 
scenes, and was thus one of the few Dutch 
painters who in their art made reference to the 
stormy years of the early seventeenth century. 
His fancy, however, toned down the fierceness 
of actual warfare and made allowances to the 
refining and restraining influences of his time. 

Jacob van Ruysdael was of a more thought- 
ful turn of mind, often almost melancholy. 



Lonely woods and glens and the mysterious 
breezes in the tree tops were his chosen prov- 
ince. No one ever painted nature in her serene, 
one might almost say inconsiderate, moods, as he 
did. He loved the contrast of woods and water, 
and also painted some excellent marine pictures. 
His sense for nature and how she would appear 
under given conditions was perfect, as is best 
perceived when one studies his pictures of 
mountain torrents which he had never seen. 
Besides these characteristic pictures Ruysdael 
painted, especially in his youth, others of a more 
idyllic appearance. But he had grown somber 
early. His life was not happy. In 1659 he left 
Harlem for Amsterdam, but being unsuccessful 
there he returned home a pauper. He died in 
1682 in the Harlem poorhouse. 

His coloring was altogether subordinated to 
his love of light and shade, and in this respect 
is the very opposite of the silvery tone that 
characterizes the work of his uncle, Salomon 
van Ruysdael. Salomon was of a tender dispo- 
sition and apparently gifted rather with a sense 
of beauty than with dramatic force. His pic- 
tures are not very strong, but they are always 
charming. He too loved water and trees, and 
was most fertile in devices of introducing both 
in ever-varying combinations. 

The only representative of the other Dutch 
schools who deserves a place by the side of the 
great men of Amsterdam and Harlem is Gerard 
Don of Leyden. He was the son of an engraver, 
and probably inherited from his father his love 
of precision. All his good pictures are small 
in size and painted with the delicacy which 
such a size demands. As a pupil of Rembrandt 
he learned the intricacies of clever light and 
shade, although he rarely permitted it to en- 
croach on the beauty of his color scheme. 

Roughly speaking his pictures are of two 
kinds, — a single figure at a massive window 
with the light falling full on his or her face and 
the deep shadow of the interior as background, 
or a few figures in a room more or less brightly 
lighted through large casement windows. In 
these latter pictures heavy draperies pulled to 
one side often add to the rich aspect of the 



136 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



room. His types are few, most of his young 
men resembling himself, his older men looking 
somewhat like his father, and his women show- 
ing pretty features with round eyes, small 
noses, and delicate mouths. 

Although he had but few figures in his pic- 
tures, he was fond of filling his interiors with a 
great variety of objects, — pieces of furniture, 
musical instruments, household articles, and so 
forth. These he always arranged in a fashion 
similar to that of artists of still-life pictures. 

The art of Gerard Dou was carried to its 
logical conclusion by the artists of the Mieris 
family. Frans van Mieris the Elder, a pupil of 
Dou, was the best of them. He was gayer in 
color, and selected his types from the richer 
classes rather than from the middle classes, 
which Dou had liked best. The older he grew 
the less replete with actual worth became his 
pictures. His son, Willem, who belongs to the 
eighteenth century, continued the mannerism 
of the later works of his father; and his son 
again, Frans van Mieris the Younger, continued 
on the downward road trod by his immediate 
forerunners. 

Before leaving the men of the seventeenth 
century mention should be made of the painters 
of flowers and still life in the various schools, 
many of whom rose to places of great distinc- 
tion, and are considered by those who like this 
style of work to have remained unsurpassed to 
the present day. Their skill was marvelous, 
but their art was placed in the service of a 
thankless task. A modern artist, on being 
asked why he had painted an exquisite still 
life, answered, "To show the critics that I 
know how to paint." Similar intentions may 
not correctly account for the Dutch still-life 
pictures, but they give a hint as to some of the 
causes that led to the low level of art in Hol- 
land in the eighteenth century. The noble atti- 
tude of the artists toward their art, which had 
characterized the best men in the seventeenth 
century, had given way to an inordinate interest 
in the means by which the earlier successes had 
been achieved. And such is the perversity of 
fate, that if one fixes one's attention on the 



thing which is but an accompaniment of the 
worthiest achievement, one loses it as surely 
as one has lost sight of the thing which alone 
deserves to be coveted. 

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

The truth of this observation is singularly 
well apparent in the art of Holland in the eight- 
eenth century. It is a sluggish period. Fewer 
men devoted themselves to painting, and of 
these few hardly any reached a level of conse- 
quence. Jan van Huysum and Rachel Ruysch 
alone deserve mention. 

Jan van Huysum showed his skill in fruit 
and flower pieces and still life, and is to this 
day extremely popular among collectors of such 
pictures. He had a most delicate touch and a 
marvelous eye for the minutiae of his subjects. 
Almost equally excellent in flower pieces was 
Rachel Ruysch. At that time it was an unusual 
thing for a woman to accomplish much in any 
profession. The importance of her successes, 
therefore, was naturally exaggerated, and she is 
still reaping the benefits of her unusual posi- 
tion. She was, considering the age when she 
worked, a good artist. If one ranks her, as is 
frequently done, among the best, one places 
her not by her attainments with the brush but 
by her success in gaining recognition for her 
sex which till then had received only scant 
justice. 

Of the remaining artists of the eighteenth 
century little need be said. They tried their 
hands at all kinds of work and did not achieve 
one masterpiece. Several of their pictures are 
not bad, but, on the other hand, they are not 
better than most works done by men of little 
inspiration and some, or even much, skill. 

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

The nineteenth century did not open auspi- 
ciously for Dutch art. The level was low, yet 
not so low that a reversion to better things fol- 
lowed as a necessary conclusion. The power- 
ful personality of David of France made itself 



DUTCH PAINTING 



137 



felt also in Holland ; but neither the artists 
nor the public took kindly to the principles and 
ideas of his classic school. Classicism, therefore, 
has hardly a place in the history of Dutch art. 

Jan Willeni Piencman, indeed, might be 
called a Classicist, but not one of the pure style, 
because he too permitted other influences to 
shape his career, notably those of the French 
Romanticists. It is better, therefore, to refer 
to the early Dutch artists of this period as 
Transition Painters, and to realize at once that 
the salvation of Dutch art did not come from 
the outside but from the inside. David's Clas- 
sicism served as the initiative not because it 
was accepted but because it was rejected. It 
could only be kept out of the country by having 
opposed to it another force, and this the Dutch 
began to look for in their own past. They began 
to compare their modern pictures with those of 
their ancestors, and to their credit discovered 
that the subjects and technical aims were the 
same, but that the honest attitude of the artists 
toward their art had lost its place with them. 
This defect they set out to mend, and thanks 
largely to the work of three men — Josef Israels, 
Bernardus Blommers, and Adolf Artz — they 
succeeded remarkably well. Fixing their atten- 
tion on the really worthy things, they also redis- 
covered the lost skill, so that to-day, judged even 
by this standard, they take their place by the 
side of the best. 

Their greatest man is Josef Israels, once a 
poor despised little Jew, to-day respected both 
as a man and as an artist far beyond the bound- 
aries of his native land. There is something 
eternally sad yet wonderfully sweet in his art. 
We pity the woman sitting by the deathbed of 
her husband, and now alone in the world, but 
we rejoice at the thought that folk capable of 
such love still people this earth. With similar 
emotions we join the little group of the fisher- 
man and his children, who are returning from 
their mother's funeral. He holds the baby in 
his arms, and we know that although the mother 
is dead the children will not want in love. Or 
let us look at the lonely Jew lost in thought, 
or at any other picture by Israels ; everywhere 



we find the same noble outlook on life. He 
does not make it gay by "patching the old rags 
with motley strips and stripes," but by infusing 
into it the tenderness which is the result of 
right living and right thinking. 

His technique is sufificient to his needs, 
although professional men have no difficulty 
in detecting its weak points. He himself is 
quoted by Professor Gensel as having remarked 
to Liebermann, " Barring Millet, there is no 
other artist who knows so little of drawing and 
painting as I, and has yet painted such good 
pictures." 

Sunnier than the art of Israels is that of 
Adolf Ariz, an e.xcellent genre painter, who 
follows more distinctly the endeavors of the 
Transition Painters, notably of Jati Bosboom. 
The latter was especially good in the light of 
his church interiors ; Artz, however, is best in 
his genre pieces of the lower and the middle 
classes. Fully his equal is Christoffel Bisschop, 
whose art has been well characterized by the 
title of one of his pictures, " Sunshine in Home 
and Heart." 

Bernardus Blommers is the vigorous writer 
in prose compared with the poets Israels, Artz, 
and Bisschop. His coloring is gayer and his 
lines are less refined, — more suggestive of the 
active life that physically healthy people lead. 

Several of these figure painters prefer a land- 
scape to an interior as the setting of their 
figures ; and show the same intimate under- 
standing of silent nature as of human beings. 
The Dutch landscapists, in fact, are as important 
as the figure painters. Their best known repre- 
sentative is Anton Mauve, who in his cattle 
pieces almost equals the sweet melancholy of 
Israels. He considers the surrounding land- 
scape generally as carefully as the animals, and 
as a colorist seems to pay special attention to 
those colors which appear in the high lights. 

The two brothers Willcni and Jacob Maris 
have a broader outlook than Mauve, intend- 
ing to reveal the stable dignity of their coun- 
try in their landscapes, although they too prefer 
to make the final appeal by some fine cattle or 
an impressive windmill. Sometimes the sun is 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



shining, but more frequently marvelous cloud 
formations remind one of the peculiar Dutch 
atmosphere. 

Hendrik Willem Mesdag loves his native land 
as well as they, but he sees its greatest charm 
in the sea which bounds it. He has noticed 
the ever-varying aspect of the waters and the 
accompanying changes of the effects of light. 
To paint these is his delight and his strength. 
He is undoubtedly one of the best modern 
painters of marines. 

When men have the gift to see essentials 
externals have less interest for them. When 
the subject charms them they pay less atten- 
tion to Its expression e.xcept in so far as it is 
absolutely necessary to serve their ends. It is, 
therefore, not astonishing that the Dutch artists 
should have been little influenced by the various 
continental schools, most of which were based 
on a search for new and better technical means. 
They did not actively enter into the hunt for 
such means, though they accepted the best re- 
sults. This was natural also for one other reason. 
Most of the more recent schools have struggled 
with the problem of intensely bright sunlight. 
Such light is rare in the moist cUmate of Hol- 
land, and since Holland in its varying moods is 
the subject of the Dutch artists, these latter, of 
course, had little occasion to join the impres- 
sionistic movement. No people, on the other 
hand, could entirely withdraw from the struggle 
for something new in the outward appearance 



of pictures, which swept over Europe like wild- 
fire during the latter decades of the nineteenth 
century. In Holland, therefore, several artists 
joined these movements, not as active partici- 
pants, but as distant although most interested 
spectators. They took over into their own art 
whatever pleased their fancy. These painters 
may be called Individualists. Widely differing 
one from the other, they still have this in com- 
mon, that they believe in the right of every 
artist to select subjects and expressions accord- 
ing to his own peculiar liking. Rarely, how- 
ever, have they regarded such freedom to be a 
license, as many of their impressionistic neigh- 
bors have done. 

Modern Dutch art has made no great stir in 
the world. It is quiet and appealing rather than 
dazzling and surprising. It is not brilliant, but 
it is exquisite. It is deservedly well liked by 
people of a contemplative turn of mind, and is 
passed unnoticed by those who pay attention 
only to the execution and forget that execution 
should not be the whole of the picture. 

The development of Dutch art is singular. 
Without much heralding Rembrandt made his 
appearance, and with him the host of great men. 
Then there came a period of rest, and while 
after that all eyes were turned to France and 
people believed that only from France there 
could come salvation, the Dutch quietly went 
to work and created a new art as fine in its way 
as anything that had ever been done in Holland. 



CHAPTER VI 



SPANISH PAINTING 



The prime of Spanish art was not coincident 
with the greatest poHtical splendor of the coun- 
try, but, as is not rarely the case, followed it; and 
since, politically, the rise of Spain had been very 
rapid, the great intellectual achievements were 
accomplished long after the zenith of worldly 
splendor had been past. In painting, only one 
period, the seventeenth century, can boast of 
men of world-wide reputation, Velasquez and 
Murillo. 

The early years of Spanish painting were 
uneventful. From the tenth century only a few 
miniatures are preserved, while the first larger 
pictures date fully two centuries later. Again, 
two hundred years later foreign influences 
began to be felt, doubtless as the result of 
the Gothic style of architecture which had 
made its way from France southward. Italian 
and Netherlandish artists also visited the coun- 
try and dominated the local schools for many 
generations. The rise of what might be called 
a national school of painting dates from the 
introduction of naturalistic tendencies into the 
country during the fifteenth century, although 
it was soon again superseded by foreign 
imitation. 

Antonio del Rincon is the earliest Spanish 
artist of note who devoted himself to the two 
branches of his art which were to continue in 
popular favor in Spain, — portraiture and reli- 
gious pictures. 

The next century, the sixteenth, was slightly 
richer in reputable artists, and from now on it is 
possible to group them in three classes, accord- 
ing as they belonged to, or may be said to be 
affiliated with, the Castilian, Andalusian, or Va- 
lencian schools of artists. The first comprises 
the center of Spain, the second includes the 
south, and the third extends along the eastern 
coast of the countr}'. 



Among the Castilians AIo7izo Sdtichez Coello 
is the most interesting. He was a pupil of 
Antonio Moro and a serious student of the fine 
collection of paintings by Titian in Madrid. 
Like Velasquez, three quarters of a century 
later, he was court painter and painted many 
portraits of Philip II and his courtiers. 

In Andalusia Lids dc Vargas tried his hand 
at fresco painting, a style of art which had been 
singularly neglected in Spain. He was noted 
for his skill, and to this day one of his pictures 
in the cathedral of Seville, in which a very 
cleverly foreshortened leg appears, attracts 
much attention and is commonly known as 
" La Gamba " (the leg). 

Juaii dc Ji/ancs, in Valencia, was a painter 
of religious pictures and was characteristically 
Spanish in his superstitious acceptance of the 
realities of divine tradition. But he also painted 
portraits and, although less individual in this 
branch of art than in the other, is generally 
ranked highest as portraitist. He had studied 
with Raphael, and on his return home founded 
an art school in Valencia. 

His son-in-law, Francisco dc Ribalta, sur- 
passed him in religious pictures. He, too, had 
studied in Italy and showed this in his work. 
In the fervor and ecstasy of his conception of 
divine subjects, however, he does not belie his 
origin. His great pupil, Ribera, settled in 
Italy, where he was known as the Spaniard, — 
Lo Spagnoletto.i 

Unlike these latter men who were carried 
away by their admiration of foreign achieve- 
ments, the greatest of the Spanish artists, 
Velasquez, studied the art of the foreigners 
diligently without losing his characteristically 
Spanish individuality. 

' Lo Spagnoletto is discussed with the Itahan artists on 
page 1 06. 



«39 



140 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

Do7i Diego de Silva y Velasquez^ was born in 
Seville in 1 599. His father's name was de Silva ; 
his mother's family name Velasquez. Follow- 
ing a Spanish custom, the latter name was 
joined to the former in the case of the son, and 
by strange coincidences it has so happened that 
the artist to-day is exclusively known as Velas- 
quez. As soon as his artistic talents began to 
show he was placed in the studio of Francisco 
de Herrera the Elder. This man, however, had 
a coarse and irascible nature, so that the boy 
was repelled by it, and changed to the studio 
of a less powerful artist but more attractive 
man, Francisco Pacheco. Pacheco, it seems, 
was one of those people who know things in 
theory but are failures in practice. He was an 
author too, and his book. Arte de la PinUim, 
contains discussions of many sound doctrines 
of art. Incidentally it is a source of information 
concerning the earlier years of the career of 
Velasquez. 

While still in Seville Velasquez painted many 
pictures of groups of people of the middle or 
the lower classes, generally in interiors. Such 
pictures were popular at the time, and are 
known as Bodegoncillos, or Bodegones. All 
these early works show the quiet light of the 
studio where they were painted, and give evi- 
dences of a remarkably keen observation of the 
forms of nature. 

In 1623 Velasquez removed to Madrid and 
was appointed court painter to Philip IV. He 
had been in Madrid once before, but then had 
not met with success. This time, however, his 
success was immediate. The king became his 
friend and remained faithful to him to the last. 
Commissions to paint either the king or mem- 
bers of his family and household were incessant, 
so that from now on Velasquez may be said to 
have been portrait painter with only an occa- 
sional digression into other branches of art. At 

1 The proper spelling of the name is Velazquez. The 
popular spelling — Velasquez — has, however, received the 
sanction of the Spanish Academy, and may therefore be 
considered correct. 



first his style does not noticeably change ; it 
remains sober, objective, remarkably accurate, 
but with harsh shadows and little attention to 
the artistic possibilities in the treatment of light 
and color. 

Rubens visited Madrid in 1628, and although 
Velasquez saw much of him, no direct influence 
of the Flemish master on the Spaniard is notice- 
able. It was, however, probably at the sugges- 
tion of Rubens that Velasquez visited Venice 
in 1629 in the company of the famous general, 
Spinola. The results of this Italian journey 
soon showed in his work, so that what is called 
his second style dates from about 1630. All 
points of excellence of his earlier work he re- 
tained, but he grew softer, paid more attention 
to the problems of light, and was less willing to 
sacrifice the general tone of his pictures to the 
harshness of sharply defined shadows. 

Ten years later Velasquez went again to 
Italy, this time in the service of his king, who 
desired him to buy antique statues and casts 
for the royal Spanish collections. When Velas- 
quez returned home in 165 1 he had once more 
altered his style. He had overcome the last 
vestiges of an artificial studio light and was 
master of the extreme wealth of technical 
means. His purpose had not changed, for he 
remained natural and objective in the extreme. 
With unfailing certainty he selected the sim- 
plest and most adequate means of expression. 
His keen eye knew which features were essen- 
tial and his hand painted them with precision. 
At this time he also made use of a device which 
reveals the delicacy of his vision, and which 
after centuries of neglect has only recently 
been tried again. It consists of duplicating the 
lines of important contours by means of ex- 
tremely thin strokes of the brush, so that the 
spectator seems to see more than one view. 
This redeems the portrait from fixed stability 
and gives it the appearance of lifelike mobility. 
The luminosity of his colors he frequently 
increased by not mixing his pigments on the 
pallet but by placing them side by side on the 
canvas. At a proper distance the color rays 
which the several pigments reflect are combined, 



I 



SPANISH PAINTING 



141 



so that their effect is the same as if the pig- 
ments had been mixed before they were put on 
the canvas, with this exception, that no lumi- 
nosity is lost in their chemical combination. 

Different from Velasquez in every respect 
save one, Bartolom^ Estcban Miirillo is yet the 
only Spanish painter who deserves to be men- 
tioned in the same breath with him. The point 
of resemblance is found in their command of 
natural forms and movements to their minut- 
est details. But while \'elasquez was a sober 
man of the world with much common sense and 
a personality that faded into the background 
before the existence of facts, Murillo was a 
warm-hearted idealist, a deeply religious Cath- 
olic, a lover of people not for what they seem 
to be (their appearance) but for what they are 
(their character). Velasquez with masterly com- 
mand of color delighted in obtaining results 
with the simplest means. Murillo in his emo- 
tional ardor poured out the whole wealth of 
sensuous color schemes. 

His religious pictures are most characteristic, 
for just as sincerely as he believed in the reality 
of the miracles taught by his church, just- so 
really he painted them. Dreams, visions, and 
supernatural occurrences are his favorite sub- 
jects. St. Anthony sees the Christ-child brought 
down to him by the choir of angels, and holds him 
in his loving arms, forgetful of all else but the 
grace of God. And we too are unmindful of the 
strangeness of the scene, and believe. Or the Vir- 
gin is carried up to the boundaries of heaven, 
and there with the angels at her feet proves to 
the spectator the truth of the doctrine of the im- 
maculate conception. In most of these religious 
pictures Murillo shows himself master of the 
most glorious light and shade. He is here fully 
the equal of Correggio, and in the richness of his 
color \-ies with the best of the Venetians. 

Another class of pictures, most of which he 
probably painted in his youth, reproduce with 
loving care t)'pes of the common people, fre- 
quently children. For these and for angels he 
always had a warm heart. 

IVIurillo often painted the same subjects many 
times, but since he alwavs made use of new 



natural forms he was generally successful. The 
modern taste has been less pleased with him 
than with Velasquez. He is too emotional, too 
fiery, not only in suggestion but in visible action, 
and not sufficiently intellectual. But if a man 
permits himself the luxury of dreams despite his 
reason, and loves a fellow-creature, however 
poor, despite common selfishness, then Murillo 
is the painter for him. Aside from the subjects 
treated Murillo was one of the great painters of 
the ages. Men may slight his emotionalism, but 
they will find it difficult to equal his use of 
color, his drawing, grouping, and especially his 
treatment of outlines, vanishing into the glory 
of the light that surrounds them. 

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

The greatest Spanish painter of the eight- 
eenth century, and one who summed up once 
more the characteristic tendencies of his people, 
was Ftancisco Jose de Goya y Lticientes. He 
was a clever technician but, above everything, 
a man of a fierce, almost wild, impetuosity. 
He was a naturalist, too, and had he been bom 
in a colder clime, where people act and live less 
intently, he might not have reached the per- 
fection to which he sometimes attained. That 
he did not always succeed was due to his reck- 
lessness, for his execution often was as hasty 
as his disposition was fiery. 

Goya is unrivaled as a portrayer of Spanish 
national customs, while his satirical vein made 
him naturally the painter of popular supersti- 
tions and social frailties. Light and shade domi- 
nate over color in all his pictures, so that they 
appear somber as befits the intensity of emotion 
which his subjects suggest. 

Like Velasquez, one hundred and fifty years 
earlier, Goya was appointed court painter to 
the king of Spain. He lived gayly and was 
surrounded with splendor and luxurj' during 
the reign of Charles IV. Later, however, 
he had a disagreement with Ferdinand VII 
which resulted in his withdrawal from the 
court. He removed to Bordeaux where he 
died in 1828. 



142 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

Naturalism based on the most grewsome 
occurrences is one of the keynotes of modern 
Spanish art. " Nerves accustomed to bull 
fights," says Professor Gensel, "one needs if 
one views the exhibits of the Museo de Arte 
Modcrno in Madrid. Close together one sees 
there on the walls of one gallery ' The Insanity 
of Johanna of Castiles,' 'The Decapitation of 
Torrijo and his Followers,' 'The Bell of Huesca' 
with the fifteen cut-off heads, 'Johanna Insane 
at the Coffin of her Husband'; and in another 
gallery 'The Chief Inquisitor Torquemada Ines 
de Castro ' with the fearful representation of a 
corpse partly decayed, 'Nero viewing the Dead 
Body of Agrippina,' and so forth. Everywhere 
insanity, blood, decomposition, and everything, 
life size!" The only redeeming feature of the 
long series of historical pictures is their exqui- 
site technique. They are in composition and 
in execution equally grand. 

It is, therefore, not at all surprising that the 
same artists excelled also in another style of 
painting, the simple genre. The greatest of 



all Spanish genre painters was Mariano Fortn7iy, 
who died young before he, too, had tried his 
hand at bloody history. His scintillating color 
schemes, his studied effects which yet impress 
one as singularly true, and the nobility of his 
conception have raised him to the highest rank 
among painters. In 1859 he accompanied Gen- 
eral Prim in the campaign against Morocco, and 
learned to know and to admire the gayety of 
African life. Later he was in Paris, and after 
a few years at home returned to Italy where he 
had been as a student. He was an indefatigable 
worker whose remarkable successes had no 
other effect than to spur him on to new achieve- 
ments. He died in Rome in 1874. 

Recently some exquisite portraits and land- 
scapes have also been painted in Spain. When- 
ever the subject offers an opportunity for the 
display of that fiery temper which Spaniards 
love, the picture is a masterpiece; for the 
Spanish painters possess a good technique and, 
owing to their fondness for naturalism, present 
the very personality of their sitter. In their best 
work one feels the influence of the clear color 
schemes of Fortuny. 



CHAPTER Vn 



FRENCH PAINTING 



In France, as in most northern countries, 
manuscript illuminations and miniatures were 
the beginnings of painting. The first crude 
extant frescoes are found in the Church of St. 
Savin in Poitou, dating from the twelfth cen- 
tury, while several cathedrals, notably those of 
Chartres, Reims, Rouen, Tours, Bourges, and 
Le Mans, possess colored windows of the thir- 
teenth century. However, no names of impor- 
tant artists were recorded during these two 
centuries. The first Frenchmen deserving recog- 
nition as individual artists were the two Clottets, 
father and son, who are best known as portrait 
painters. Unlike most of their contemporaries, 
they were little influenced by Italian art. The 
elder Clouet had come from the Netherlands, 
and had brought with him a simplicity of style 
and quiet beauty of color entirely at variance 
with the studied and luxurious elegance which 
the second-rate Italians were then importing 
into France. The younger Clouet also leaned 
more toward the Germanic tendencies of art 
than toward the Latin, so that his portraits 
sometimes are compared with those of Holbein. 

The only other Frenchman of note of the 
sixteenth century was_/i?rt« Cousin. He belonged 
to the so-called school of Fontainebleau, a 
company of artists who were entirely under the 
influence of the florid, superficial elegance which 
had been introduced by inferior Italian painters ; 
for these unfortunately had gained more power 
in France than the great masters who, since the 
time of Giotto, had paid occasional visits to the 
country. 

THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

The same tendencies, with only slight modifi- 
cations, continued to prevail in the early seven- 
teenth century. Sivion Vouet, a shallow but 
nevertheless clever imitator of Italian masters. 



enjoyed a remarkably great reputation, and 
although his pictures fail to excite admiration 
to-day, he still deserves much credit, for he was 
the teacher of three of the best artists of the 
century, — Eitstache Le Sueur, Pierre Mignard, 
and Charles Le Bnm. The latter throughout his 
long life completely dominated the art of France. 
He found favor with King Louis XIV and 
seems to have well represented the national 
tendencies of his age. Moreover, he did much 
to raise the art standards of the people ; for he 
did not despise making designs for furniture, 
tapestry, pottery, and anything else that con- 
tributed to the beauty of their surroundings. 
Everywhere he revealed sureness and dignity 
of conception, which he probably had acquired 
when he was a young student in Italy. There 
he had diligently studied the antique and had 
joined Poussin, whose love for nature had to 
some extent also passed over to the younger 
man. 

The multiplicity of work undertaken by Le 
Brun and the showy life at court necessarily 
left their traces upon him. Scenically beautiful, 
his pictures are nevertheless often shallow. One 
admires a fine appearance, one misses a soul. 

Nicolas Poussiti, who, like Le Brun, was an 
ardent admirer of the antique, based his work on 
it and on nature. His figure pieces are studied 
and lacking in temperament. In his landscapes, 
however, he marked a departure of such im- 
portance that he fully deserves the recognition 
which he has received. He was not a landscape 
painter in the modern sense of the word, — one 
who renders faithfully what nature offers to 
the eye. On the other hand, he was not a 
copyist of traditional t}q3es, but gave his own 
conceptions of nature simply and truly. His 
study of the antique had made him love the 
heroic, so that in nature, too, he saw only this 



Mj 



144 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



one side. He was, however, poetically gifted, 
so that none of his compositions are tedious 
and few are unimpressive. 

Greater even than Poussin, Claude Lorrain 
painted Italian landscapes with unparalleled 
perfection. He painted Italy "as she lives in 
the soul of the visitor from the north." His 
landscapes are "arranged" so beautifully and 
with such attention to detail that one does not 
doubt their actuality but rather believes him- 
self transported to the Elysian Fields. They 
possess the charm with which one habitually 
clothes the civilizations of bygone ages. The 
happiness of innocent enjoyment of nature has 
nowhere been more persuasively represented 
than in them. They are dreams, but of that 
wholesome kind which makes real life doubly 
worth the living. 

Claude Lorrain had a singularly keen eye 
for the various effects of light, according to 
whether it was morning, noon, or evening. He 
loved the sunshine, and at times even dared to 
paint the sun sinking below the level of the 
water. Water is found in most of his pictures, 
but even his marines present the sea in its 
relation to the shore. Everywhere he aspired 
at depth, and generally placed, in order to in- 
crease it, heavy trees or architectural masses 
to the right and left of his compositions. His 
figures conform to the general atmosphere of 
his pictures, — • playful shepherds in Arcady or 
the reincarnated blessed of an imaginary world. 
They are always designed as integral parts of the 
compositions, although their execution was often 
left to others, as was the custom of the time. 

To guard against forgeries Claude Lorrain 
made drawings of many of his pictures, two 
hundred of which are preserved in the gallery 
of the Duke of Devonshire under the name 
liber veritatis. He spent most of his life in 
Italy, although in his youth he traveled much. 
He was born of French parents in a small Ger- 
man town near the Mosel, and did not enter on 
his life's work until the Italian painter Tassi, 
whose valet he was, discovered his talent and had 
him taught. Although greatly influenced by the 
Carracci and Elzheimer, he soon developed his 



own peculiar style and continued it through life. 
His coloring was richest in his early works. 
When he was full grown it became softer, and 
finally grew to be somewhat dull as compared 
with the gold and silver tints of his younger 
years. These, however, are such fine distinc- 
tions that only the most learned feel justified 
in dating his pictures by them. To the ordi- 
nary observer they are all alike, grand concep- 
tions of a divinely beautiful world. 

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

While art was at its lowest level everywhere 
else in the eighteenth century, and only in Eng- 
land the foundation for a new and powerful art 
was laid, France forged ahead with giant strides. 
She alone did not lose what earlier generations 
had accomplished ; she alone held an ideal so 
high that it kept ahead of the most eager 
endeavors and secured for her the place of 
leader in the field of art, which she has suc- 
cessfully held for two hundred years. 

Compared with their contemporaries, the 
names of almost all the French artists of the 
eighteenth century deserv^e to be printed in 
bold-faced type. Judged, however, by the stand- 
ards which the masters of the ages have set, 
only Watteau may be considered the equal of 
the great artists, with some ten others as more 
or less worthy seconds. 

In portraiture Atitoifte Pcsnc, who spent his 
best years in Berlin, is still remembered as 
a man of forceful characterization and great 
beauty of color. 

The best style of painting of this century 
was the social genre, and in this Antoine Wat- 
teau excelled. To him the world was a beauti- 
ful playground, and the passions of love a deli- 
cious pastime. His life was short ^ not more 
than thirty-seven years — and filled with labor 
and illness ; but his work was so sunny and per- 
suasive that it transports the beholder beyond 
the limits of worldly care. His best pictures 
are labeled Fetes Gallantes. Ladies and gentle- 
men, sometimes dressed as shepherds, deport 
themselves decorously but joyously in glorious 



FRENCH PAINTING 



145 



parks, or gather at the shore to embark for the 
Isle of Cynthia where Venus reigns, the goddess 
of love. Every one of these pictures is a volup- 
tuous delight to the eye. Reason tells one that 
they are not true, but the senses and one's love 
of beauty are beguiled as readily and as will- 
ingly as by a finely staged play. Watteau was 
not only a painter, or a poet painter, but, if one 
may be permitted to coin the term, an actor- 
poet-painter. He watched the scenic effect. 
Perhaps this was due to his training, having 
been apprenticed to a painter of decorations and 
having worked later as a "theatrical artist," 
designing sceneries for new plays. More prob- 
ably, however, it was his nature. 

He was an ardent student not only of actuali- 
ties about him but also of older masters. His 
wonderfully rich and bewitching color must be 
the result of his familiarity with the works of 
the Venetians and of Rubens, whose pictures he 
more than once had the opportunity of study- 
ing carefully. Like Claude Lorrain before him, 
Watteau attained the level of perfection in the 
particular kind of art which he had decided to 
pursue. It is true that he also painted a few 
other pictures, largely under the influence of 
Teniers, but he will always be known as the 
creator and perfecter of the Fetes Gallantes. 

The next generation followed the example of 
Watteau, but the artists lacked his instinctive 
grace and refinement. Conditions also had 
changed. The era of dignified splendor under 
Louis XIV had given way to the sensuous, 
superficial, one is almost tempted to say hypo- 
critical, age of Louis XV. Nothing was real ; 
everything was but an empty show. To make 
this show as attractive as possible was the 
aim both of those who lived the life and of 
those who painted it. This again tended to 
develop the purely decorative qualities of paint- 
ing. Judged by this standard the French pic- 
tures of the eighteenth century rank as the 
best of any age. Unfortunately the greatest of 
the later painters, Francois Boucher, was a man 
with no background to his considerable talents. 
The beauty of his pictures is "made up," their 
moral tone is often low, and their execution 



rarely above reproach. Like Paler, Lemoyne, 
Lancret, and Carle van Loo, he took his subjects 
almost exclusively from the life at court. 

The simple dignity of the bourgeoisie first 
appealed lojcaii Baptiste Shneon Cliardin and 
to Jeaii Baptiste Greuze. The former was by 
all odds the greater artist, — simple, true, and 
forceful, — but he never achieved the reputation 
of Greuze, whose merely pretty faces of young 
girls have not failed to interest people for fully 
one hundred and fifty years. This is the more 
remarkable since, in the words of Professor 
Van Dyke, "as art they lack in force, and in 
workmanship they are too smooth, finical, and 
thin in handling." 

Most of the French painters used oils; a 
few, however, painted with pastels. The pastel 
technique originated in the sixteenth century, 
with Dumontier as one of its best representa- 
tives in the seventeenth century, but was not 
perfected until the eighteenth century when 
Jean Etienne Ltotard and Jl/aurice Qiicntin de 
La Tourd&xoK&A. their energies to it. The latter 
is best known by a large collection of portraits 
of famous contemporaries, eighty of which are 
in the museum of St. Quentin; the former, 
who was a universal genius, has gained a pecu- 
liar reputation in 'the United States by the fact 
that one of his pictures, "La Belle Chocolatiere," 
has come to be the trade mark of the firm of 
Walter Baker & Co. Through the extensive 
advertisements of this firm the picture has be- 
come known to every American man, woman, 
and child, while the name of the artist, Lio- 
tard, is familiar to only very few of the scores of 
thousands of people who have derived pleasure 
from looking at his "cocoa girl." 

The great result of the artistic activity in 
France in the eighteenth century was the 
break with the conventional art based on Italian 
models. The best artists studied nature or took 
their motives from their own national life. 
They generally confined themselves, it is true, 
to the glittering, unreal society of kings and 
courtiers, so that the fullness of life was not 
theirs. Nevertheless, they had taken a tremen- 
dous stride forward. They had demonstrated 



146 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



that good art based on one's experience rather 
than on imitation was possible. All that was left 
for their successors to do was to shift the cen- 
ters of interest and to place attention where it 
deservedly belongs. Technically, also, Watteau, 
Chardin, and Liotard had shown that advances 
are made by developing individual styles and 
not by copying old masters or by making selec- 
tions from the various achievements of great 
men. But these eighteenth-century Frenchmen 
are interesting not only as the forerunners of 
the fine era that was to dawn with the fall of 
the royal dynasty but also as the perfecters 
of a certain style of painting. In decorative 
quality their works are still unexxelled. 

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

The complete history of French painting in 
the nineteenth century will never be written ; 
for so incredibly extensive is the work and so 
universal and comprehensive the genius of the 
men who from France dominated the art of the 
world, that no lifetime is long enough to under- 
stand these men and their ideas in detail. 
Movement followed upon movement with light- 
ninglike rapidity, and hardly was the essence 
of one grasped before it was absorbed by 
another, or irresistibly swept away by a third. 
The men themselves changed. Starting with 
one idea and pursuing it sincerely, they soon 
detected another worthier one and followed 
that. In France, as everywhere, there were 
second-rate men during this period, but rarely 
was the list of first-rate men so full as it was 
in the nineteenth century. And the momen- 
tous thing is that every new idea found not one 
but many a genius eager to serve it. Art in 
France was advanced, to use a simile, not by 
a team of average perfection but by one of 
picked men. 

If one desires to understand, or at least to 
begin to understand, the several movements of 
French art, one must first familiarize oneself 
with the conditions which made them possible. 

The success of the French Revolution and 
the estabhshment of the galleries of the Louvre 



as Miisee naUonale des Arts are the most impor- 
tant factors. The people, not kings, are sover- 
eign. Art, like everything else, exists for them, 
— for all of them and not for a chosen few. In 
future the artists will have to appeal to the 
people; and since the people as a whole are 
naturally more diversified in tastes than was 
the comparatively small class of men and 
women whose position depended on the approval 
of a court, the variety of their tastes demanded 
a far more variegated art than had been exacted 
of the artists formerly. Or, to look at the 
reverse of this proposition, an artist of new 
individual ideas could now hope to find ap- 
proval in some quarters at least, while here- 
tofore the disapproval of the court would have 
meant failure for him. That the people at large 
were more readily swayed by the force of a new 
genius than the conservative aristocracy had 
been is also easily perceived, so that the rapidity 
with which this or that school gained prominence 
in the nineteenth century is not surprising. 

These remarkably favorable conditions for 
the growth of individual art had not come to 
pass with one bold stroke ; not even the estab- 
lishment of a republic could have done that. 
For more than a century the way for them had 
been prepared by trifling events and almost 
unnoticeable evolutions of popular sentiment. 
As regards popular interest in art the estab- 
lishment of public exhibitions had been of great 
importance. The first exhibition took place in 
1673 ^i^d, beginning with 1737, others followed 
regularly in the salon carr^ in the Louvre. It is 
this salon which has given the now famous name 
to the annual exhibitions of the Society des 
artistes frangais, which to-day are held in the 
Palais de l' Industrie, while rival salons are 
conducted by the Socie'te' natiotiale des beaux 
arts in a gallery on the champ de Mars. The 
first large English exhibition took place in 1760, 
and the first German exhibition in 1786. 

Moreover the growth of the public press, 
desirous of speaking with authority on all sub- 
jects, stimulated public interest, especially when 
the company of art critics appeared and began 
to make extensive use of its columns. Soon 



FRENCH PAINTING 



H7 



art magazines were established, at first with- 
out illustrations, but later with reproductions of 
constantly increasing worth. In short, every- 
thing was done to familiarize the people with 
what occurred in the world of art. 

Thus far all the causes which stimulated the 
growth of art are readily understood. The 
most important factor, however, is not so easily 
perceived. One may well ask what it was 
that turned the minds of the people so forci- 
bly to painting rather than to sculpture or 
architecture. What was it that made more 
men of genius arise in France at this time 
than had ever before appeared in any one 
country at any one time .^ Was it Heaven, to 
speak with Vasari, who had taken compassion 
on humanity ? These are questions which can- 
not be answered with precision, but which 
every one should endeavor to answer for him- 
self, or which he may leave unanswered, 
content with realizing that some inexplicable 
forces were at work shaping art and pressing 
the various men into their service. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century 
the classic revival held its sway. " Form is 
everything " was the watchword of the school 
which David led. But hardly had the men of 
this school formulated their creed and begun 
to practice it when Gericault and most espe- 
cially Delacroix pointed out that sentiment and 
passion are more satisfactorily conveyed by 
color, light, and indistinctness than by clearly 
defined outlines. " Let each man express his 
passions and emotions ; let him feel what he 
is doing," was the maxim of the so-called Ro- 
manticists. In their technique they strove to 
develop color, as the Classicists labored to mas- 
ter drawing. At first both schools had their 
ardent admirers, and later each had followers 
who endeavored to learn the best of both with- 
out going to their extremes. And then there 
were some independent workers, and others 
who laid less stress on how they painted than 
on what they painted. The Napoleonic era 
tempted them to paint military pictures, while 
the interest of great numbers of people who 
did not understand the fight between the 



Classicists and the Romanticists induced them to 
paint genre pictures, or, in a lighter vein, to por- 
tray humorous anecdotes and manners. Others 
again, dissatisfied uith existing political condi- 
tions, painted incidents which were meant to 
teach lessons in sociology. 

While all this took place there appeared the 
champion of a new cause. " You paint men 
and beasts and trees," Courbet seemed to shout, 
— " subjects which are taken from nature, — 
but you are not true to nature either with your 
lines or with your colors. Truth to nature is 
the only right thing in art. Don't reason, don't 
dream. Just open your eyes, see, and then 
paint what you see." This was the maxim of 
the Realists. 

Strangely enough, with one important modi- 
fication, it was also the maxim of the great 
landscape painters of the Barbizon school ; for 
although "Back to nature" was their motto, 
they held that there is more in nature than you 
can readily see. You must study her with an 
open mind and an open heart. Only thus will 
she reveal to you her mysteries. Practicing 
what they taught, they created what is called 
"the intimate landscape," — le pay sage uitivie. 

Then out of this movement quite naturally 
grew the one called Impressionism, which has 
always been singularly misunderstood. The 
time had come when people drew logical con- 
clusions from the trend of art, which had been 
away from nature as people think of it and 
toward nature as she is. To the followers of 
this new movement, nature as she is means as 
she appears to the observant eye. Naturally 
the observant eye for them was their own eye, 
so that large play was given to individual idio- 
syncrasies. Often, indeed, nature was probably 
held responsible for defects of the artist's own 
\-ision. The excesses which were thus perpe- 
trated brought ridicule on the movement. Its 
tenets, nevertheless, are fundamentally so true 
that they have revolutionized the entire art of 
painting. Abstract nature in pictures has dis- 
appeared, and ever)^vhere allowances are made 
to the peculiarities of human vision. Most espe- 
cially is this true of the use of color. The great 



148 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



problem which the Impressionists set themselves 
was to represent outdoor light in all its bright- 
ness. To do this actually is impossible. No 
pigment is sufficiently luminous to reproduce 
sunlight. Devices, therefore, had to be intro- 
duced by which colors would seem to do what 
they actually could not do. No people have 
been so successful in accomplishing this as the 
French, and the master of them is Monet. 

By the side of these Impressionists another 
school grew up, composed of the so-called New 
Idealists. These artists learned many points 
in technique from Monet and his followers, but 
differed fundamentally from him in their con- 
ceptions of what constitutes a worthy subject. 
To them the world of ideas was as real as that 
of physical vision. Borrowing their forms from 
the latter, they created another of great beauty, 
appealing everywhere to the nobler, the contem- 
plative side of men. In the pursuit of this aim 
they did not always feel bound by strict adher- 
ence to truth ; and since many of them leaned 
toward the decorative style of art, they often 
sacrificed actuality to pleasantness of outline. 

Jacques Louis David was the first man of 
genius to break with the traditions of the eight- 
eenth century. A distant relative of Boucher, 
he was at first closely wrapped up in the teach- 
ings of this great man, although his own teacher, 
Joseph Marie Vien, had already begun to set 
out on a path of his own. David won the/r/.r 
de Rome when he was twenty-seven years old, 
and before setting out for Italy solemnly de- 
clared that the classic movement, which had be- 
gun with Winckelmann's publications in 1756, 
should not corrupt him. "The antique," he 
said, " lacks action ; it does not move." He had, 
however, hardly reached Rome when this ma- 
ligned antique drew him into its nets and made 
him its most zealous proselyte. No other lover 
of the classic ideals has had such influence on art 
as David. He swept everything before him — 
France, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands — and 
there is probably no country that has not felt 
the power of his personality. David could 
never have accomplished his successes if, in 



addition to being an admirer of form, he had 
not been also a painstaking and loving student 
of nature. "His one great fault," says Pro- 
fessor Gensel, "was that he did not seek after 
beauty in the individual, but in the average." 
As a result his art was not "natural and free, 
but cold and pedantic." Cold it is, to be sure, 
but it is that coldness which suggests grandeur 
and nobility, and which compels the admiration 
of the spectator in spite of himself. 

Four hundred and twenty artists of all na- 
tionalities are mentioned as pupils of David ; 
few, however, have made names for themselves. 
The personality of the master was too power- 
ful. As a result his school soon declined, and 
would have done so even sooner if Jean Domi- 
nique Ingres had not infused new life into it. 
Ingres was attracted not only by the antique 
but also by the later paintings of Raphael, 
which taught him grace. His color was always 
subservient to his drawing, while his modeling, 
especially of nude figures, revealed the unex- 
celled master of form. He was at his best in 
portraits and in pictures of single figures, but 
he was unsuccessful in large compositions. 

The fact that Ingres sought inspiration in 
part from Raphael makes a bond between the 
classic movement under his leadership and the 
so-called Romanticists, for these men also 
turned to the masters of a more immediate 
past. The fundamental difference between the 
two schools lies in the contempt which the Ro- 
manticists showered on the antique, and the 
ardor with which they depended the superiority 
of color over form. Theodore Gcricault was the 
first of this school, but he died too young to 
become its leader. This honor was reserved 
for Eughie Delaci'oix. The art development 
of this man is best summed up in the words 
which he himself entered in his diary shortly 
before his death, " To be a feast for the eyes 
is the first merit of a picture." Color and all 
its enticing charms were the stars which he 
followed, unmindful of the classic-academic dis- 
approval. They called him "the painter with 
the intoxicated brush," or "the scourge of art," 
but he steadfastly followed his ideals. The 



FRENCH PAINTING 



149 



singular greatness of his artistic personality is 
clearly seen in his decorations of the library in 
the Bourbon Palace and in the Apollo Gallery 
in the Louvre. Unlike most contemporary 
painters of wall decorations, he knew how to 
adapt both his conceptions and his composi- 
tions to the spaces which he had to decorate. 

The first Frenchman to visit the Orient and 
to bring home with him a haunting love of the 
gayety of southern light and warmth was Alex- 
andre Decamps. Delacroi.x journeyed to Algiers 
directly afterward, and it soon became the cus- 
tom for artists to visit these foreign countries. 
Naturally fond of colors, their sojourns in 
southern climes could not but increase their 
endeavors to produce voluptuous symphonies 
in color. Sometimes they succeeded, sometimes 
they failed. " Color cooks " they have been 
called, but it must be conceded that their dishes 
are often delicious. 

In the matter of subjects the Romanticists 
delighted in anything that promised a rich and 
suggestive coloring. Their minds were thus 
readily turned to the history and legends of 
the Middle Ages. It is this choice of subjects 
which connects Paul Dclaroche with the fol- 
lowers of Delacroix, although he was more 
interested in the subjects themselves than in 
their execution, and in this respect was more 
closely akin to the German Romanticists than 
to his French confreres. 

The most famous of the pupils of Delaroche 
was Tliomas Coictiirc, who combined exquisite 
drawing with beautiful coloring, and who 
gained even greater influence by his remark- 
able gift as teacher than by his pictures. In 
his most successful pictures he struck a lighter 
vein, showing himself a man of humor in his 
scenes from the lives of Harlequin and Pierrot. 
Similarly ready to break away from tradition, 
Georges Michel may be said to have been one 
of the first to discover the beauty of French 
landscape. He painted Nature not as she looked 
in Italy but as she was at home. In his life- 
time he was little known. Running away from 
school, eloping with a laundress ere he was six- 
teen, ostracized from the salon in 18 14, and 



poor all his life, still he worked on steadily until 
he died in 1843 at the age of eighty. Sometime 
during his long life he made a business of 
restoring pictures. In this profession he prob- 
ably became acquainted with the great Dutch 
artists, whose influence shows in many of his 
compositions, notably those portraying scenes 
in Montmartre. 

The exploits of Napoleon I on the battlefield 
suggested to many artists the desirability of 
painting military scenes. Horace Vernet, best 
known for this class of work, was one of the 
first to take it up, although he painted along 
other lines in his youth. Perhaps the most 
successful of all military painters, barring Meis- 
sonier, was Alp/ionse dc Nejtvillc, whose pictures 
are spirited and at the same time delicate in 
finish, giving evidence of the fine caliber of his 
artistic disposition. 

Ernest Meissonier, the " darling of the gods " 
— if success in one's lifetime is an indication — 
and the great favorite of the people, followed a 
style of painting so utterly at variance with 
the artistic tenets of to-day that he has been 
displaced from his pedestal of fame, — unjustly, 
we may be sure, for popular verdicts are apt to 
go to extremes. Meissonier held that as all 
objects of nature were composed of well-arranged 
atoms, many of which are too small to be seen 
by the naked eye, so in a picture all details 
deserved to be finished with such care that the 
full complement of their beauties could be 
detected only under the magnifying glass. The 
effect of the whole, in consequence, is sacri- 
ficed to the charm of details, but if one takes 
time to study these, one discovers new beauties, 
both of coloring and drawing, and understands 
why his pictures have sold at the rate of over 
one thousand dollars per square inch. 

At first Meissonier painted small genre pic- 
tures, but later he turned to military scenes, 
and by these made his reputation in the world 
at large. He painted only what he could ac- 
tually see, and for his large compositions had 
everything prepared, down to the detail of an 
overturned cannon or the traces of horses' 
hoofs in the melting snow. The longer one 



15° 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



looks at his pictures the more points of scenic 
interest one finds, and the farther and farther 
one grows away from the mood into which the 
first view of them might, and certainly should, 
have placed one. Meissonier appeals to the 
orderly intellect. The whole mysterious prov- 
ince of human sensibilities he leaves untouched. 

The same is true, although to a lesser degree, 
of some of the so-called Semi-Classicists, who 
really are the successors of the David school, 
although they have not refrained from learning 
lessons from various other movements. Alex- 
andre Cabanel and Paul Baiidry were essen- 
tially painters of the seductive beauty of w^omen. 
William Adolphe Boiignereaii won fame with 
the elegance and sensuality of his mythological, 
historical, and religious pictures. His technique 
was perfect, so that one may justly regret that 
he did not aspire to a higher and more lasting 
level of art. 

The best known of all the Semi-Classicists 
was Jean Leon GMme, a versatile man, a sci- 
entific observer, and at heart a lover of details. 
The wealth of his subjects makes it difficult 
to classify him ; he painted mythological, his- 
torical, and oriental scenes, and later did not 
despise even genre. Everywhere one finds the 
same perfection of technique and the same 
intellectual and orderly disposition of details, all 
of which are carefully executed. " A man of 
great learning in many departments," so Pro- 
fessor Van Dyke says of him, "he is no 
painter to be sneered at, and yet not a painter 
to make the pulse beat faster or to arouse 
the assthetic emotions." 

If it is difficult to classify Gerome with any 
particular school, it is impossible to do this 
with a large number of artists who showed so 
much independence that they deserve to be 
mentioned as individuals. 

Pierre Paul Prud'/ion seems to have offered 
a place of refuge in his pictures to everything 
that David considered unmanly and unworthy of 
art. " He is the Boucher, the Watteau, of our 
time," David nevertheless said of him ; "suffer 
him to be as he is ; his influence on our school, 
as it is at present, will not be harmful." And 



Professor Gensel quotes Prud'hon himself as 
saying, " I cannot and I will not see with the 
eyes of others ; their spectacles do not fit me." 
He was fond of soft light, youthful bodies, and 
the charm of innocence. 

As portrait painter Alme. Elisabeth Vig^e- 
Lebrun has made a name for herself, being best 
known for the pictures of herself and daughter, 
in which the same ideals that guided Prud'hon 
can be recognized. Her best work dates from 
the eighteenth century, although she lived half 
her life in the nineteenth century and died in 
1842, eighty-six years of age. 

Born one year after Mme. Lebrun had died, 
Henri Regnault early promised a brilliant career. 
Unfortunately it was cut short by his untimely 
death in the Franco-Prussian War. Naturally 
his fellow-citizens consider his promise as al- 
most the equivalent of actual achievement, and 
rank him as one of their best artists. In color 
he has been declared to be the equal of Dela- 
croix, but in choice of subjects he stands alone. 
His fiery temper made him select scenes of 
horror, in which the most somber of his Spanish 
contemporaries might have delighted. It is 
impossible to judge what he would have accom- 
plished if he had lived longer. 

Jules Elie Delaunay made his mark as an 
ardent admirer of the early Italian Renaissance, 
and, although not a genius in the sense of David 
or Delacroix, infused into his pictures a spirit of 
artistic dignity which will preserve his name as 
that of a true artist when many of the Classicists 
and Romanticists will have been forgotten. He 
was also singularly successful in portraiture. 

With Gustave Courbet there came a revolution 
into the world of art. He has been called a 
"painter-animal," and indeed the delicacies of 
human intercourse were unknown to him both 
in painting and in life. He was for French art 
what George Bernard Shaw has set out to be 
for the English stage, both men endeavoring to 
supplant idealism, as they interpret existing 
conditions, with realism. " The galleries should 
remain closed for twenty years," ^ shouted 

• Quoted from Muther, A History of Modern Painting, 
Vol. II, p. 510. 



FRENCH PAINTING 



151 



Courbet, " so that the moderns might at last 
begin to see with their own eyes. . . . As for 
Mr. Raphael there is no doubt that he painted 
some interesting portraits, but I cannot find any 
ideas in them. ... I have studied the art of 
the old masters and of the more modern. I 
have tried to imitate the one as little as I have 
tried to copy the other, but out of the total 
knowledge of tradition I have wished to draw 
a firm and independent sense of my own indi- 
viduality. ... I am a sheer realist, which means 
a loyal adherent of the truth which is true. . . . 
Realism can only exist by the representation of 
things which the artist can see and handle. . . . 
The grand painting which we have stands in 
contradiction with our social conditions, and 
ecclesiastical painting in contradiction with the 
spirit of the century. It is nonsensical for 
painters of more or less talent to dish up themes 
in which they have no belief, — themes which 
could only have flowered in some epoch other 
than our own. Better paint railway stations with 
views of places through which one travels, with 
likenesses of great men through whose birth- 
place one passes, with engine houses, mines, and 
manufactories ; for these are the saints and 
miracles of the nineteenth century." 

Courbet was as uncompromising in his art as 
he was in his speech ; he was a straightforward 
man, but had the finer qualities left out of his 
make-up. He despised the choice of pleasing 
subjects and was antagonistic to the sensuous 
charm of color, so that a certain somber brown 
characterizes his pictures. One cannot love 
either the man or his work, but one stands 
aghast with a sense almost of admiration before 
the boldness of this "painter-animal." 

Other men followed the lead of Courbet with- 
out entirely losing their place by the side 
of a beauty-loving humanity. Among the best 
known are Theodnle Ribot, who has been com- 
pared with the Spaniard, Ribera, and Carolus 
Diiran, who began with powerful themes taken 
from the life of the common people, and who 
later achieved notable successes with his strong 
portraits of women. He was one of the teachers 
of the American, John Singer Sargent, by whom 



he has been surpassed in brilliancy of color, 
while he has remained without an equal in the 
spontaneity and convincingness of his concep- 
tions. Another excellent portrait painter is 
Lcoti Bonnat. 

The teachings of Courbet, whose motto, one 
might say, was "Back to nature," were followed 
by a set of artists who assembled in the neigh- 
borhood of Barbizon and Fontainebleau. These 
artists, however, followed Courbet's teachings 
in their own peculiar way ; for with his coarse- 
ness, for instance, they had nothing in common. 
Jules Diipr^, the oldest of four famous land- 
scapists, delighted in the play of the clouds in 
the heavens, so that his land is often but a neces- 
sary complement of the composition. Light is 
the charm of his pictures, and color a means of 
expressing its multifarious aspects in a clouded 
sky. " He constantly sought new color recipes, 
and put the pigments on the canvas so thick that 
his landscapes are easily recognized." Narciso 
Virgilio Dia:: de la Pefia, a Spaniard who died 
in France, had perhaps the least powerful 
personality of the Barbizon quartet, but he 
was an amiable painter of exquisite taste, both 
in design and in coloring. 

The man of strength among these artists was 
Theodore Rousseau. He really was the first to 
appreciate that nature has a heart, that there is 
a life which only the contemplative mind per- 
ceives. He was a no less ardent student of 
nature than Courbet, but he went deeper and 
did not stop with external accidents. With him 
began the so-called intimate landscape. 

The best qualified by nature, however, to 
understand her mysteries was Jean Baptiste 
Camille Corot. The points in which he differs 
from Rousseau are thus summed up by Profes- 
sor Muther : " In Rousseau a tree is a proud, 
toughly knotted personality, a noble self-con- 
scious creation ; in Corot it is a soft tremulous 
being rocking in the fragrant air, in which it 
whispers and murmurs of love. Corot did not 
care to paint the oak, the favorite tree with 
artists who have a passion for form, nor the 
chestnut, nor the elm, but preferred to summon 
amid the delicate play of sunbeams the aspen, 



152 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



the poplar, the alder, the birch with its white 
slender stem and its pale tremulous leaves, and 
the willow with its light foliage." The feeling of 
Corot toward nature is beautifully set forth in 
one of his letters ^ to Dupre. " One rises early, 
three o'clock in the morning, before the sun is 
up, and takes a place at the foot of a tree. One 
looks and waits. At first one does not see much. 
Nature resembles a white veil whence barely 
the profile of a few masses detach themselves. 
Bing ! the sun brightens, he has not yet torn 
away the haze beyond which lie hidden the 
meadow, the valley, the hills of the horizon. 
. . . Bing ! bing ! the first ray of sunlight — a 
second ray. The little flowers awake with joy. 
On all there sparkles a drop of dew. The leaves 
stir in the morning breeze, and in the foliage 
invisible birds raise a song. . . . The gods 
of love on wings of butterflies descend on the 
meadows and stir the tall grass. Nothing is 
seen, but everything is there. The entire land- 
scape is behind the transparent veil of mist. 
And then the mist rises — rises, and discloses 
the river streaked with silver, the pastures, trees, 
huts, and the fleeting background. At last one 
recognizes everything at which one before only 
guessed." And so Corot lives with his friend 
through one of his glorious out-of-door days, and 
closes thus : " Nature goes to sleep, while the 
fresh evening air sighs in the leaves of the trees, 
and dew studs with pearls the velvety lawns. 
Nymphs flutter away, hide themselves, and wish 
they were seen. Bing ! a star in the sky ; it 
sticks a little head on the surface of the pond. 
Charming star, whose twinkle is increased by 
the shivering waters, you are looking at me ; 
you are winking your eye and smiling. Bing ! 
a second star appears in the water. Welcome, 
welcome fresh and charming stars ! Bing ! 
bing ! bing ! three, si.x, twenty stars — all the 
stars of the heavens — have met at a rendezvous 
in this happy pond. Things grow darker. The 
pond alone shines ; it is swarming with stars. 
The sun has set, but the inner sun of the soul, 
the sun of art, is rising. Good ! good ! My 
picture is done." 

1 Only extracts from the letter are here translated. 



Little needs to be added. He who lives one 
day thus with Corot understands the art of 
this great, lovable man. Corot lived to be 
almost eighty years of age and spent the last 
forty years in close touch with nature. " Last 
night," he said on his deathbed, "I saw in a 
dream a landscape with a sky all rosy. It was 
charming, and still stands before me quite dis- 
tinctly ; it will be marvelous to paint." How 
many landscapes, we may exclaim with Profes- 
sor Muther, may he not have thus dreamed 
and painted from the recollected vision ! 

Closely allied with these four landscape 
painters were several painters of animals. Con- 
stant Troyon is unequaled in the intimacy 
which he reveals between the grazing cattle 
and the pasture land. Emile Vaii Marcke and 
Rosa Bonhetir have gained considerable repu- 
tation, especially in the United States. 

Not animals but peasants in their natural 
country surroundings appealed Xo Jean Franqois 
Millet. Years of deprivation made his art som- 
ber. He rarely saw the sunny side of life, and 
always seems to have remembered as a text 
God's awful curse to Adam : " Cursed is the 
ground for thy sake ; in sorrow shalt thou eat 
of it all the days of thy life. ... In the sweat 
of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return 
unto the ground." He entered, as intimately 
into the personalities of the hard-working 
peasants as Corot had entered into the mys- 
teries of nature, and knew so well how to com- 
bine his farmers and laboring men with the 
stretches of landscape about Barbizon that he 
deserves a place by the side of Corot. Visions 
of beauty that came to the latter passed him by 
unnoticed. Often his subjects are ugly, but he 
always surrounded them with the charm which 
is born of sympathy and of intimate knowledge. 

Less true, and consequently less forceful, are 
the peasant pictures of Jules Breton. He, too, is 
a fine painter, but he seems unable to penetrate 
below the surface. His peasants are of the 
kind which one popularly accepts as inhabiting 
the country. They are illustrations of conven- 
tional ideas, but they lack the spontaneous 
pathos of the work of Millet. 



FRENCH PAINTINCt 



'03 



With Edouard Manet begins an entirely new 
movement of art, the tenets of which are 
summed up by Gensel as follows : " Things 
should be represented not as experience teaches 
us they are but as they appear to the eye of 
the painter. All colors in nature are bright ; 
even the shadows are not black, for they are 
only of lower tints. Space illusions are pro- 
duced by delicately graded tones, since the air 
which intervenes between the spectator and a 
certain object changes the intensity of a color. 
Things should be painted where they are ; land- 
scapes, therefore, should be painted out of doors 
exclusively. Life is picturesque." 

When Manet exhibited his first can\^ses 
painted in accordance with this creed people 
stood aghast. Their eyes were offended by 
the unaccustomed brightness of tones, by the 
absence of deep shadows, and by the attention 
bestowed on the effects of light to the exclu- 
sion of many other qualities which they had 
heretofore admired. 

The adherents of this style of painting have 
been reviled as no painters have ever been 
before. But with the fervor of martyrs they 
have persevered, and certainly have taught that 
air and light deserve to be painted just as much 
as men, beasts, and scenery. The mistake 
which many Impressionists have made is that 
they believed air and light were the only worthy 
subjects. In consequence they have been 
tempted to try experiments which have been 
inartistic .and pedantic. The greatest of them, 
however, have achieved notable success with 
their new technique ; and over all towers Claude 
Monet, who still astonishes all the world with 
his beautiful landscapes. The subject counts 
for little, since air and light ennoble everything. 
He delights in catching the various moods of 
the hours of the day, often rendering the same 
subjects as they appeared to him in the morn- 
ing, at noon, and when the shadows began to 
lengthen. There is an atmosphere in his pic- 
tures which is entirely due to the combination 
of colors, and has nothing to do with the objects 
to which these colors happen to be attached. 
However light and fleeting the shadow may 



be that darkens a certain spot, Monet catches 
it. His eye is quick, sensitive, and wonderfully 
accurate. His color is very gay, and to enjoy 
his work one must be familiar with it. A single 
Monet in a gallery of other masters is a dis- 
tressing discord. 

While Monet paints landscapes, Edgar De- 
gas, by means of the new technique, puts nude 
women on canvas with uncompromising accu- 
racy. He sees only their form; their soul life 
does not interest him, for he cannot see it with 
his physical eyes, and his soul seems to have 
been created blind. The same, unfortunately, 
should be said of many modern men. 

Practically all subsequent artists have learned 
much from the technique of the Impressionists, 
however varied may be their interest in the 
spheres of life whence they draw their in- 
spiration. 

Jtiles Bastien-Lepage painted peasant pictures 
a la Millet, but with the new technique ; Lc'on 
L'hermitte did much the same, while Pascal 
Adolplic Dagnan-Bouveret,hegmmng with genre 
scenes, is the only one of all the men who 
are more or less closely identified with Im- 
pressionism who developed into a great painter 
of religious subjects. 

Giovanni Boldini, an Italian living in Paris, 
is one of the most charming portrait painters 
of high life, and Jean Francois Rajfa'eli, one of 
the most spirited portrayers of views of Paris 
and of cosmopolitan types. 

All these men and many more have boldly 
applied what is best in Impressionism to their 
own art, and have taken good care not to offend 
the public taste with the excesses which the Im- 
pressionists themselves have often committed. 

With few exceptions the trend of French art 
in the nineteenth century kept step with the 
rapidly developing accuracy of human vision. 
But people do not always wish to see ; some- 
times they want, or at least should want, to 
dream. In Pierre Piivis de CJiavannes they 
have an artist whose work satisfies this need. 
In viewing his pictures one receives the same 
impressions of a divinely pure and blessed 
world which the sacred pictures of the great 



154 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



Italians used to inspire. In the hurry of a busy 
life Chavannes causes one to stop awhile and 
dream and feel. He has achieved this with the 
noble simplicity of his conceptions, and techni- 
cally with the long sweeping lines and light 
colors which soothe the eye. Most of his pic- 
tures are symbolic, but they are never frostily 
allegoric like the pictures of the later Classi- 
cists. They are readily understood and need 
no learned commentary. 

Gustave Moreau worked not unlike Puvis de 
Chavannes, but he lacked his wholesomeness. 
Chavannes takes one to the Elysian Fields, 
Moreau to the mountain of Venus. Jean Charles 
Caziu, on the other hand, surrounded actual 
landscapes with melancholy charm, and not 
rarely introduced figures which were sugges- 
tive of sadness. Eughie Carriire and Edmond 
Aman-Jean drew a veil over actuality, thus 
offering plenty of food for speculative contem- 
plation. Adolph MoHticelH was a dreamy and 
tender successor of Diaz of the Barbizon days, 
while Paul Albert Besnard drew very one-sided 
but singularly impressive conclusions from the 
movement of the Impressionists. Besnard has 



been called a luminist. Past master of the art 
of color, he has solved some of the most myste- 
riously beautiful problems of light, such as the 
interchange of the rays of the moon with those 
of a street lamp. His interiors are full of 
delightful effects of light, and his portraits of 
women suggestive of a fairy world. 

To pass in review, even briefly, the achieve- 
ments of the French painters in the nineteenth 
century means coming in contact with every 
branch of modern art. In every movement a 
Frenchman of genius was the leader. Perfec- 
tion of technique seemed to be born with them. 
It is natural, therefore, that all nations should 
have come to them to learn. Unfortunately, 
however, many painters have left them im- 
pressed only with their technical versatility, so 
that people at large have not rarely considered 
French art to be an unscrupulous exercise of 
manual dexterity. If in recent years the French 
influence has been less distinctly felt, for 
instance, in America, this is due to the growth 
of American art, which is able to stand on her 
own feet, and not to any diminution of the 
worth of French painting. 



CHAPTER VIII 



BRITISH PAINTING 



Standing somewhat outside the whirlpool of 
European political history, and by geographical 
position compelled to go her own way, Great 
Britain used to hold a unique place in the field 
of art. She relied almost exclusively on foreign 
talent down to the middle of the eighteenth 
century, but showered with magnificent honors 
those great artists who came to her. When 
finally, with the advent of Reynolds and Gains- 
borough, she rose to a place of independence, 
she followed no contemporary's lead, but proved 
herself an exclusive aristocrat in most things. 
France, with her versatility, was democratic ; 
Germany, with her sentiment, was no less so ; 
but England, with her poise, was preeminently 
the land where refinement reigned not as an 
accident but as a prerequisite of art. To walk 
through a gallery of early English pictures is 
like visiting with high nobility. Nobility is not 
always cold; it has its emotions just as other 
people have them, but it shows them less. One 
must know it well if one wants to understand 
it. He enjoys Reynolds and Gainsborough best 
who is able to grasp their essentially aristocratic 
preferences. 

Another point of difference between Great 
Britain and the Continent was that she was 
hardly touched by the movement of the Classi- 
cists. Her art continued, without a break, the 
traditions of the artists of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, most especially those of men who, like van 
Dyck and Sir Peter Lely, had long lived in the 
country, and whose courtly grace was the start- 
ing point of the new national art. 

British art has never seen a revolution which 
aimed to dethrone respected ideals for the 
sake of inaugurating an age of freedom. What- 
ever disturbances she has experienced were 
occasioned by those who preferred to make 
new ideals paramount. Coarseness has been 



unknown to her. Her painters either have not 
known or have passed in silence the gamut of 
powerful passions which must be fought by 
those who make their way through life un- 
sheltered by worthy traditions. 

Many of her painters, moreover, have been 
thmkers, preachers, poets, believing in the dig- 
nity of their art as an elevating, instructive, and 
guiding force, and have naturally refrained from 
making of it a tool for the gratification of the 
senses. 

British artists, of course, have also painted 
some pictures which do not agree with this 
characterization, but in so far as they have 
done so, they are not distinctly British. 

The history of British painting is brief, cover- 
ing only about one hundred and fifty years, but 
it can, nevertheless, be divided into several 
periods. The first is the age of Reynolds and 
Gainsborough and their immediate successors, 
lasting to about the second decade of the nine- 
teenth century. The second is a period of 
stagnant conventionalism covering only about 
twenty years ; this was rudely disturbed by Mr. 
Ruskin, and was quickly superseded by the 
third period, which was dominated by the Pre- 
Raphaelite Brotherhood. This brotherhood also 
was of short duration, although its influence 
lasted through a generation, and in some degree 
is felt even to-day. The fourth period is less 
easily defined. One may perhaps call it one of 
individual preferences, since various ideals are 
followed by the several men. A fifth period 
will doubtless appear more clearly to future 
art historians as having had its origin in the 
latter years of the nineteenth century, and hav- 
ing emanated from the Scotch school. Here 
figure pieces are painted as everywhere in 
Great Britain, but landscapes are raised to un- 
wonted predominance. 



'55 



156 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



PORTRAIT PAINTERS 

Reynolds and Gainsborough were not the 
first Britishers of importance, for they were 
preceded by William Hogarth. This man was 
a satirist whose pictures were often meant to 
flay existing evils, but they did it under the 
guise of humorous anecdotes. This satirical 
humor made Hogarth popular, so popular, in- 
deed, that engravings of his paintings are known 
everywhere. Though greatly interested in his 
subjects, people have overlooked the technical 
beauties of his work and have been apt to rank 
him far below his real worth as a painter. The 
careful observer finds in his pictures bits of 
exquisite color and a remarkably dehcate touch. 
His compositions are magnificently grouped, 
and not rarely enriched with a very fine play 
of light and shade. He also painted portraits, 
showing a fine artistic gift in this line of work, 
although he did not approach the marvelous 
successes of Reynolds or Gainsborough. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds is generally regarded 
as the greatest English painter. His drawing 
is exquisite, his coloring very rich and warm, 
alluring, and suggestive of a happy, luxurious 
state of well-being. Before his pictures one 
almost breathes the scented atmosphere of high 
society. It is, however, a worthy society; for 
his people are Englishmen of the type who 
have done most for the advancement of 
humanity. He painted good likenesses, and 
yet for us there is such a strong generic 
resemblance in all his works that it is easier 
to recognize in them the conceptions of Rey- 
nolds than the individuality of his sitters. 

He was elected president of the Academy 
when still a young man, forty-five years of age, 
and remained to the end of his life the leader 
and backbone of the official school of paint- 
ing. He was also an author, and knew how 
to enforce his artistic convictions with vigor- 
ous speech. 

Unlike Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough pre- 
served through life a position of independence. 
The stamp of officialism was never placed on 
his work ; and not rarely did he paint with the 



avowed purpose of contravening a dictum of 
the Royal Academy. His famous " Blue Boy " 
owes its origin to his desire of showing that 
blue could be made the leading color of a com- 
position. In the execution of this picture, how- 
ever, blue is in reality a very subordinate color, 
since the texture of the cloth, which the specta- 
tor understands to be blue, shimmers in a variety 
of hues under the peculiar light which is shed 
about the figure. 

Quoting often a famous expression of Kneller 
to the effect that pictures are not made to be 
smelled at, Gainsborough introduced a feathery, 
volatile application of color which gives to his 
compositions both distinction and suggestive- 
ness. It also disguises a somewhat uncertain 
touch of drawing, — uncertain, however, only in 
the sense in which the outlines of a cloud are 
uncertain because human eyes are rarely quick 
enough to catch them distinctly. 

He painted landscapes comparatively rarely, 
but here also he showed himself a master. Lest 
this additional accomplishment of his be con- 
strued into a claim of superiority over Rey- 
nolds, it must be remembered that this latter 
artist was his undoubted superior as a por- 
trayer of children. 

" Did these two masters equal the greatest 
portrait painters of earlier centuries .' " Profes- 
sor Gensel asks this question and significantly 
replies that it may well remain an open one. 
" The fact is," he adds, " that we experience 
before their pictures that pleasure which leaves 
no room for further desires. Reynolds' ' Nelly 
O'Brien,' with her bewitching smile and her 
mystery due to the shadow which is thrown 
by her hat, impresses us as do the most beau- 
tiful women by Rembrandt ; and over Gains- 
borough's ' P.erdita ' and ' Mrs. Siddons ' there 
hovers such indescribable grace and grandeur 
that we desire to do them homage as though 
they were alive." 

No one of the other painters of the first 
period was quite the equal o.f Reynolds and 
Gainsborough, although several 'approached 
them in the perfection of one point or another. 
George Romncy was a master of youthful grace 



BRITISH PAINTING 



157 



and mature womanhood. Tliomas Lazurence, 
who made a name for himself when a mere boy, 
was often superficial, but at his best revealed 
a thoroughly refined taste and great technical 
perfection; while the Scotchman, Hemy Rac- 
burn, was distinguished by his very successful 
light and shade. 

LANDSCAPE PAINTERS 

Richard Wilson, a contemporary of Gains- 
borough, is the first English landscape painter 
of consequence. Like Claude Lorrain and Pous- 
sin, he was enthralled by heroic idealism ; and 
unlike Gainsborough, he saw even his native 
land through the borrowed spectacles of foreign 
grandeur. Gainsborough used no spectacles, 
but he, too, was less true than imaginative, and 
drew more frequently on his recollections than 
on nature herself. 

The first man to put himself in intimate 
touch with nature was _/<?//« Crome, — called Old 
Crome to distinguish him from his son, John 
Bernay Crome. Old Crome founded the so- 
called Norwich school. Admiring the Dutch 
landscapists, he endeavored to equal their close 
relationship with nature, and he succeeded. His 
pictures possess what the Germans call Stim- 
mung ; they put the spectator in a very defi- 
nite mood. His subjects are often common- 
place and uninteresting, but his love of nature 
has enabled him to reproduce faithfully her 
charm or her sadness, whatever his motif hap- 
pened to be. His coloring was usually of a soft, 
rich brownish tone. 

It is this brown that distinguishes him most 
convincingly, even for the novice, from his still 
greater contemporary, _/c;//« Constable, who was 
the first to appreciate that green and not 
brown is the predominant tone of nature. He 
also dared to paint what the most frequently 
prevailing weather of England made him see 
constantly, — gloomy days with water-charged 
clouds. Many critics have not liked these pic- 
tures, since they lack the grandeur of a storm 
or the idyllic loveliness of sunny climes. " Bring 
me my umbrella," a contemporary of Constable 



is quoted as saying; "I want to look at Con- 
stable's landscapes." But whether we like it 
or not, it is true ; and to this extent the artist 
deserves our admiration. He certainly prac- 
ticed and taught that nothing is so important 
for a landscape painter as the immediate study 
of nature. Possibly he is open to the charge 
that he was unmindful of another important 
principle, namely that an artist should make 
selections, and not paint everything he sees. 

Together \\ith his follower, David Cox, of 
Birmingham, Constable exerted a powerful in- 
fluence not only on the landscape painters of 
Great Britain but also on those of the Conti- 
nent. It is often said that even the French- 
men received from him their first introduction 
to the intimate landscape, — le paysage intime. 

Outside any particular sphere of influence, 
Joseph Mallard William Turner, a unique per- 
sonality, climbed the ladder of fame. Generally 
we admire and understand an artist better when 
we know something of his life and his aspira- 
tions. Even his faults are apt to set off in 
strong relief some virtues which seem to be 
the guiding stars of his career. Not so with 
Turner ; the deeper we delve into the recesses 
of his life the more disgusted we grow. A 
mean, dirty (physically so), deceitful, selfish, 
grasping miser, an ungenerous acquaintance, a 
lying friend ; he had only one idea, and that 
was to be one day the painter of England 
whom every one should admire. It is a marvel 
where he hid during his long life the great soul 
that speaks in his works. Where did he dream 
those wonderful dreams that even to-day appeal 
to young and old with singular force .-" Pick 
his pictures to pieces, enlarge on their unreality, 
ridicule their grotesqueness ; yet before the 
smile has left your lips you, too, have been 
drawn into the magic circle of Turner's beau- 
tiful unrealities. Or are they perhaps not un- 
realities 1 Is the world of sight at fault } Do 
our senses lie to us, and has Turner given 
mortal shapes to immortal, invisible realities .' 

His paintings have been divided into several 
classes. Under the influence of earlier painters 
he at first painted marines, and was somewhat 



158 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



hard in drawing and monotonous in color. 
Afterwards he composed heroic landscapes, 
gradually making allowances for the effect of 
air, and using more natural tones ; and then he 
suddenly burst forth with his symphonies of 
light, his color pyrotechnics, when he dared to 
emblaze his canvas with gold and scarlet, two 
colors never seen before in any British picture. 
His final step was in the direction of the Im- 
pressionists, dissolving the outlines of every- 
thing and retaining only a certain tone of color 
or of light. In these last pictures he often 
attained to a mysteriously magic force in which 
abstract ideas, such as rapidity, gained the 
upper hand ov'er their concrete manifestations, 
as, for instance, in his picture of a railroad 
train rushing through a driving rain storm. 

PAINTERS OF GENRE AND OF ANIMALS 

In a lighter vein David Wilkie, during the 
lifetime of Turner, introduced his compatriots 
to peaceful genre pictures, so that in this line 
also Great Britain took the first step, although 
the continentals were quick to follow her lead. 
Wilkie was a man of amiable temper, — a pleas- 
ant reciter with whose work one may well while 
away a pleasant hour. Subjects interested him 
far more than technique, so that he is readily 
surpassed in this latter respect by George Mor- 
land. Morland possessed the recklessness of 
the great artist, but unfortunately permitted 
it to rule also his private life. His debauchery 
brought his life to an untimely end. If he had 
possessed moral strength and had lived, he 
might have become one of the foremost artists 
of England ; for he held complete mastery over 
color and had a well-developed sense of light 
and shade. He was, moreover, a good animal 
painter, and at times equaled the successes of 
Landseer. 

Sir Edwin Landseer is the most famous 
animal painter of Great Britain. He not only 
loved the dumb beasts but also humanized 
them. This pleased and still pleases the large 
masses of the people, but it often offends 
the more serious student of nature. Distinctly 



human emotions are portrayed in dogs or other 
animals, and are therefore debased or sentimen- 
talized. Nevertheless Landseer mastered the 
intricate forms of the animal kingdom more 
completely than any one else in Great Britain. 
Lovers of household pets will, therefore, con- 
tinue to rank him with the great painters. 
Those, however, who expect more of art than 
a passing pleasure, and who have experienced 
sensations akin to those which the greatest of 
mortals have endeavored to express in art, will 
be less charitable. At best they will concede 
Landseer a place with the masters of technique. 

THE PRE-RAPHAELITE BROTHERHOOD 

It is an interesting fact that Landseer stood 
in his zenith when British art had reached its 
lowest level, — in the third and fourth decades 
of the nineteenth century. It was then that 
John Ruskin took up his cudgels and began to 
hammer away on existing conditions, when he 
declared that Turner alone towered above the 
decay, and that all official art ideals were false, 
insincere, and corrupt. The men at the head of 
the Royal Academy were pygmies compared with 
Reynolds and his more immediate followers. Sir 
Charles Eastlake alone was an exception, but 
not so much with his paintings, of which there 
were few, as with his lectures and helpful per- 
sonality. In view of these facts it will be seen 
that any radical change was bound to prove a 
national success. The present, the reformer 
said, was bad ; it was necessary to go back. 
Back to what .' The answer to this was given 
by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. 

The artists who formed this brotherhood 
believed that honesty of workmanship and 
truth were to be found only in works ante- 
dating Raphael. They surrounded the early 
Renaissance with a halo, partly well deserved 
and partly founded on their own vivid imagina- 
tion. They believed in careful and loving work- 
manship, and declared war on all tendencies 
to slur over details. Few of them lived up to 
this ideal very long ; for " you cannot paint 
thus and make a living " was an observation 
that forced itself upon them only too soon. 



BRITISH PAINTING 



159 



A passionate yearning to return to any 
period of the past always carries with it a 
strong imagination ; for no period in the his- 
tory of the world has been so truly beauti- 
ful that it is a worthy refuge from the present. 
It becomes so only if we are forgetful of its 
defects and deck it with the mystic garlands 
of our own fancies. The Pre-Raphaelites, con- 
sequently, were more or less like the Ro- 
manticists. They were of a fantastic turn of 
mind, and in this respect simply followed 
William Blake, the most fanciful of all the 
British painters, who, however, is better known 
for his engravings than for his pictures. 

The first artist to espouse the new cause, 
although he was not a formal member of the 
brotherhood, was Ford Madox Brown. This 
man broke irrevocably with the immediate past, 
and strove after " truth of color, of spiritual 
expression, and of historical character." He 
was always forceful, but not always beautiful, 
— especially in the ensemble of his colors, be- 
cause he discarded "the brown sauce which 
every one had hitherto respected like a bind- 
ing social law," without being able to replace 
it with something entirely satisfactory. In con- 
templating his dramatic energy and sincerity 
of conception, however, one forgets the acerb- 
ity of his color schemes. 

Dante Gabriel Rossetti} John Everett Mil- 
lais, and William Holman Hunt were the 
founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. 
Looking back to-day to the time when these 
three men declared war on existing conditions, 
one wonders what it was that drew together 
three men of such w-idely differing tastes. Ros- 
setti was a dreaming, sensuous mystic. Hunt a 
mere child in the simplicity of his religious 
faith, and Millais the most one-sided lover of 
the world of visible and tangible phenomena. 

Millais was the first to part company with 
the Pre-Raphaelites. At first one of the most 
eager to sink himself in the much-loved per- 
fection of detail, his sober nature soon told him 
that this was not the road to success, and 
since he coveted success he left that road, but 

1 His real name was Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti. 



carried with him a technique of great perfection. 
Eventually he became one of the most popular 
British artists, selecting his subjects with an 
eye to the taste of the masses, — sentimental 
or patriotic, ■ — but rendering them with an 
accurate knowledge of the requirements of a 
first-class artist. He was versatile, and has left 
not only well-composed and finely painted figure 
pieces but also good landscapes. 

Hunt began with romantic pictures, but soon 
chose religious subjects and has continued to 
do so. His religious fervor reminds one of 
the German, Overbeck ; in his beautiful sim- 
plicity of faith, however, he is unique. His 
technique is good, but his color is rarely 
without blemish, as is natural with a man 
who is filled with the divine meaning of his 
subjects. 

The most characteristic of the Pre-Raphael- 
ites was Rossetti, who introduced into art an 
almost uncanny mixture of mysticism and sen- 
suosity. " His women of fairylike beauty charge 
the air with suffocating sultriness." One hardly 
dares to breathe ; one stops thinking and feels 
the very depths of one's emotional nature 
expand in response to the magic wand of 
Rossetti the Dreamer. A dreamer he surely 
was, but one of that dangerous class whose 
dreams are realities, and whose actions are 
those of waking men. Intellectual people who 
need a supernatural stimulant to rouse their 
finer sensibilities will find the influence of 
Rossetti wholesome. His influence, however, 
is poison for delicate constitutions who find it 
difficult to put aside the inactivity of a sense- 
gratifying ease. 

From the merely artistic side his strongest 
point was his fine decorative sense and his beau- 
tiful color schemes. His drawing was rarely 
masterful, although it was not so arbitrary as 
that of his famous follower. Sir Edward Biime- 
Jones. This man of an almost sanctified dispo- 
sition was studying theology when he first met 
Rossetti. He abandoned theology and, encour- 
aged by his new friend, took up painting. At 
first ridiculed by the public, he saw himself 
suddenly raised to fame, and always held the 



i6o 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



place of honor in the newly 'founded Grosve- 
nor Gallery. 

He did not belong to the Pre-Raphaelite 
Brotherhood and was little concerned with 
truth of details. He had the gift of iilling 
given spaces with decorative grace, but in so 
doing often did violence to natural semblance. 
He took similar liberties with color, — aiming 
solely at artistic effects, — and with the char- 
acter of his figures, painting, as some one has 
said, " his men as women and his women sex- 
less." He will, nevertheless, continue to be a 
favorite with all who are satisfied with a feast 
for the- eyes, or who, knowing the man, are 
able to reconstruct from his pictures his 
inspiring and noble personality. 

Even more distinctly decorative than Burne- 
Jones, Walter Crane has succeeded in combin- 
ing the ideals of the Pre-Raphaelites with 
classically beautiful forms. He too, like all 
decorative painters, constantly takes liberties 
with perspective and other requirements of 
drawing, but there is in his work " a measured 
nobility of form" as compared with the "pau- 
city of flesh and plenitude of feeling " of Burne- 
Jones. Crane is better known for his text 
illustrations than for his paintings. 

With George Frederick Watts the Pre-Raph- 
aelite tendencies cease to be a powerful and 
immediate influence. One feels in his works 
the same intensity of emotional feeling, although 
it is there not for its own sake but to serve an 
end. Watts was a firm believer in the nobility 
of art and in the fine lessons which she might 
teach. He was a deeply religious man, but not 
of the type of Holman Hunt ; for he cared 
naught for dogma or sacred stories. His vision 
went beyond all such accidents, as he might 
have said, to essential truths. 

In his composition he was remarkably simple ; 
one or two figures generally sufficed him, but 
these he painted with care and wonderful skill. 
He was a student of the antique, and one 
often finds in his draperies echoes from the 
Parthenon pediments, which, thanks to Lord 
Elgin, he could conveniently study in the Brit- 
ish Museum. 



Watts also painted landscapes, but most espe- 
cially portraits. The latter are exquisite char- 
acter studies, although they are at times hard 
and not always soothing to the eye. He no 
longer wasted his time on details, but concen- 
trated his attention on essentials. To this 
extent he was opposed to the Pre-Raphaelite 
tendencies. He also cared less for the slender 
models of the early Renaissance than for the 
fuller forms of the later Italians. Their luxu- 
rious color, however, he avoided, stating that 
it was not so much his intention to please the 
eye as to arouse noble thoughts. These he 
hoped would speak to the heart and the imagi- 
nation, and kindle in the breasts of the people 
whatever was best and noble in them. 

By the side of Watts the more recent acade- 
micians, with their cool and measured perfection 
of technique and their great scholarship, are sin- 
gularly unimpressive. These men endeavor to 
reconstruct whole periods of the history of cul- 
ture and, although they never fail to arouse 
admiration for their command of details, they 
are rarely convincing. Those, for instance, 
who know classic antiquities will recognize in 
the clever pictures of Frederick Lord Leighton 
or of Laurens Alma-Tadema the forms and 
the setting of the antique, but they will miss 
its spirit. These pictures are pleasant to look 
at, but, as Professor Gensel says, they " belong 
neither in museums nor in houses, but solely in 
the palatial mansions of the landed aristocracy." 

To this class of artists belong also Edward 
Poyntcr and possibly Albert Moore, the latter 
painting graceful women who exist only for the 
sake of their own loveliness. Briton Riviere 
was more distinctly a painter of genre ; his com- 
positions were magnificent, skillfully combining 
classic culture and nude bodies with very re- 
markable studies from the animal world. 

Geoige Heming Mason held a unique posi- 
tion, surrounding his landscapes and peasants 
with sweet dreaminess and poetic glamour. 
His was a sad life ; brought up in affluence, 
and forsaking the medical profession for paint- 
ing when he was twenty-seven years of age, he 



BRITISH PAINTING 



i6l 



suddenly found himself penniless, owing to his 
father's unexpected bankruptcy. He was never 
a well man and had to struggle hard to make 
a living. All this shows in his work, which, 
however beautiful, lacks the vigor of health. 

The best known portraitists of the latter 
years of the nineteenth century were, ne.xt to 
Millais and Watts, Hubert von Hcrkomcr and 
Walter William Oulcss. The former, a Ger- 
man by birth, enjoys the greatest reputation. 
Since his "Lady in White" first stirred the 
art world in 1886, his name has been known 
everywhere. It has, however, been pointed out 
that much of his success was due to the loveli- 
ness of his model rather than to his own per- 
fection as an artist. It is said that before this 
time Whistler and Bastien- Lepage had handled 
a similar subject — white against white — with 
greater success. The best that Professor 
Muther has to say of Herkomer is that he 
is a man of "a tame but tastefully cultivated 
temperament." 

In Scotland painting has recently followed 
its own course. The older movement centered 
in Edinburgh and was led by men like William 
Quiller Orchardson, John Phillip, and John 
Pettie. Their love of color and their honest 
impetuosity called for attention. Better known, 
however, is a more recent movement which 
started in the neighborhood of Glasgow with 
Robert Maegregor, and aspires at freedom from 
tradition. Maegregor and his friends profess 
adherence to no school and believe in salvation 
by the perfection of each one's own individual- 
ity. This perfection, they hold, is the result of 
sincere and serious labor. Consequently a fresh 
and wholesome atmosphere pervades their work, 
which, unfortunately, is as yet little known in 
America. Those who have watched this new 
Scotch school^ prophesy for it a glorious future. 

' The men themselves decry the term " school," which 
smacks of rules and regulations, and declare themselves free. 



No survey of British painting would be at 
all satisfactory without mention of the im- 
portant part played by the painters in water 
colors. As early as 1805 these men founded 
a society, and at all times have done much to 
educate the public and their fellow-artists to 
a proper appreciation of the niceties of detailed 
work and the brightness of colors. They have 
undoubtedly exerted a powerful influence on the 
later landscape painters, and it is very probable 
that they were the first to call attention to the 
rather monotonous and unsatisfactory brownish 
tones which had been in use for several gener- 
ations. Ruskin himself did some extremely 
good work in water colors, and it is a note- 
worthy fact that all the best work in this line 
has been done by his contemporaries. 

The most famous artists of Great Britain 
flourished at a time when art was at its lowest 
level everywhere else. Reynolds and Gains- 
borough have no peers among their successors. 
The gradual diminution of the worth of British 
painting was arrested only once, as a dark 
afternoon may be brightened by an uncanny 
sunbeam from behind the clouds, by the Pre- 
Raphaelite Brotherhood. Ruskin and all his 
teachings, in spite of the inspiration which they 
have brought and are still bringing to multi- 
tudes of people, are not so consistently founded 
on truth and knowledge of natural conditions 
that they can build up a national art. They 
can discover defects and shatter false stand- 
ards, but they are unable to arouse wholesome 
and energetic individuality. 

While there is much that is pleasing in 
British academic circles, the germ of promise 
doubtless rests with the Scotchmen. Strangely 
enough theirs is a democratic art, so that the 
time may soon come when Great Britain will 
lose her proud position as the only aristocrat 
among the artistic nations of the world. 



CHAPTER IX 



AMERICAN PAINTING 



American painting to-day is the worthy sec- 
ond of the best art in the world, and in some 
branches, perhaps, ranks first. It is sincere 
and wholesome, technically sound, and inspired 
by lofty ideals. It also shows much common 
sense and reveals the vigorous stock from 
which the artists are recruited. Nowhere does 
it fall subject to the overdelicate taste of 
those last scions of highly cultivated races, 
who are known, less charitably than correctly, 
as degenerates. It is a pleasing art, often 
brilliant, and generally well to live with. 
Of course there are exceptions, but, on the 
whole, visitors to American exhibitions are well 
satisfied ; they have come in contact with the 
works of noted men. 

Leaving the American section at any of the 
recent large fairs, a man might easily have 
asked himself how it is possible that people who 
have been a nation hardly six score years can 
produce an art so singularly free from such 
defects as are due to prejudice, idiosyncrasies, 
or ignorance. The answer to such queries is 
supplied by the historian, who points to the 
beneficial mingling of the races in this large 
territory, and to the opportunities which the 
country has offered for the exercise of well- 
developed faculties. All foreigners who have 
entered into the spirit of the land testify to the 
clarifying effect which the free intercourse with 
men of other extraction has had upon their 
mental make-up. It is as if minds heretofore 
fettered by what may be peculiar English, 
French, German, Slavish, or Italian prejudices 
were permitted to unfold themselves without 
restrictions, the bias of the one race acting as 
an infallible antidote to those of the others. 
If American painting is to continue its phe- 
nomenal development, care must be taken that 
no distinctly American prejudice is permitted 



to rivet new fetters for the scarcely yet liber- 
ated mind. People who judge the nation by 
European standards and push her from her 
proper sphere of quiet growth into the whirl- 
pool of foreign competition should be con- 
sidered her worst enemies. People who cry 
for a national art, meaning an art shaped by 
distinctly American notions, just as the art of 
France or Germany is shaped by notions pecu- 
liar to the country, will, if they succeed, have 
done their best to destroy the greatest charm 
of what is now called American art. People 
who teach patriotism, as the word is frequently 
understood, worshiping some national hero be- 
cause he was an American and not because of 
some noble traits of character, instill into the 
coming generation erroneous standards. 

The American people throughout their short 
period of existence seem to have possessed the 
faculty of assimilating the best products of for- 
eign endeavors. English, German, and French 
influences in succession have shaped their art 
standards, no one being able to continue its 
hold when its prime had passed. The first 
artists naturally turned to England, being born 
British subjects, for the War of the Revolution 
did not take place until this earliest generation 
of painters had attained to maturity, and even 
a few of them had died. 

JoJin Smibcrt and Jonathan B. Blackburn 
were respectable portrait painters, settling, un- 
like their more obscure predecessors, who were 
traveling artists, in one place for a consider- 
able number of years. Both men selected 
Boston. Smibert came to America in 1728, 
while Blackburn probably was born here. Their 
best pictures are the equal of contemporary 
British portraits painted just before the sud- 
den rise of British art in the middle of the 
eighteenth century, and certainly set a standard 



162 



AMERICAN PAINTING 



163 



of excellence in the new country, not so much 
by what they actually revealed as by what they 
aimed at. They were, moreover, not unlike the 
early works of Copley. 

With John Singleton Copley the worthy his- 
tory of American painting begins. He was a 
born artist whose individual points of excellence 
far outshone those defects of his art which were 
due to circumstances and lack of early training. 
But this does not mean that he. began to paint 
late in life, for at seventeen he had already 
achieved a certain reputation, but that the tech- 
nical side of art is so complex that no one life- 
time suffices to solve its many problems. A man 
needs the opportunity of taking over as a whole, 
so to speak, the achievements of his predeces- 
sors. The earlier in life this opportunity offers 
itself, the easier it is to grasp. Copley went 
abroad for the first time when he was about forty 
years of age, and it was then that he first saw 
masterpieces in sufficient quantities. His work, 
therefore, falls into two classes, — the portraits 
of his youth in America and those of his 
maturity in England. The latter very properly 
belong to British art, for Copley was born a 
British subject and left America before her 
political independence was recognized. 

His American portraits are wonderful prod- 
ucts of a faithful rendering of nature. The 
artistic intentions which in grouping, posing, 
color, and brushwork made the canvases of 
Reynolds, Gainsborough, and even Copley him- 
self, in his later years, such charming bits of 
independent realities had little place in his 
early works. These were national and historical 
records. In his men and women that whole 
period lives again. One admires the sure eye 
and the clever hand of the portraitist, but 
derives very little aesthetic pleasure from the 
pictures themselves. 

Copley set the tide going toward Great Brit- 
ain. For more than a generation American 
artists turned to the mother country for instruc- 
tion in their chosen calling. It is, however, a 
noteworthy fact that most of them were men 
of experience before they went abroad. They 
knew what they lacked and knew exactly what 



they wanted to acquire. In this respect they 
differed from the later artists who went to 
Europe when young to receive there their first 
training. Under these conditions it is natural 
that the foreign instruction should have vari- 
ously affected the earlier and the later men, 
the former never losing their own established 
individuality. 

In early years portraits were the only pic- 
tures for which there was any demand in 
America, so that it was fortunate for the coun- 
try that her artists turned to Great Britain, 
where this branch of art was especially flourish- 
ing. One of them, Benjamin West, was well 
established in London, thanks to royal favor, 
where he served as a guide and warm friend to 
multitudes of men who, unlike himself, returned 
to America to practice their art. All held West 
in grateful memory ; and although his paintings 
do not entitle him to a lasting place of honor, 
the services he rendered the art of his country 
in this indirect way are such that he may be 
called in more ways than one the Father of 
American Art. The only clear effect exerted 
by West on the development of painting was 
by his picture "The Death of General Wolfe," 
where he dared to represent his figures not in 
classic costumes but in the clothes which they 
actually wore. Most of his work is historical, 
but instead of being dramatic it is theatrical, 
and since its color is monotonous there is little 
pleasure to be derived from it. 

Gifted with the charm of innate nobility of 
character and possessed of a great warm heart, 
West was, personally, one of the most accom- 
plished and amiable men of his day. Gilbert 
Charles Stuart was the very opposite of West ; 
as an artist he was his superior, and as a com- 
panion he was as unpleasant as West was 
delightful. He too, nevertheless, had a power- 
ful attraction for people, many of whom he 
attached to himself, although he frequently 
offended even his friends by his choleric fits 
of temper. He differed from earlier portrait 
painters in his endeavor to represent character, 
not being satisfied with a faithful rendering 
of visible forms. He had little use for large 



164 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



pictures ^ and painted heads almost exclusively, 
which for a whim of his own he generally placed 
in the middle of the picture. His technique, 
which was distinctly his own, is described by 
Mr. Isham ^ thus : " He paints with an un- 
equaled purity and freshness of color, very deli- 
cate and sure in the half tones, varying it to 
suit the individual, but with a pearly bright- 
ness which is characteristic. The paint is put 
on thinly, as a rule, in short decided touches." 

Stuart was survived fifteen years by JoAh 
Trinnbull, although these two men were born 
only one year apart. With the death of Trum- 
bull in 1843 the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury was almost reached. Most of the artists of 
the second period of American art were then 
grown to young manhood, and several men who 
are still progressively active to-day, such as 
La Farge, Vedder, and Enneking, were born. 
Trumbull was a pupil of West, a fact which 
almost links the present generation to the 
Father of American Painting, and reveals the 
short space of time covered by American art. 

Trumbull on his return home selected New 
York as his place of residence, an event which 
closed forever any possibility of Boston or Phila- 
delphia becoming the art center of America. 
So much has been said about Trumbull's 
unkindness to younger men who did not bow 
to him, and the many stumbling-blocks which 
he placed in the way of their development, that 
one is apt to forget his remarkable services to 
the cause not only of art but also of artists. 
He won the respect of influential citizens and 
interested the moneyed classes in art ; in short, 
he established a society of sympathetic con- 
noisseurs, — men of means and social position, 
who were eager to encourage native talent. It 
may be argued that even without the efforts 
of Colonel Trumbull, — he had been an officer in 

1 Stuart generally painted on wood panels, and seems to 
have used canvas only on rare occasions. 

- Samuel Isham, History of American Paiiiting, 1905. 
Mr. Isham has been the first to write comprehensively on 
this subject. His treatment is so fair and sympathetic, and 
yet dictated by such strict adherence to sound principles of 
art, that his book in the very year of its appearance became 
a classic. 



the army, — there would have been men to play 
the role of Maecenas to American artists ; but 
this may well be doubted, for an honest interest 
in art matters was not one of the accomplish- 
ments of that generation. 

As president of the American Academy of 
Arts ^ Trumbull e.xerted another influence as 
a conservative power. The restrictions of all 
academic standards have been so often justly 
exposed that one readily forgets the value of 
such institutions. They act like regulators, pre- 
venting the pace which some individuals would 
set from becoming so fast that the entire mech- 
anism of wholesome development is thrown out 
of gear. 

As an artist Trumbull ranked high, although 
his later work disappointed the expectations 
raised by his earlier pictures. He was a good 
portrait painter, but lacked the individuality of 
Stuart. He is best known for his historical 
pictures. One of his last commissions, in fact, 
was an order from Congress to paint four such 
pictures for the Capitol in Washington. Unfor- 
tunately he was then an old man, without suffi- 
cient energy or inspiration to acquit himself 
well of this task. Since these pictures, how- 
ever, became more widely known than any 
others, his reputation has unduly suffered on 
their account, until to-day many fail to appre- 
ciate his true worth. 

Among the other early figure painters All- 
ston, Sully, and Malbone stand out clearly from 
the rest. 

Wasliington Allston, once hailed as a genius, 
is now all but forgotten. He was a most fasci- 
nating man, whose reputation rested more on 
what people expected of him than on what 
he actually accomplished. From Coleridge to 
Washington Irving, not to speak of his artist 
friends, all worshiped him. Allston delighted 
in portraying emotions, and, like most painters 
of similar tendencies, was unable to find the 
golden mean. The sympathetic spectator, never- 
theless, who needs but a suggestion to reveal 

3 Founded in 1S02 under a slightly different title, and 
incorporated in iSoS. Trumbull was its first vice president 
and was elected its president in iSiS. 



AMERICAN PAINTING 



165 



to him the thoughts of the artist will like the 
work of Allston. There is a dignity, however 
crudely expressed, in his " Prophet Jeremiah," 
for instance, as he sits intently listening to the 
heavenly inspiration, and such a fine contrast 
between him and the listening scribe at his feet 
that the man who once has grasped Allston's 
meaning painfully feels the inanity of Sargent's 
magnificently painted prophets on the frieze in 
the Boston Library. 

Thomas Sully, who lived until within twenty- 
five years of the twentieth century, was a grace- 
ful painter, often sentimental, especially in his 
portraits of women, but sometimes wonderfully 
pleasing. He showed in several pictures, nota- 
bly the portrait of Dr. Samuel Coates, a feeling 
for space, such as appears in none of the works 
of his earlier contemporaries. His color, too, 
singles him out from the rest, for it has an 
enchanting w-armth all its own. 

Edward Malbonc died young, when he was 
barely twenty years of age, so that it is hardly 
fair to judge his work by the mature achieve- 
ments of the other men. However, in one 
branch of art — miniatures — he made a last- 
ing name for himself in spite of his youth. 
"They are excellent," says Isham, "and would 
hold a respectable place anywhere." 

SECOND PERIOD 

None of the earlier men had shown any 
marked interest in landscape painting. This was 
reserved for the next generation, and coincided 
with the growth of a new society in America. 
After the War of 18 12, when the recently won 
independence seemed firmly established and the 
ties with the mother country were broken for- 
ever, the old aristocracy had ceased to exist, 
and with it went the men whose noble counte- 
nances had dignified the portraits of the earliest 
painters. " The graces of life " had given way 
to the virtues, not that the latter had not been 
included in the former, but that these surely 
were no longer expected to be combined with 
the accomplishments of the national leaders. 
" Good and beautiful " was the Greek designa- 
tion of a gentleman, and it was applicable to 



the American men of note during the Revolu- 
tionary era. If " beautiful " refers not only to 
the outward appearance but also to the general 
deportment and the way in which the sterling 
qualities of character are displayed, then this 
word should perhaps be dropped from the 
epithet applied to the American man during 
the decades following the War of iS 1 2. Simul- 
taneously there also disappeared the style of 
portrait and figure painting which was charac- 
teristic of the first period of American art. 

Chester Harding alone continued the earh' 
traditions, so that he may almost be reckoned 
in the same class with Copley, Trumbull, and 
Sully. His style, however, was as rugged as 
his characteristically American temperament, 
for which reason he is generally classed with 
the men of the second and more distinctly 
national period. 

With William Morris Hunt the break with 
the past is complete. Allston is the only one 
of his precursors to whom he bears the slight- 
est resemblance, and, like him, he was of a 
thoroughly poetic disposition. Hunt no longer 
sought instruction from Great Britain, but from 
France, where he was a pupil of Couture and 
of Millet. His chief importance lies not in his 
pictures, albeit many of them are inspiring, but 
in his ability as a teacher. " He certainly was," 
in the words of Professor Van Dyke, " the first 
painter in America who taught catholicity of 
taste, truth, and sincerity in art, and art in the 
artist rather than in the subject." The last is 
the noteworthy thing. It means that technique 
is very well, in fact absolutely necessary, but 
that it will create a masterpiece only if the 
man who wields it has the requisite largeness 
of character. 

George Fuller was even more of a poet than 
Hunt ; he was a man of skill too, but one-sided 
and apt to disregard the requirements of tech- 
nique. The subjects and forms of his pictures 
were generally lacking in worth, but his can- 
vases express " by means of color and atmos- 
phere " singularly poetic emotions. Fuller's life 
was not successful. Before he was forty years 
of age family considerations induced him to 



i66 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



leave his artist friends and to settle on a farm 
in Deerfield. He continued painting until his 
death, although he practically disappeared from 
all exhibitions for more than fifteen years. In 
his younger days he painted portraits in the 
old accustomed style. 

Of far greater importance than the figure 
painters of this period were the painters of 
landscape. They were men with the enthusiasm 
of discoverers. Settling in the mountains which 
overlook the majestic Hudson, they conceived 
a burning love for the scenery of their native 
land. Diversified as were their tastes, they are 
generally grouped together as forming the Hud- 
son River or White Mountain school. 

Thomas Cole was the earliest of these artists. 
Strangely enough he was of foreign birth, but he 
quickly became a better American than many 
men born in the country. He certainly was the 
first to discover the beauty of the Hudson, and 
by his views of it he will live long after his other 
works, such as the series of pictures called 
the "Voyage of Life" and the "Course of 
Empire," by which he sought to teach moral 
lessons, have been forgotten. 

JoJm F. KcHsett was one of the greatest of 
these Hudson River artists. It is noteworthy 
that he endeavored to render nature accurately, 
with no thought of an artistic rearrangement, 
which is the more remarkable because he rarely 
painted from nature but generally from accurate 
sketches. He had a facile hand and an open eye 
for the various moods of the seasons and the 
hours of the day. It is this versatility that raises 
him above Asher Broiun Diirand, his immediate 
predecessor, who often attained to greater truth 
than he, because he painted what he actually saw 
out of doors and did not trust to his memory or 
to sketches in the execution of his pictures. 

R. Saiidford Gifford was moved by different 
considerations, for he held that the artistic 
appearance of his canvases was of fully as much 
importance as their truth to nature ; or, as Mr. 
Isham puts it, " He is the first to base the whole 
interest of a picture on purely artistic problems, 
such as the exact value of sunlit sails against 
an evening sky." 



Frederick Edivin Church exemplified an en- 
tirely different doctrine, which in its very found- 
ation is by no means so strongly opposed to that 
of Gifford as may at first appear. He, too, be- 
lieved in the independent reality of a picture, but 
he drew from this creed a different conclusion. 
Art should be more powerfully impressive than 
nature ; therefore the transcriptions of ordinary 
scenes are insufficient. This led him to hunt 
over the countries for striking views, and wher- 
ever he found one, at home or abroad, he painted 
it, adding to it from his own vivid imagination 
such qualities of light or color as would make 
it most stirring. His artistic intentions, one 
might say, ran riot with him ; but so beautiful 
were these intentions that the finished product, 
however studied and lacking in spontaneity, 
rarely fails to arouse pleasure and even a sense 
of admiration in the spectator. 

Albert Biers tadt was another foreigner who 
so intimately identified himself with the art 
tendencies of his adopted country that he 
appears to be a true American. Like Church 
he looked for imposing sceneries, and found 
them in the Rocky Mountains. He had a keen 
perception of the grandeur of nature, and knew 
how to make her even more imposing than 
she is. 

The two remaining men of this set of great 
landscape painters, Alexander H. Wya^it and 
George Inness, form the connecting link between 
their fellows and the painters of the present 
day. They followed an entirely different ideal 
from that of Cole, Church, or Bierstadt ; it was 
an ideal more akin to that of Durand or Kensett, 
and one that is universally recognized to-day as 
the more worthy. Their conception of the value 
of the visible picture was not less, but their 
respect for nature was greater ; and they knew 
that the most powerful message is not always 
conveyed by gigantic mountains or remarkable 
phenomena, but on the contrary by placid scen- 
eries. The quiet orchard, the still meadows, 
and peaceful country districts, — all can speak 
to him who listens. And they listened. They 
sank their personality into the vastness of 
nature's great appeal to mankind. 



AMERICAN PAINTING 



167 



Inness was the leader. He had learned to 
know nature as well as Corot and his Barbizon 
friends knew her. " Like a Greek," it has been 
said, " he felt God in the stream or grove, the 
immanent presence of superhuman powers " ; 
and like a Greek, he knew how to make the 
spectator see with his eyes and feel with his 
emotions. VVyant followed in his path, and, 
although a less versatile man, added to his 
achievements such a delicate refinement that 
he stands unrivaled in this respect by any 
other American. 

THIRD PERIOD 

All these men had formed their styles and 
achieved their reputations prior to the first 
World's Fair held in America in 1S76. On 
this occasion there were exhibited in this coun- 
try collections of pictures from abroad, and 
they made such a powerful impression on the 
native artists that 1876 is generally taken as 
the date when the third period of American art 
begins, — a period during which the technical 
skill of the artists has been developed to such 
a degree that it may be said to be inferior to 
none. In the preceding period most of the men 
who went abroad sought instruction in Germany, 
first in Diisseldorf and later in Munich. After 
1S76 most art students went to France. Italy, 
of course, had always been visited by all who 
could afford it, but not so much for contact 
with living men as for the inspiration derived 
from the old masters. Unlike the first Ameri- 
can painters, the recent generation went abroad 
as young and untried men, eager to learn the 
rudiments of their art from the famous artists 
in France. If one runs through any modern 
catalogue of artists, one finds nine men out of 
every ten listed as pupils of foreign painters, 
and only quite recently have reputable artists 
appeared who have received their entire train- 
ing at home. 

It is difficult to draw a line between those 
men who belong to the second period of Ameri- 
can art and those who belong to. the third ; for 
many may be claimed for both. If a line must 



be drawn, it is wise to group men like Enne- 
king and Homer Martin, who have bravely con- 
tinued in the front ranks, with the modern men ; 
and others like Hunt, Bierstadt, and Fuller, who 
to the last have exemplified the spirit of an earlier ■ 
age, with the artists of the second period. 

Versatility is a characteristic of the modem 
Americans ; therefore few men can be said to 
be painters either of figures or landscapes or 
marines exclusively. The best men, however, 
have made their mark in one of these three spe- 
cial branches, which fact enables one to classify 
them accordingly. 

A further classification, but one which is not 
easily carried to its logical conclusion, has been 
attempted by Mr. Isham ; it aims to classify the 
artists according to their place of residence, — 
whether at home, in Great Britain, in France, 
or in Italy. 

It is an interesting fact that the men at 
home have only recently begun to enjoy the 
reputation which they deserve, while those 
abroad have sometimes enjoyed a far wider 
reputation than their works warranted. And 
such is the modesty — or ignorance — of the 
public that it needed the high commendation 
of Professor Bode of Berlin, who visited the 
Chicago World's Fair in 1893, to make them 
realize how great were their artists at home. 
Their very greatness, however, their lack of 
ostentation, and their singular freedom from 
studied and artificial effects had much to do 
with the neglect which they received. 

The portraits by John IV. Alexander, Cecilia 
Beaux, and William Chase; the figure pieces 
by Kenyan Cox, Williatn T. Dannat, Joseph 
R. Dc Camp, Carl Marr, and Edmund Tarbell ; 
and the miniatures by Miss Hills, all reveal an 
art level fully as high as, if not higher than, that 
of the universally known John Singer Sargent. 
Everything, of course, depends on one's point 
of view. Sargent is brilliant, dazzling, and of 
such perfect skill that he who judges an artist 
by skill alone cannot fail to hail him as the 
master of all modern painters. 

A story which has gone the rounds of the 
studios tells how quite a number of years ago 



1 68 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



Sargent showed a fellow-artist a large collection 
of his works, including many early drawings. 
When asked which picture she liked best, this 
artist pointed to a beautiful drawing which 
showed much feeling and great delicacy. 
" Alas ! " Sargent is quoted as having said, 
"that was made in my younger days when 
I had time to do what I wished to do." If 
this story is true, all lovers of art will sin- 
cerely regret that Sargent's popularity has pre- 
vented him from putting a soul into his later 
works. Wordsworth pitied Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
remarking what an artist and what a man he 
would have made if he had not been obliged 
to spend all his time in the company of people 
whose portraits he was painting. There is a 
certain something in Sargent's work that makes 
one feel that he, too, is depriving himself of 
those hours of quiet contemplation in which are 
laid the foundations of great characters. 

Fundamentally the opposite of Sargent, 
James McNeil f'F//w//^r achieved no less a repu- 
tation than his famous compatriot, although he 
had to bear with many more unkind critics. 
He did not cater to the popular taste. He had 
eyes of such remarkable delicacy that few peo- 
ple other than artists can appreciate the height 
of his accomplishments. He was a colorist, but 
not in the sense of the man who combines 
bright hues in pleasant harmonies, but of him 
who combines the greatest varieties of shades 
of a few subdued hues in one grand chord. 
Whistler called many of his pictures sympho- 
nies. They were rather chords, — simple, clear, 
powerful chords that swell and swell until 
they seem to envelop the whole universe. 
Whistler was a dreamer, although he would 
have scoffed at such a designation, for so real 
were his dreams to him that they had become 
actual facts. He could stand at night on the 
embankments of the Thames and see unfolded 
to his mental eye all the magic beauty of fairy- 
land. He painted it just as his physical eye 
had seen it, and could not comprehend why 
every one did not understand it. He saw in the 
dignified figure of his mother all that this one 



word means to everybody, and when people 
were pleased with his picture and said he had 
painted more than mortal eyes behold in a mere 
body, he grew angry at the insinuation, for he 
desired to paint visible realities only. In the 
same way his " Sarasate " is far more than a 
portrait of this famous violinist ; it is a perfect 
embodiment of the idea, — music. 

Technically Whistler was undoubtedly influ- 
enced by his admiration for Japanese painting, 
for he was one of the first in the West to appre- 
ciate Japanese art, which, however, is based on 
spiritual and not on physical realities. 

The works of the modern school of land- 
scape painters are perhaps the most character- 
istic of all American endeavors, the attitude of 
the artists toward nature being at once honest 
and reverential. What is best in man, and 
what relates him in reasonable and not in sen- 
timental ways to the powers outside him, is ex- 
pressed in these American landscapes. If one 
were not afraid of being misunderstood, one 
might call them the religious paintings of the 
present day, for they are much truer and filled 
with more noble sentiment than most pictures 
of avowedly religious subjects. 

The list of notable landscape painters is very 
large, so that the twelve names on Table 23 
constitute a bare summary of the best known 
men. Several artists listed as figure painters, 
such as J. Frank Ciirrier, have also achieved 
great success with their landscapes. 

Among the marine painters Tliotnas Alex- 
ander Harrison, Winsloiu Homer, and Charles 
H. Woodbury stand out as a powerful trio. The 
sea has begun to speak to them as truly as the 
land has breathed its message to the large 
number of their fellow-artists. 

In all branches of painting America has 
taken her place in the front rank ; and in the 
minds of those who are familiar with her achieve- 
ments there is no doubt but that she will be able 
to continue her growth both along technical and 
spiritual lines. Some observers even feel inclined 
to believe that before long she may become the 
leader of the art of the world. 



CHAPTER X 



RUSSIAN PAINTING 



In art as well as in general civilization 
Russia has been slowly taking her place by 
the side of the nations of western Europe. 
Asiatic half culture has held her in a firm 
embrace. Down to the tenth century of the 
Christian era survivals of Greek art struggled 
with barbaric innovations, while Byzantine influ- 
ences dominated the country from the time when 
the Grand Duchess Olga professed Christianity 
in 955 to the accession of Peter the Great in 
1682. Since then western Europe has been 
the inspiration of Russian painting, and it is 
only recently that a national spirit has shown 
vigorous signs of existence. 

Peter the Great, an.xious to equal the splendor 
of the French court, summoned many foreign 
artists to Russia, but none of the truly great 
men cared to visit his land, so that the stand- 
ard of art was set by inferior artists from 
France and Italy. That Italian art in the eight- 
eenth century stood on a low level is well 
known, and since this art was esteemed above 
all others in Russia, it is small wonder that the 
beginning of Russian painting is uninteresting. 
Men there were of diligence and patience, but 
they knew no worthy leaders and were not big 
enough to hew out a path of their own. Their 
training, moreover, was of the kind to stifle 
every vestige of individuality. The Academy, 
founded in 1757, prescribed rigid courses of 
technical study, while nothing was done to 
develop independent characters. Under these 
conditions it is to the credit of Russia that 
several men, nevertheless, rose to a sufficiently 
high level of art to render themselves worthy 
of mention among notable painters. 

Dmitri Lcvitski was a good portrait painter, 
and may be compared with Mme. Lebrun or 
with Mengs, while Orest Kiprciiski surpassed 
these painters to such an extent, especially in 



169 



coloring and in breadth of conception, that Pro- 
fessor Muther actually mentions him in the same 
breath with Rubens. Count Fedor Tolstoy de- 
ser\-es notice as a many-sided artist, sculptor, 
designer, and painter, who dared to break with 
academic traditions, just as Prud'hon in France 
had revolted against the classicism of David. 

AleksanderOrlovski was the first good painter 
of military scenes, and Aleksyey Vetietsiayiov the 
only early Russian genre painter of note. 

The successors of these men may be recog- 
nized partly in the so-called Academicians, of 
whom Fidelia Brimi is the best, and partly in 
a group of artists whom one may collectively 
call Realists. Their realism is of various kinds. 
Paul Fcdotov saw things from a moral and 
anecdotal point of view similar to that of 
Hogarth ; Vasili Perov viewed the world with 
the eyes of a socialist who had felt deeply the 
sadness of life among the lower classes of his 
native land ; while Ilya Ryepin impartially ren- 
dered national themes both past and present, 
just as they offered themselves to his keen 
artist's eyes. Alcksander h'anov frequently 
selected his subjects from antiquity, and painted 
them, like many modern Englishmen, with mas- 
terful archaeological accuracy, believing that he 
could thus make real events long past. Valen- 
tin Syerov is a good portrait painter. 

In popular esteem none of these men can vie 
with Vasili VeresJtchagin, who always painted 
the naked truth and had a keen eye for the 
sensational. That one aim of art might be to 
please he did not know. He craved excite- 
ment and knew better than most men how to 
stir the soul to its very depth. Surcharged 
with emotion, his canvases, nevertheless, are 
quiet in lines. What could be more impressive 
than his large picture, " Forgotten," where a dead 
soldier lies alone on a white and barren plain 



I70 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



with vultures hovering over him and a few 
satiated birds resting about him, while his flesh- 
less arms indicate whence had come their 
repast ! Vereshchagin always expresses him- 
self clearly, just as his great literary com- 
patriots do, _but his technique, like theirs, is 
by no means faultless. Judged by the latter, 
both are mere infants when they are compared 
with the great French masters. 

Of the earlier men who followed more or 
less in the lead of the continental Romanticists, 
Karl Biyiillov, now almost forgotten, was once 
worshiped as if he had been a demigod. His 
great picture, the " Fall of Pompeii," made a stir 
in the art world not only of Russia but also of 
Italy, where it had been painted. Tumbling 
houses, jet-black clouds, and unnatural rays of 
light illuminating human beings of classically 
beautiful forms and posed to please the most 
critical theatrical manager combine in a weird 
ensemble. The whole is of such pronounced 
unreality that not even an emotional spectator" 
need experience any but an intellectual horror. 
This was Bryullov's first picture of importance, 
and it was also his last. He continued to live 
on the reputation which it brought him. 



Among the landscape painters Silvcstr 
Shclicdrin holds a prominent place. He died 
young, but left a series of such exquisite land- 
scapes that those who have had an opportunity 
of studying many of them rank him as one of 
the best landscapists of any age, calling him 
the direct successor of Dujardin, Berchem, and 
Pynacker, and their equal in spirit. 

The only painter of marines who could com- 
pete with Shchedrin was Ivan Ayvazovski. He 
was a rapid painter who loved loud effects, but 
who had such a marvelous eye for the gran- 
deur of nature that his pictures are singularly 
impressive. 

The present generation of artists seems to be 
following the lead of Ryepin, and to have selected 
as their motto the two words " national " and 
" realistic." This appeared very clearly from the 
Russian exhibition at the World's Fair in Paris 
in 1900, when some one hundred and thirty 
painters were represented, among whom Koro- 
vin, Levitan, Maliavin, Pitnnt, and Wasncsov 
seem to give the greatest promise for the future.^ 

1 Several other Russian painters have recently become 
known in America through exhibitions of their works. 
They are well discussed by Christian Brinton, in Appleton's 
Booklovers Magazine, February, 1906. 



CHAPTER XI 
SCANDINAVIAN PAINTING 



SWEDISH PAINTING 

The Swedes have been called the French of 
the North. Their painting is brilliant, experi- 
mental, full of verve, and scintillating. But it 
has not always been thus. They, too, have had 
their period of growth, although it was short, 
and they made their debut on the stage of the 
world with almost immediate dash and marvel- 
ous skill. 

At first their artists were not stay-at-homes, 
so that most of their better men are perhaps 
rightly claimed for the French or German 
schools. Alexander Roslin, the earliest Swedish 
painter of worth, lived in a palatial mansion in 
Paris and amassed a fortune as a successful 
portraitist of high society. Texture painting 
was his forte, so that the saying arose 

Qui a figure de satin 

Doit bien etre peint par Roslin. 

Karl Frederik von Breda was thoroughly 
English in style, adhering strictly to the prin- 
ciples of Reynolds and Lawrence, while Nils 
Jolian Blomvie'r followed faithfully the German 
dictum that " the chief thing in a work of art 
is soul." He was, however, a lover of his native 
land, and so endeavored to people his landscape 
with embodied visions of the Swedish national 
spirit. Karl JoJian Fahlkrantz, who was a good 
landscapist, sought his inspiration from the 
earlier artists of the Netherlands, but blended 
with their teachings much romantic unreality. 
At all times he was a poet. 

Another lover of the Dutch masters was 
Lorens August Lindholm, who spent many 
years in Holland, and whose pictures always 
showed the quiet spirit and conscientious work 
which is characteristic of the Dutch " Little 
Masters." 



The greatest colorist among the earlier men 
was Ezron Lundzrcn, whose travels had taken 
him as far as India and Tunis, and whose 
northern heart embraced with truly southern 
warmth the charms of sunnier climes. 

When the school of Diisseldorf was at its 
height many Swedes identified themselves with 
its teachings, but none of these men attained 
rank as masters. It was different with those 
who went to Paris or were attracted by the 
dazzling effects of the Piloty school in Munich ; 
for many of them gained fame and a name 
favorably known wherever there is an interest 
in art. 

The first among them worthy of mention is 
Johan Frederik Hockcrt ; for in the words of 
Professor Muther he was the first Swede who 
"saw the world with the eyes of an artist," and 
who painted pictures for their artistic worth 
rather than for their subject. He was essentially 
interested in costume painting because of the 
color schemes which it enabled him to evolve. 

Hugo Birger and Johan Kristojfcr Bockliind 
were similarly enamored of costumes, the first 
especially seeking gorgeous effects of strange 
garments which he endeavored to paint in 
novel ways. When he selected a subject from 
the scenery of his native land, it was always 
for the sake of the unusual effects of reflected 
light. 

In this respect no greater contrast is imagi- 
nable than that which exists between his work 
and that of Eduard Bergh, who loved nature 
for her own sake. Bergh was a man of power, 
whose thoughtful mind was more deeply im- 
pressed with the suggestive stillness of nature 
than with her passionate moods. The latter 
are passing manifestations, and for contem- 
plative minds lack the stirring elements of 
nature's unfathomable solitude. 
71 



172 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



Vilhelm van Gegcrfelt is another landscapist. 
He, however, takes his subjects from Italy, and 
cares more for a pleasing appearance than for 
truth. The same charge may also be brought 
against August Hagborg, who is best known for 
his views of the sea and his pictures of fisher 
folk. In these pictures both his men and women 
are such by force of their surroundings and their 
costumes, but in essence they lack the rugged- 
ness of people who know the treachery of the 
elements and the hardships of life. 

By the side of these landscapists several his- 
torical painters have won recognition. Gustav 
Cederstrdm has painted historical subjects with 
soundness and a remarkably strong dramatic 
temper, besides showing much artistic ability. 
The latter quality is absent in the works of 
Karl Gustaf Hellquist, whose reputation rests 
on his honesty and straightforwardness of pres- 
entation. Nils Fosberg is a more versatile man, 
whose wonderful command of the nude has won 
him many admirers. 

Geo7g von Rosen has been a puzzle to his 
critics because of the unevenness of his work. 
He deserves the credit, however, of having 
called the attention of the Swedes to the fine 
and thoughtful products of the northern masters 
of the sixteenth century. This was a blessing 
for them after they had become familiar with 
the rather coarse workmanship of Courbet and 
some of his contemporaries. An entirely differ- 
ent stand has been taken hy Julius Kronberg, 
who paints a la Makart voluptuous subjects in 
a voluptuous style. 

Hjigo Salmson is best mentioned as the last 
of this list of artists, because he is in a sense 
the forerunner of the modern school of Swedish 
painters. At first he vi'as influenced by Constant 
and later by Meissonier, until the success of 
Bastien-Lepage caused him to become a follower 
of this master. At all times Salmson has known 
howto be the successful popularizerof new styles. 
No doubt he is a genius, but his individuality is 
not strong enough to make him a master. 

The new generation has started with Salm- 
son's Bastien-Lepage style, and has steadfastly 
refused to follow any but the most modern of 



the modern. Among the landscape painters Per 
Eckstro7n, Prince Eugen, Nils Kriigcr, and Karl 
Nordstrom are most favorably known. The soli- 
tude of nature appeals to all of them. Winter, 
too, is one of their favorite subjects. Georg 
Arscnius is an animal painter whose fame rests 
largely on his gay pictures of Parisian races. 

Among the figure painters Andreas Zorn 
enjoys an international reputation. His eye is 
quick and true and his hand is sure. He sees 
everything at a glance and seems to paint it 
with one bold stroke. This gives to his work 
an immediateness which is most captivating. 
Zorn is an experimenter in drawing and color- 
ing, but he is always successful. He is the 
favorite child of the muse of painting. 

Equally as facile as Zorn, but not so many- 
sided, Carl Larsson is known as a " coquettish, 
mobile, and capricious " painter, who has seen 
much' and " babbles about it in a way that is 
witty and stimulating, if not novel." Like Zorn 
he does not confine himself to figure painting, 
but has created some excellent landscapes. 

Richard Bergh is less conspicuously brilliant 
than either of the preceding artists, but is fully 
as great a man. He is of a contemplative turn 
of mind and seems to understand the moods of 
nature. His technique is excellent, but not so 
coquet^:ishly insistent as that of Larsson or 
so brilliant as that of Zorn, so that his subject- 
matter has a better chance of conveying his 
meaning to the spectator. 

The art life of Sweden is constantly growing 
in worth and in intensity, and the visit to the 
Swedish section in any exhibition is sure to be 
thoroughly profitable and enjoyable. 

NORWEGIAN AND FINNISH PAINTING 

Norwegian painting dates from the secession 
of Norway from Denmark in 1814, when the 
national pride of the people began to e.xert 
itself in all departments of life. Remember- 
ing that the whole country has less than half 
as many inhabitants as New York City, one 
stands aghast at the place which her artists 
have taken in the world of art. 



SCANDINAVIAN PAINTING 



173 



Jolian Christian Dahl, like most early Nor- 
wegian artists, found his country too small a 
sphere of activity. He spent the best years of his 
life in Dresden, but did not tire of singing the 
beauties of Norway in his excellent landscapes- 
Equally successful in this sphere of art were 
Hans Gude and Otto Sinding, who went to 
Dusseldorf for inspiration. The latter was a 
versatile genius of feverish inconsistency, who 
divided his time between painting and literary 
or scenic interests. But " in all his versatility," 
as one of his compatriots has said, " it is diffi- 
cult to recognize other features than those 
marked by will and energy." He also painted 
genre scenes, although in this class of work he 
was not so successful as a somewhat older man, 
Adolf Tidcmand, whom his countrymen are 
proud to call the first Norwegian figure painter 
of note. 

Thus far the Norwegian painters had looked 
to Germany for instruction, but the time came 
when they, like all the world, turned to France 
and fell under the influence of the open-air 
painters. Then they realized that a new chord 
had been struck in art, and they decided to 
convert their fellow-citizens to the new faith. 
They went abroad to get their training, but, 
unlike their fathers, they returned home and 
endeavored to found a national art. Without 
definite rules they may, nevertheless, be said 
to have founded a fighting brotherhood, writ- 
ing on their banner, as it were, the words "for- 
ward " and "home." 

Eilif Petersen and Hans Heyerdahl vddsV. the 
transition from the old order of things to the 
new, combining in their works the best of their 
earlier training with much of the charm of the 
open-air painters. Heyerdahl is the greater of 
the two, without being a profoundly thoughtful 
painter. " His talent lies in a sense and volup- 
tuous enjoyment of beauty, a love of delicate 
form, and an into.xication in the sweetness of 
color." 

The real leaders of the fighting brotherhood 
were Erik Wcrenskiold and Christian Krohg. 
Werenskiold was an uncompromising antagonist 
of academic instruction and the teachings of 



old picture galleries. Nature was his mistress, 
and exhibitions of contemporaneous artists his 
sources of recreation. All the most modem 
movements — naturalism, open-air painting, and 
impressionism — found him a ready follower. He 
painted a great many subjects, but attained his 
highest rank in portraiture, in which branch he 
has not been surpassed by any other Norwegian. 

To Krohg the new order of things meant 
not only an onward movement in art but also 
one in the moral and intellectual life of the 
human race. He desired to have his nation 
lead the world, and believed that it was neces- 
sary to convince her of the soundness of the 
new tendencies in art, if she was to free her- 
self from old traditions both moral and political. 
His best works are his pictures from Skagen, 
which "are free from every purpose but that 
of delighting the eye." 

Far more cosmopolitan than either, Fritz Thau- 
loiv has made an international name for himself. 
At first he painted beautiful winter landscapes 
in the open-air style, generally crossed by a river 
and specked with willow bushes. Latterly he 
has gone farther afield. Beauty is the keynote 
of all his work. He seems to derive pleasure 
from painting, and certainly knows how to 
transmit it to the spectator. 

Gerhard Miinthe is well known for his finely 
colored landscapes; his importance, however, 
lies in another field, — his fanciful illustrations of 
northern fairy tales. " From the very first these 
fancies seemed to be intended as patterns for 
some kind of art needlework ; and since then a 
number of cloths woven after the old national 
style have appeared, which, in- choice of color 
and technical execution, are in close imitation 
of Munthe's designs." It is because he was 
entirely unhampered in the selection of colors 
in painting these fanciful subjects that he has 
created harmonies which have the charm of 
wholesome novelty for people whose eyes are 
weakened by an art which has been called 
" internationally fashionable." 

Christian Skredsvig and Amaldus Nielsen 
are the remaining painters of note of this so- 
called Fighting Brotherhood. Skredsvig, whose 



174 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



ideal Corot had been, represents the gentler 
side of Norwegian art. He is a poet who 
knows well how to create a definite mood. 
Nielsen is a landscape painter. 

The present generation of artists is firmly 
rooted in the principles for which their elders 
fought. They are good colorists, who, on the 
technical side of art, seek for illusory effects, 
and on the other side endeavor to express the 
spirit which they believe characterizes their 
national life. Gustav Weutze/ is a leader among 
these artists, a man of force and honesty, who 
paints correctly and feels deeply. " Most of 
these artists are still quite young," — these are 
the concluding words of the official publication 
on Norway at the World's Fair 'in Paris in 1900, 
— "but when we consider what they and their 
slightly older fellow-artists have already pro- 
duced in the way of art that bears evidence 
of feeling, delight in beauty, and the stamp of 
personality, we have every reason to hope for 
a bright future for Norwegian art." 

In Finland one finds an art that shares the 
characteristic elements partly of Swedish and 
partly of Norwegian art. Her painters have 
not joined the schools of Russia where they 
politically belong. Albert Edelfcit is the best 
known of the Finnish artists. His pictures 
have a luminosity that reminds one of the best 
Frenchmen ; his choice of subjects, however, 
and his depth of feeling stamp him as an adhe- 
rent of the Germanic principles. If one would 
realize to the fullest extent what the transplant- 
ing of art from Italy in the thirteenth century 
to northern climes in the nineteenth century 
has meant, one should compare the " Noli me 
tangere " (Christ and Magdalene) by Duccio 
or by Fra Angelico with the same subject by 
Edelfelt. 

The depth of religious feeling is the same in 
both cases, but its expression is fundamentally 
different. With the Italians Christ was a 
heavenly being, very beautiful and benign ; 
with Edelfelt he is not less kind, but he is 
painted as he once doubtless walked the earth, 
a man of humble station whom gentle folk 
to-day might as readily despise as their kindred 



did of yore. The royal demeanor and divine 
character which the old-time halo reflects have 
disappeared. The fine landscape of ideal charms 
has given way to a natural although not less 
beautiful view of a country lane. To accept 
the Christ of Edelfelt one must indeed be a 
Christian at heart. Nominal followers of the 
Nazarene will prefer the Italian king to the 
Finnish countryman. 

Axel Gallcn is another Finnish painter ot 
note, who latterly has endeavored to express 
vi'ith simple, severe lines and colors the inner- 
most experiences of a human soul. 

DANISH PAINTING 

The Danes were the first of the Scandinavi- 
ans to feel themselves a nation in the realm of 
art. They have little affinity either with the 
Swedes or with the Norwegians, and reveal a 
character that seems hewn out of the same 
block with that of the Dutch. "What they 
have to express," says Professor Muther, "seems 
almost Dutch, but it is whispered less distinctly 
and with more of mystery, with that dim, ap- 
proximative, hazarded utterance which betrays 
that it is Danish." 

The earliest Danish painters of note lived at 
a time when academic classicism ruled the 
minds of most men; when the hozv mattered 
more than the ivliat. Nicolai Abrahmn Abild- 
gard, a great admirer of Michelangelo, and 
Jens Juel, a graceful portraitist, are gratefully 
remembered by the Danes as masters of sound 
learning. The foremost position, however, as a 
leader in art belongs to Christoffer Vilhehn 
Eckersberg. He was one of those remarkable 
people who can teach without practicing well 
themselves. His technique was very one-sided 
and actually crude. His importance lay in his 
opposition to the forced sentiment that many 
continentals at that time were introducing into 
art. "My good pupils," he once said, "always 
wish to do better than God Almighty ; they 
ought to be glad if they could do only as well." 
His pupils and friends understood him, and 
Denmark developed an independent art of her 



SCANDINAVIAN PAINTING 



175 



own. It was characterized by soundness of 
conception and accuracy of observation, but 
also, unfortunately, by crudeness of technique. 
For fully a generation the desire of founding 
a national art and the exalted opinion of their 
work prevented the Danish artists from learn- 
ing the lessons which the best French and 
German masters had begun to teach. There 
was, so to speak, a Chinese wall about Danish 
art. Within this wall several men did creditable 
work, although their seclusion prevented them 
from doing what they otherwise might have 
done. Their achievements lay along two lines, 
genre and landscape. 

Christen Dalsgdrd, Julius Extier, Vilhelm 
Marstrand, and Frcderik Vermehren were the 
best painters of genre ; and what distinguishes 
them pleasantly from other genre painters is 
their national simplicity. Their figures act as 
they should act, without undue reference to the 
spectator. It is as if these painters had too 
high a regard for the public to stoop to the 
telling of anecdotes. They told tales from life, 
but, on the other hand, they did not penetrate 
the depths of the national character. Their 
subjects were Danish, but there is nothing to 
indicate this except an occasional touch of 
scenery or of costume. In feeling they are no 
more Danish than cosmopolitan. Almost the 
same is true, although to a lesser degree, of the 
landscapists — Peter Kyhn and Peter Kristian 
Skovgard — because the moods of nature if 
accurately produced are less readily disguised. 
Skovgard interprets the beauty of Danish beech 
woods with singular success, while the poetic 
eye of Kyhn discerns in his native land scen- 
eries that are akin in spirit to the national 
ballads and fairy tales. 

Two of the oldest artists among these crude 
Independents, Johan Thomas Lmtdbye and 
Jorgcn Valentin Sontie, struck out on individual 
paths. The former painted animals and had an 
especially keen eye for the " somnolent tem- 
perament " of cows ; while the latter excelled 
in battle scenes and pictures of Danish low life. 
In these he resembles the other painters of 
genre. 



Priding herself on the successes of her artists, 
and not a little conceited over the triumph of 
Thorwaldsen, Denmark haddeveloped a national 
school, but at the expense of a thorough mas- 
tery of the artistic mediums. The natural result 
was a reversion of feeling, so that in the 
sixties and seventies the much cherished 
national art gave way to a new movement. 
Artists went outside the narrow Danish bound- 
aries, and stood aghast before the strides that 
other men in more progressive countries had 
made. These achievements they desired to 
emulate, and this left them little time to con- 
sider the individual character of their own small 
country. Very properly, therefore, these men 
have been called Cosmopolitans. 

Karl Bloch was the best known of these 
cosmopolitans, especially on account of his 
excellent technique. In subject-matter he was 
less satisfactory. He continued to paint genre 
pictures, but had lost the simplicity and spon- 
taneity of his predecessors. He tried to be 
humorous, but his humor was forced ; he had 
skiU, but he was wanting in artistic tempera- 
ment. And what is true of him is also true of 
the majority of his friends and followers. Their 
importance is only historical. The Danes, 
nevertheless, remember them gratefully, be- 
cause they taught their successors the impor- 
tance of a sound technique without which it 
would have been impossible to reestablish in 
Denmark a national art on such firm founda- 
tions as distinguish it to-day. The men who 
have labored and are still laboring for this end 
are called National Individualists. 

Roughly speaking, they are divisible into two 
groups, — those who, like the so-called Impres- 
sionists, are open-air painters, and those who 
have not accepted the tenets of this school. 
Per Scvcrin Kroyeris the pioneer of the entire 
movement. His technique, which is most excel- 
lent, is adequate to solve the most difficult prob- 
lems of light and composition ; and he does this 
with such ease that only experts appreciate the 
greatness of the task. Moreover, his artistic 
personality is no less perfect, thus enabling him 
to please every one. 



176 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



Julius Patilsen is almost the equal of Kroyer. 
Most of the other painters, however, are less 
versatile, each excelling in his own peculiar 
sphere. Among the open-air painters who know 
how to surround figures and forms with poetic 
charms of light Vilkelm Hanmiesrhoy, Joachim 



Skovgdrd, and many others have made a good 
name for themselves. At every exhibition, in 
fact, new men make their appearance, who by 
the invariable excellence of their work prove 
how high is the level and how secure are the 
foundations of modern Danish art. 



CHAPTER XII 



JAPANESE PAINTING 



People of western civilizations have so habit- 
ually believed that they alone enjoy the favor 
of Heaven, that they find it difficult to credit 
the Japanese artists with clear thoughts and 
noble emotions, such as would give them rank 
by the side of the best artists of the western 
world. This rank, nevertheless, they deserve. 
There are even critics who, after a prolonged 
study of their art, appear to be in doubt as to 
whether they do not as a class surpass all the 
various schools of Europe and America. Even 
from meager reproductions and those few origi- 
nals which are accessible to American students 
one can readily discover that elevated concep- 
tions are as characteristic of the Japanese as 
their well-known delicacy and refinement of 
execution. The only fault which a novice may 
find is a seeming lack of inherently noble forms. 
But here, too, one soon begins to see with the 
eyes of those whom one studies, and while 
one may not always agree, one feels the dignity 
of the Japanese purpose so irresistibly that 
one is little troubled by the chosen vehicle of 
expression. 

The unconventional arrangement of the 
Japanese pictures, their disregard of academic 
symmetry and any kind of regularity, strikes 
the observ'er as a wholesome variation from the 
more or less strict adherence to these principles 
in the western world. Moreover, it precludes a 
too exclusive enjoyment of the visible work of 
art, and directs attention to the emotions which 
it expresses ; while one of the most remarkable 
things about this art is that the ver^' idea of 
irregularity or incompleteness vanishes as soon 
as the spectator enters into its spirit. 

The material which the Japanese use in mak- 
ing their pictures — called kakemonos — is of 
the lightest silk or of beautifully soft paper, on 



which they apply the colors with the finest of 
brushes. The delicacy of their touch is so mar- 
velous that it takes years of study to per- 
ceive its gradations, while some Europeans 
never seem to be able to appreciate it fully. 
The Japanese themselves judge an artist as 
much by his drawing and his touch as by the 
fertility of his ideas. This is the reason why 
there is a great difference of opinion between 
the connoisseurs of Japan and of Europe, for 
instance, regarding Hoku-sai. The latter rank 
him as the master of masters ; the former call 
him coarse. In defense of the Europeans it 
must be remembered that the commerce of the 
nineteenth century has made them familiar 
with the best works of Hoku-sai, while they 
still lack the means of comparing his pictures 
with those of the earlier masters. 

Japanese painting owes its origin to Chinese 
painting. Of its earliest period Httle is known. 
From the ninth century onward the Chinese 
influences were far enough removed to permit 
one to speak of a growing national art in Japan ; 
but in the fifteenth century several artists again 
made exhaustive studies of the works of the 
people across the sea, and thus introduced new 
tendencies into their own land. 

Japanese painting, like European painting, 
is divisible into schools, most of which, undis- 
turbed by rivals of subsequent origin, have con- 
tinued to possess adherents down to the present 
day. Within these schools, however, notable 
transformations have often occurred. These 
were due to the general tenor of the times 
during which the various artists worked ; and 
since environments are not rarely more potent 
than traditions, some scholars prefer to classify 
Japanese art by periods rather than by schools. 
The spirit of these several periods has recently 



■77 



178 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



been discussed with admirable precision by 
Kakusa Okakura.^ 

The earliest periods are the Asiika (550- 
700 A.D.) and the A"ai-a (700-800 a.d.). Then 
follows the Hcian period (Soo-900 a.d.), during 
which the idea of the union of mind and matter 
grew so strong that the fusion appeared to be 
almost completed. " It is remarkable to find 
that this fusion rather centers in the material, 
and the symbol is regarded as realization, the 
common act as if it were beatitude, the world 
itself as the ideal world. . . . The artistic 
works of this period are full of intense fervor 
and nearness to the gods, such as is un- 
known in any other era." Their concreteness 
makes their appearance bold and vital, but, as 
Kakusa Okakura says, they are " not free, 
lacking the spontaneity and detachment of 
great idealism." 

The next period (900-1200 a.d.) is called 
Fiijiwara, and with it the Japanese national 
mind has achieved its emancipation. The Bud- 
dhist religion had been cultivated in Japan more 
purely than in China, where Confucianism had 
supplanted the flexibility of the original creed. 
In Japan the intensity of religious feeling dur- 
ing the preceding centuries had left the artists 
no time to turn their minds from the imported 
gods to their own surroundings. Under the 
long reign of the Fujiwara family the native 
instinct asserted itself and led to the estab- 
lishment of the Yamato, or native, school of 
painting. No longer did the people believe 
this earthly life to be the only life, or to be 
capable of being made ideal ; for perfection 
they now regarded " as attainable by mere 
contemplation of the Abstract Absolute." Such 
a view naturally made the artists lose in vigor 
but gain in refinement and delicacy. " The 
halo of the eternal feminine" drew closer not 
only to the national religion but also to the 
artistic conceptions. 

The end of the Fujiwara period is marked 
by a social revolution and the establishment of 

1 The Ideals of the East, by Kakusa Okakura. London, 
John Murray, 1903. The present discussion of the several 
periods is based on this book. 



a military viceroyalty at Kamakura, the city 
which has given its name to the next period, 
the Kamakura period (i 200-1400 a.d.). These 
two centuries were the feudal era of Japan. 
" Here we find the idea of individualism strug- 
gling to express itself among the decaying 
debris of an aristocratic rule, inaugurating an 
age of hero worship and heroic romance akin 
to the spirit of European individualism in the 
time of chivalry, its woman worship restricted 
by oriental notions of decorum, and its religion 
— by reason of the freedom and ease of the 
Jodo sect — lacking the severe asceticism of 
that overawing popedom which held the west- 
ern conscience in iron fetters." To a certain 
extent it was a period of storm and stress, 
when "to know the sadness of things" or "to 
suffer for the sake of others " were the mottoes 
of many. 

The favorite lines of work pursued by the 
painters of this period were portraiture, illustra- 
tion of heroic legends, and most especially of 
the spirit of motion ; while religious artists 
depicted with an almost fierce and romantic 
imagination the horrors of hell. 

The next two centuries (1400-1600 a.d.) are 
called the Asltikaga period, from that branch 
of the reigning family which succeeded to the 
throne, and are characterized in art by what 
Kakasu Okakura calls "objective idealism." 
"Beauty," the people of this period held, "or the 
life of things, is always deeper as hidden within 
than as outwardly expressed, even as the life of 
the universe beats always underneath incidental 
appearances. Not to display, but to suggest, 
is the secret of infinity. Perfection, like all 
maturity, fails to impress, because of its limita- 
tions of growth." Such views naturally tended 
to simplify art, so that high-toned drawing and 
coloring were largely superseded by simple ink 
painting. The meanings of the subjects also 
were altered ; for the artists no longer desired 
to depict nature, preferring to pen essays on 
her beauty. Their execution was free and 
easy, almost playful, and was equally delicate 
whether they painted the images of gods or 
drew a single flower ; for "each stroke has its 



JAPANESE PAINTING 



179 



moment of life and death ; all together assist 
to interpret an idea, which is life within life." 

The powerful social upheaval that laid low 
the Ashikaga rule shattered all these ideals. 
Ota-Nobunaga, Toyotomi, and Tokugawa, three 
feudal lords, succeeded in overthrowing the 
existing rule. With them unknown families 
rose to power, and aristocratic refinement gave 
way to that luxury which every democratic com- 
munity is apt to experience at the sudden favor 
of fortune. All this is well illustrated in the art 
of this Toyotomi and early Tokugawa period 
(1 600- 1 700 A.D.), which is more remarkable 
for its "gorgeousness and wealth of color than 
for its significance." Some artists, to be sure, 
strove to return to the purity of an earlier era, 
but since no man can entirely withdraw himself 
from the influences of his age, these endeavors 
were not able to resuscitate the spirit of a by- 
gone art. 

Conditions grew still worse in the later 
Tokugazva period (i 700-1 850 a.d.), when the 
rulers, " in their eagerness for consolidation and 
discipline, crushed out the vital spark from art 
and life." The Tosa and Kano schools con- 
tinued as hereditary academies with ironclad 
traditions and absolutely no free play for indi- 
vidualism. Only in Tokyo, where the emperor 
resided, although he had practically no political 
power, did the Tokugawa viceroys not exer- 
cise their stultifying discipline. Here new and 
active schools began to rise and meet with 
popular favor. The Popular school, which 
had its origin in the Toyotomi period, gained 
firmer ground ; while 0-kio and Gan-ku founded 
schools of their own. The former was the first 
Japanese to study western art products. He 
diligently copied Dutch engravings and finally 
evolved a distinctly realistic style. Gan-ku was 
also a realist, but, unlike 0-kio, sought his inspi- 
ration more distinctly in Chinese art. 

The last fifty years of the nineteenth century 
cover what is called the ]\Ieiji period. More 
properly this period dates from the accession of 
the present emperor in 1868. In art, as in the 
whole life of the people, two mighty forces are 
shaping Japanese destiny. " One is the Asiatic 



ideal, . . . and the other European science with 
her organized culture." The latter has induced 
many artists to forsake their own traditions, 
while the former has called forth a revival of 
the best tendencies of Japanese art. As we in 
the western world have recently had Romantic 
and Pre-Raphaelite movements, so the Japanese 
are now having their Pre-Tokugawa movement. 
Lovers of Japanese art cannot help wishing 
success to this movement ; for they know the 
force and vitality of the Asiatic ideal, and 
therefore believe that it can continue to liv'e a 
singularly delicate blossom on the tree of art, 
while they fear its early death if it should 
become inoculated with the spirit of the West. 

If with these several periods of Japanese his- 
tory in mind one turns to the study of the men 
who through successive ages have placed them- 
selves in the ser\'ice of art, one meets as the 
first tangible personality Kana-oka, in the ninth 
century of our era. At present only three pic- 
tures by this master are known to be extant, 
and from none of them is it possible to imagine 
how he was once reputed to have painted works 
of such lifelikeness that special precautions had 
to be taken to prevent their running away. 
Scholars who have seen his extant pictures 
praise the delicacy of their execution and the 
vigor of their conception. 

In the selection of his subjects, if tradition is 
reliable, Kana-oka was versatile, painting not 
only truly religious pictures but also secular 
ones, so that he may be said to have anticipated 
by centuries the artists of the modern Popular 
school. 

Before his fame that of all his contempora- 
ries and immediate successors wanes into insig- 
nificance. The name of Hiro-taka, however, is 
well remembered because of his tragic end, — 
dying while he was putting the finishing touches 
to his picture of the horrors of hell. This pic- 
ture, which can still be seen in a temple in 
Kioto, may be said to mark the beginning of 
the long series of pictures treating of similar 
subjects in the subsequent Kamakura period. 

Out of the versatile style of Kana-oka there 
developed another school, or academy, which was 



i8o 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



founded during the Fujiwara period, probably 
by Moto-mitsn. Down to the thirteenth century 
this school was called Yamato, while after that 
it was known by the family name of its founder, 
Tosa. 

The characteristics of this school partook of 
the distinctive features of the several periods 
through which it passed, although it possessed, 
generally speaking, a very unpleasant manner- 
ism of its own, namely an "incorrect and 
ungraceful rendering of the human form." 
Another device first introduced by the Yamato 
artists was that of " spiriting away the roof 
from any building of which they desired to 
expose the interior." 

The first tremendous step in advance since 
the time of Kana-oka was taken by Cho Dctisii. 
This man was a monk, like Fra Angelico in 
Italy, and of an almost equally superhuman 
spirituality. His historical position in Japanese 
art, however, calls rather for a comparison with 
Masaccio, Mantegna, or, as Mr. Fenollosa said, 
with Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Con- 
fining himself almost exclusively to religious 
paintings, he is correctly spoken of in connec- 
tion with the Buddhist school ; but, like his 
immediate successors, Shiu-bun, Sesshiu, and 
Masa-nobu, he was strongly influenced in his 
technique by the Chinese. He did not aim at 
realistic accuracy of drawing, and in this respect 
is more like Fra Angelico than like Masaccio; 
but since few Japanese tried to do this, it may 
be fairer to use his color and his force of design 
as a means of comparison, and in both points 
he far outranks his famous fellow-monk of 
Italy. His designs exhibit the force of genius, 
and his coloring is so true and beautiful that 
one finds it difficult to dispel one's admiration 
long enough even to notice his defects. If it is 
true that perfection is uninteresting because it 
leaves too little to the imagination, then Cho 
Densu is supremely satisfactory, because he 
stops just short of perfection, at a point where 
our love and admiration are most readily 
aroused. 

Just as the renewed interest in ancient art, 
from which all western art had sprung, gave 



rise to a Renaissance in Italy, so the redis- 
covery of the superior artistic qualities of Chi- 
nese painting ushered in a period of singular 
beauty in Japan ; and, what is most astonish- 
ing, both the eastern and the western Renais- 
sance took place during the fifteenth century. 
In Japan this age is called the Ashikaga 
period. The impetus was received through a 
monk, Jo-sctsu, who, after a careful study of 
Chinese pictures, established a monasterial 
brotherhood of painters. The real leader of 
the movement, however, who continued in the 
way of the master, was Shift-bun. He was so 
thoroughly imbued with the Chinese spirit 
that his own surroundings did not appeal to 
him. Had he been forced, it is said, to make 
a picture of Kioto, he would have peopled 
her streets, though perhaps unwittingly, with 
Chinese instead of with his compatriots. It is 
this point of view which distinguishes the whole 
Chinese school from the Yamato or Tosa school. 
There were then, as now, critics of Shiu-bun 
who did not like his subjects, and who said 
of him and his followers : " Is it not true that 
these persons incline towards a foreign country 
and despise their own.'" But there have been 
no adverse critics of his artistic powers. At 
times people have preferred the pictures of 
earlier ages, just as some Europeans prefer the 
Gothic period with all its crudity to the Renais- 
sance; but just as surely as no one has ever 
dared to deny the worth of Leonardo or of 
Michelangelo, so the mastership of Shiu-bun 
has likewise remained unchallenged. 

Characteristic of the Ashikaga period rather 
than of the Chinese school was the gradually 
growing distaste for color, the artists preferring 
to make simple ink drawings. 

Sesshiu was the only great painter of the 
fifteenth century who actually visited China. 
He used to boast that Chinese landscapes had 
been his only masters ; but although he founded 
a new school, his style did not materially differ 
from that of Shiu-bun. " The grand simplicity 
of his landscape compositions," says Mr. Ander- 
son, " their extraordinary breadth of design, 
the illusive suggestions of atmosphere and 



JAPANESE PAINTING 



l8l 



distance, and the all-pervading sense of poetry 
demonstrate a genius that could rise above all 
defects of theory in the principles of his art." 

The same may also be said of the last of the 
great trio of the Japanese Renaissance, JSIoto- 
nobu. He was a son of Masa-nobu, — the founder 
of a school which bears his family name, Kano, 
— and was a far greater man. Like Sesshiu, 
he was greatest in landscapes, which reveal 
a master hand in spite of their unreality, being 
largely transcriptions of Chinese sceneries, or, to 
speak with Kakasu Okakura, essays on nature. 
Unlike his famous contemporary, he was a 
most versatile man, whose birds, flowers, and 
figure pieces stand unrivaled in the whole of 
Japanese art. 

The seventeenth century in Japanese art, the 
Toyotomi and early Tokugawa period, offers 
another interesting parallel to the development 
of art in the western world, if this latter is con- 
sidered as a unit and not divided into countries. 
In Japan the seventeenth century is a period 
of shallow showiness, but here and there men 
of exceptional talents put forth their efforts in 
the service of noble art, just as they did, for 
instance, in the Netherlands. Mr. Fenollosa 
calls their position anachronistic, since in 
reality they appear to be sixteenth-century men 
carrying forward the earlier traditions. They 
were San-setsit of the Kano school, So-tatsu of 
the Tosa school, Cho-ko, better known as Itclio, 
of the Popular school, and Ko-rin, the founder 
of a school which goes by his name. 

Tan-yu, or Mori-nobn, on the other hand, the 
most famous painter of the Kano school ne.xt 
to Moto-nobu, summed up the tendencies of his 
own age with consummate skill, and riveted the 
fetters, as has been said, that were to bind 
the subsequent generations of artists. Early 
in life, however, he too followed the style of 
Sesshiu, and his later defection has made lovers 
of the Ashikaga period look upon him with 
much disapproval. Says Mr. Fenollosa: "Tan- 
yu, although indeed an artist of great excel- 
lence, drew a large part of his inspiration from 
his great Chinese and Japanese predecessors ; 
and while we admit that he elaborated a spirited 



technique of his own, yet he lacks sadly in 
depth and sincerity. He wakes up the last 
expiring coals of the great classic epoch into a 
final brilliant flame, which goes out in almost 
perfect darkness. So absolutely did he absorb 
into himself all the art forces of his day that 
nothing was left for an enormous train of flat- 
terers, pupils, and successors but mechanically 
to copy his external traits. The very success 
of his academy is the ruin of the Kano art." 

While this Kano school was gradually deteri- 
orating a Popular school was founded by Iwasa 
Mata-hei. The great wealth of ideas which 
the life of the people at large, rich and poor, 
good and wicked, conceited and honest, offered, 
could not forever remain unused. It is true 
that earlier artists had occasionally rendered 
similar motives, but it is also true that they 
had never considered scenes from this " passing 
world " 1 especially worthy of their brush. 

Late in the seventeenth century an additional 
stimulus was given to the new movement by 
the development of illustrated art books, which 
made it possible for the artists to appeal to 
the masses. Hislii-gaiua Mo7v-nobii was the 
greatest of these illustrators, selecting his sub- 
jects exclusively from the social life of his time. 
He found a worthy follower in Mori-kiini, who 
rendered, in the words of Mr. Anderson, "a 
service to the cause of artisan art that it would 
be difficult to overestimate." 

The achievements of both these men, how- 
ever, disappear before the invincible versatility 
of Hokii-sai. Lauded to the skies by his Euro- 
pean admirers, and especially by the French, 
he is ranked very low by many of his country- 
men. His was the refinement of a noble soul 
and not the culture of an educated man ; for 
he had to work for his living from childhood 
until he died at the advanced age of almost 
ninety years. Japanese connoisseurs blame his 
indelicate touch, and they are right. To foreign 
eyes, however, even his touch is astonishingly 
light. His conceptions are just and noble, but 
rarely if ever as powerful and inspiring as those 
of his best predecessors. His subjects cover a 

' Ukiyo-ye is translated " passing world." 



l82 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



wide range ; Mr. Anderson, in fact, remarks 
that " he was a cyclopedia of folklore and legend, 
and has left untouched scarcely one motive that 
was worthy of his pencil." He knew western 
art and its principles, notably perspective, but 
he continued faithfully in the style of his 
fathers, excelling in fixing the essential charac- 
teristics of his subjects by means of a few 
strokes. In short, his aim, like that of most 
Japanese artists, was to present conceptions of 
ideas, and not to give literal transcripts of 
particular phenomena. The wonderful truth 
of his pictures may well convince the western 
mind that the realistic copying of nature is not 
the finest art. Nature should be studied ; but 
while a man looks at her he should also think 
about her, or, better still, think with her. 

Perhaps the first intentionally attentive stu- 
dent of nature in Japan was 0-kiii, who founded 
the so-called Realistic or Shijo school ; he did 
not, however, entirely withdraw himself from 
Japanese traditions, so that neither his perspec- 
tive nor his anatomy are accurate. 



The works of a rival academy, called by the 
name of its founder, Gan-kit, do not differ 
much from those of the other realistic schools. 
Gan-ku himself was a man of power, whose pic- 
tures, we are told, are readily recognized by 
peculiarities of coloring and a very individual 
touch. 

Japanese painting is an inspiration to the 
foreigner. It has had its periods of greatness 
and of decline, and during the latter the con- 
ventionality of the native style has aided in 
making its standard of art exceptionally low. 
In the finest periods, however, the great suc- 
cesses of the masters have demonstrated that 
the character both of the man and his con- 
ceptions are of greater importance than the 
particular style which his tradition and environ- 
ments place at his disposal. The greater the 
skill which an artist has the greater will be his 
art, provided his skill is accompanied by an 
equally exalted personality. No undeveloped 
man, even with supreme skill, can be a great 
artist. 



INDEX TO PART THREE 

For full names and dates of artists and for pronunciation of foreign names see Part II, List of Artists. 

[The heavy-faced figure calls attention to the page on which a description of the artist is to be found ; the light-faced figure indicates 
the page on which simply a mention of the name is made.] 



Abildgard, N. A., 174 

Achenbach, A., 120 

" Adam and Eve," by Masac- 
cio, 98 

Aertszeii, Pieter, 132 

Alemannus, Giovanni, 100 

Alexander, John \V., 167 

Allston, Washington, 164 f. 

Alma-Tadema, L., 160 

Aman-Jean, E., 154 

American painting, first 
period, 162 ff. ; second 
period, 165 ff. ; third period, 
167 f.; characterized, 162 

Andrea Pisano, 97 

Angelico, Fra, 98, loS 

Antonello da Messina, 100 

Antonio da Canale, 107 

Antonio da Murano, 100 

Apelles, 92, 99 

Apollodoros, 92 

Appiani, A., 108 

Arena Chapel, Padua, 97 

Arsenius, G., 172 

" Arte de la Pintura," by 
Pacheco, 140 

Artistic intentions, impor- 
tance of, 98 

Artz, A., 137 

Ashikaga period of Japanese 
painting, 17S 

Assist, Church of St. Francis, 

97 
Assyrian painting, 92 
Asuka period of Japanese 

painting, 178 
Augsburg, 113 
"Aurora " by Guido Reni, 107 
Ayvazovski, I., 170 

Babylonian painting, 92 

Backgrounds, difference of, 
in Italian and Flemish pic- 
tures, 125 

Barbizon school, 147 

Bastien-Lepage, 153 

Baudry, Paul, 150 

Beaux, Cecilia, 167 

Belgian painting, 129 

Bellini, Gentile, 100 



Bellini, Giovanni, loof. 

Bellini, Jacopo, 100 

Belotto, 107 

Bergh, Eduard, 171 

Bergh, Richard, 172 

Besnard, P. A., 154 

Biefve, £. de, 120 

Bierstadt, A., 166 

Birger, Hugo, 171 

Bisschop, C, 137 

Blackburn, J. B., 162 

Blake, William, 159 

Blechen, K. E., 120 

Bloch, Karl, 175 

Blommer, N. J., 171 

Blommers, B., 137 

Bocklin, A., 121 f. 

Bocklund, J. K., 171 

Bodegoncillos, 140 

Bodegones, 140 

Boldini, Giovanni, 153 

Bonheur, Rosa, 152 

Bonnat, Leon, 151 

Bosch, Jan, 131 

Botticelli, A., 99 f. ; contrasted 
with Rubens, 127 

Boucher, F., 145 

Bouguereau, Guillaume (Wil- 
liam) Adolphe, 150 

Braekeleer, F. de, 130 

Brant, Isabella, 127 

Breda, K. F. von, 171 

Breton, Jules, 152 

Brinton, Christian, writer on 
Russian painting, 170 n. 

British painting. I55ff. ; por- 
trait painters, 1 56 f. ; land- 
scape painters, 1 57 f . ; paint- 
ers of genre and animals, 
158; Pre-Raphaelite Broth- 
erhood, 158 ff.; modem 
painters, 160; the Scotch 
school, 161 ; painters in 
water colors, 161 

Bronzino, A., 105 

Brouwer, A., 129 

Brown, Ford Madox, 159 

Brueghel, Jan, the Elder, 126 

Brueghel, Jan, the Younger, 
126 



Brueghel, Peeter, the Elder, 

126 
Bruni, Fidelio, 169 
BryuUov, Karl, 170 
Bume-Jones,Sir Edward, I jgf . 
Byzantine art, 93 

Cabanel, A., 150 

"Calumny," by Apelles, 99; 
by Botticelli, 99 

Calvaert, D., 126 

Camuccini, V., 108 

Canaletto, II, 107 

Caravaggio, M. da, 106; in- 
fluence of, on Rubens, 127 

Carmelite monks, church of, 
in Florence, 98 

Carolus Duran, 151 

Carpaccio, V., 100 

Carracci, Annibale,and Ludo- 
vico, 106; influence of, on 
Claude Lorrain, 144; in- 
fluence of, on Rubens, 127 

Carriere, E., 154 

Carstens, A. J., 117 

Cazin, J. C, 154 

Cederstrom, G., 172 

Chardin, J. B. S., 145 

Charles I of England, 128 

Charles IV, German em- 
peror, no 

Charles IV of Spain, 141 

Chase, William, 167 

Chiaroscuro, 103 

Chinese school, 180 

Cho Densu, 180 

"Chocolatiere, La Belle," by 
Liotard, 145 

Chodowiecki, D. N., 116 

Christian art, early, 93 

Church, F. E., 166 

Cimabue, G., 91 

Classic art, importance of. 116 

Classicists, Dutch, 137; Flem- 
ish, 130 ; French, 147 ; Ger- 
man, 119 

Claude Lorrain, 144, 157 

Cleef, Joost van, 126 

Closing of picture galleries ad- 
vocated by Courbet, 150 f. 
83 



Clouet, Francois, 143 

Clouet, Jehan, 143 

Coghetti, F., 108 

Cole, Thomas, i55 

" Color cooks," derisive term 

for French Romanticists, 

149 
Copley, John Singleton, 163 
Comelisz, Jacob, 131 
Comeliszen, Cornells, 131 
Cornelius, P. von, 119 
Corot, J. B. C, 151 f., 174 
Correggio, 103 f.; compared 

with Murillo, 141 
Cortona Muse, 93 
Courbet, G., 147, 150 f. 
Cousin, Jean, 143 
Couture, Thomas. 149 
Cox, David, of Birmingham, 

157 
Cox, Kenyon, 167 
Cranach, Lucas, the Elder, 

114 f. 
Cranach, Lucas, the Younger, 

114 f. 
Crane, Walter, 160 
Crome, John (Old Crome), 

•57 
Crome, John Bemay, 157 
Currier, J. F., 168 

Dagnan-Bouveret, P. A., 153 

Dahl, J. C, 173 

DalsgSrd, C, 175 

Danish painting, 1746?. 

Dannat, W. T., 167 

Dante, 97 

David, J. L., 130, 137, 147,148 

De Camp, Joseph R., 167 

Decamps, A., 149 

Defregger, Franz, 123 

Degas, Edgar, 153 

Delacroix, Eugene, 147, 
148 f. 

Delaroche, Paul, 149 

Delaunay, J. E., 150 

Denner, B., 1 16 

Diaz de la Pefia, N. V., 151 

Dionisio Fiammingo (Cal- 
vaert), 126 



1 84 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



"Do not touch me " (Noli me 
tangere), by Duccio, g6, 
174 ; by Edelfelt, 174 

Doelenstukken, 134 

Dolci, Carlo, 107 

Donatello, 125 

Dou, Gerard, 135 f. 

Duccio, 174 

Dupre, Jules, 151 

Duran. See Carolus Duran 

Diirer, Albrecht, 1 1 3 f . ; con- 
trasted with Holbein, 114 

Diisseldorf school, 1 20 f. 

Dutch Little Masters, 135 

Dutch painting, 131 ff.; of 
seventeenthcentury, I32ff.; 
of eighteenth century, 1 36 ; 
of nineteenth century, 
136 ff.; distinguished from 
Flemish painting, 125 f. 

Dyck, Antoon van, 128, 155 

Early Christian art, 93 
Eastlake, Sir C, 158 
Eckersberg, Christoffer, 

I74f. 
Eckstrom, Per, 172 
Eclectics, school of, io5 
Edelfelt, A., 174 
Egyptian painting, 92 
Elzheimer, Adam, 115 f., 127, 

'44 

Engelbrechtsen, C, 131 

Eugen, Prince, 172 

Exhibitions, origin of mod- 
ern, 146 

Exner, Julius, 175 

Eyck, Hubert van, 124 

Eyck, Jan van, 124 

" Factory Forge," by Men- 
zel, 123 

Fahlkrantz, K. J., 171 

Fayum, paintings from, 93 

" Feast of Cleopatra," by 
Tiepolo, 107 

Fedotov, Paul, 169 

" Fetes Gallantes," 144 f. 

Feuerbach, Anselm, 118, 121 

Filippino Lippi, 98 f. 

Filippo Lippi, Fra, 98 f. 

Finnish painting, 174 

Flemish painting, I24ff. ; of 
fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, 124 ff.; of seven- 
teenth century, I26ff. ; of 
eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries, 129 ff.; distin- 
guished from Dutch paint- 
ing, I25f. 

Florence, 96 



Fortuny, Mariano, 109, 142 

Fosberg, Nils, 172 

Fourment, Helena, 127 

Fra Angelico, 98, iSo 

Fra Filippo Lippi, 98 f . 

French painting, 143 ff. ; of 
seventeenthcentury, I43f.; 
of eighteenth century, 
144 ff. ; of nineteenth cen- 
tury, 146 ff. 

Fujiwara period of Japanese 
painting, 178 

Fuller, George, 165 

Furioso, II (Tintoretto), 105 

Gainsborough, Thomas, 155, 

.56 
Gallait, L., 120, 122 n., 130 
Gallen, A., 174 
Gan-ku, 182 
Gebhardt, E. von, 123 
Gegerfelt, V. van, 172 
Genelli, B., 119 
Genoa, cathedral of San 

Lorenzo, 95 
Genre picture by Botticelli, 

99 

Gericault, Theodore, 147, 148 

German painting, 1 10 ff. ; of 
fourteenth and early fif- 
teenth centuries, 110 ff.; 
of late fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries, 112 ff.; 
of seventeenth and eight- 
eenth centuries, Ii5ff.; of 
nineteenth century, 1 1 7 ff . ; 
contrasted with Dutch and 
Flemish painting, 112; con- 
trasted with Italian paint- 
ing, no, 115 

Gferome, J. L., 150 

Ghent (Gent), altar piece of, 
124 

Gifford, R. Sandford, i65 

Giorgione, 104 

Giotto, 91, 96 

Giovanni Alemannus, 100 

Giovanni da Fiesole, Fra, 98 

Goltzius, engravings by, 132 

Gothic period of Italian art, 
95 ff. 

Goya y Lucientes, F. J. de, 
141 

Graff, .^nton, 116 

Gran, Daniel, 1 16 

Greek painting, 92 

Greuze, Jean B., 145 

Guardi, F., 107 

Gude, Hans, 173 

Guido di Piero, 98 

Guido Reni, 107 



Hagborg, A., 172 
Hals, Frans, the Elder, 134 
Hammershoy, V., 176 
Harding, Chester, 165 
Harrison, Thomas A., 168 
Heian period of Japanese 

painting, 178 
Hellquist, K. G., 172 
Herkomer, Hubert von, 161 
Heyerdahl, H., 173 
Hills, Laura C, 167 
Hiro-taka, 179 
Hobbema, M., 134 
Hockert (Hoeckert), J. F., 

171 
Hogarth, Wm., 156 
Hoku-sai, 181 
Holbein, Hans, the Elder, 

"3 
Holbein, Hans, the Younger, 
113; contrasted with Dii- 
rer, 114 
Homer, Winslow, 168 
Hooghe, Pieter de, 133 
How, the, vs. the what in art, 

119 
Hunt, William Holman, 159 
Hunt, William Morris, 165 

Impressionism defined, 147 

Ingres, J. D., 148 

Inness, George, 166 f. 

Intellectual quality of Italian 
painting, 95 

Isham, Samuel, 164 

" Isle of the Blessed," by 
Biicklin, 122 

Israels, Josef, 137 

Italian painting, 95 ff.; Gothic 
period, 95 ff. ; Early Renais- 
sance (Quattrocento), 98 ff.; 
High Renaissance (Cinque- 
cento) 102 ff. ; seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, 
105 ff. ; nineteenth cen- 
tury, 108 f.; influence of, 
on Dutch painting, 131 ; 
compared with German 
painting, 115 

Ivanov, A., 169 

Japanese painting, 177 ff. 
Jerusalem, hymns on the 

heavenly, 98 n. 
Juanes, Juan de, 139 
Jo-setsu, 180 
Juel, Jens, 174 

Kakemonos, 177 
Kakusa Okakura, writer on 
Japanese art, 178 



Kamakura period of Japanese 

painting, 17S 
Kana-oka, 179 
Kano school, 181 
Kauffmann, Angelica, 117 
Kaulbach, F. A. von, 123 
Kaulbach,Wilhelmvon, iigf. 
Kensett, John F., 166 
Kiprenski, O., 169 
Klinger, Max, J22 
Knaus, L., 120 
Kneller, Sir G., 156 
Krohg, Christian, 173 
Kronberg, Julius, 172 
Kroyer, Per S., 175 
Kriiger, Nils, 172 
Kyhn, Peter, 175 

" La Belle Chocolatiere," by 

Liotard, 145 
Lancret, N., 145 
Landseer, Sir Edwin, 15S 
Larsson, Carl, 172 
" Last Supper," by da Vinci, 

■03 
Late Venetians, 107 
La Tour, M. Q. de, 145 
Lawrence, Sir Thomas, 157 
Le Brun, Charles, 143 
Lebrun, Mme. £. Vigce-, 150 
Leibl, W., 122 
Leighton, F., Lord, 1 60 
Lely, Sir Peter, 155 
Lemoyne, F., 145 
Lenbach, Franz von, 123 
Leonardo da Vinci, 103 
Lessing, K. F., 120 
Le Sueur, E., 143 
Levitski, Dmitri, 169 
Levden, Lucas van, 131 
Leys, Hendrik, 130 
L'hermitte, Leon, 153 
" Liber veritatis," by Claude 

Lorrain, 144 
Liberi, Pietro, 107 
Liebermann, Max, 123 
Lindholm, L. A., 171 
Liotard, Jean fitienne, 145 
Lippi, Filippino, 98 f. 
Lippi, Fra Filippo, 98 f. 
Lochner, Meister Stephan, 

112 
Loo, Carle van, 145 
Lorrain, Claude, 144, 157 
Lo Spagnoletto (Ribera), 

106, 139 
Louis XIV, era of, con- 
trasted with that of Louis 
XV, 145 
Lundbye, J. Thomas, 175 
Lundgren, E., 171 



INDEX TO PART THREE 



185 



Madou, J. B., 130 
Makart, H., 120 f., 172 
Malbone, E. G., 165 
Manet, E., 153 
Mannerists, school of, 105 
Mantegna, 101, 180 
Marees, H. von, 122 
Margarethe of Austria, 126 
Maris, Jacob, 137 f. 
Maris, Willem, 137 f. 
Marr, Carl, 167 
Marstrand, V., 175 
Mary of Burgundy, 1 26 
Masaccio. T., 98, 108, 180 
Masa-nobu, iSo, 181 
Mason, G. H., i5o 
Mata-hei, Iwasa, iSi 
Mauve, A., 137 
Meiji period of Japanese 

painting, 179 
Meissonier, E., 149 f. 
Meister Stephan, 112 
Meister Wilhelm, no 
Memling, Hans, 125 
Mengs. A. R., ii6f. 
Menzel, A., 122 
Mesdag, H. W., 138 
Messina, Antonello da, 100 
Metsu, G., 133 
Michel, G., 149 
Michelangelo, 108 f., lot, iSo 
Mieris, Frans van, the Elder, 

■36 
Mieris, Frans van, the 

Younger, 136 
Mieris, Willem van, 136 
Mignard, P., 143 
Millais, J. E., 159 
Millet, J. F., 152 
Monet, Claude, 104, 153 
Monticelli, A., 154 
Moore, Albert, 160 
Mor, Antonis, 126 
Moreau, G., 154 
Morelli, D., 108 
Mori-kuni, 181 
Mori-nobu, iSi 
Morland, G., 158 
Moro. See Mor 
Moro-nobu, Hishi-gawa, 181 
Moto-mitsu, I So 
Moto-nobu, iSi 
Munich school, i2of. 
Munthe, Gerhard, 173 
Murano, Antonio da, 100 
Murillo, B. E., 141 
Musee nationale des arts, 146 
Mysterienspiele. 112 

Naturalists, school of, 106 
Nazarenes, 119 



Neuville, A. de, 149 

Nielsen, A., 173 f. 

" Noli me tangere,"by Duccio, 

96, 174; by Edelfelt, 174 
Nordstrom, K., 172 
Norwegian painting, 172 ft. 

Oil technique, 100, 103, 124 
O-kiu, 182 

Orchardson, W. Q., 161 
Orlovski, A., 169 
Ouless, W. W., 161 
Overbeck, F., 118, 119 

Pacheco, F., 140 
Padovanino, II, 107 
Padua, Arena Chapel, 97 
Pallavicini collection, 99 
Palma il Vecchio, 104 
Parrhasios, 92 
Pater, J. B., 145 
Paulsen, J., 176 
Piiysage intime^ 147 
Perov, v., 169 
Persian painting, 92 
Perugino, Pietro, 101, 102 
Pesne, A., 144 
Petersen, E., 173 
Pettie, J., 161 
Philip II of Spain, 139 
Philip IV of Spain, 140 
Phillip, John, 161 
Pieneman, J. W., 137 
Piero, Guido di, 98 
Piloty, K. von, 120 
Pisano, Andrea, 97 
Polygnotous, 92 
Popular school of Japanese 

painting, iSi 
Potter, Paulus, 133 f. 
Pourbus, Peeter, 126 
Poussin, N., 143 f, 157 
PojTiter, Sir E., 160 
Preller, Friedrich, the Elder, 

119 
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, 

iSSff. 
Protogenes, 92 
Prud'hon, P. P., 150 
Puvis de Chavannes, P., I53f. 

Quattrocento, explanation of, 
96 n. 

Raebum, Sir H., 157 
Raffaeli, J. F., 153 
Raphael, 102 f. 
Regnault, H., 150 
Rembrandt, 132 f. 
Renaissance, early, in Italy, 
98 ff.; high, in Italy, 102 ff. 



Reni, Guido, 107 

Repin (Repine). See Ryepin 

Restlessness in Botticelli, 99 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 155, 
156, 16S 

Ribalta, F. de, 139 

Ribera, G., 106, 139 

Ribot, Theodule, 151 

Richter, L., iiS 

Rincon, A. del, 139 

Riviere, B., 160 

Robbia, Luca della, 125 

Roman painting, 93 

Romanticists, Flemish, 130; 
French, 147; German, 119 

Romney, George, 156 

Room, first painting of an 
actual, 125 

Roos, J. H., 116 

Rosa, Salvator, 106 f. 

Rosen, Georg von, 172 

Roslin, A., 171 

Rossetti, D. G., 159 

Rottmann, K., 1 19 

Rousseau, Theodore, 151 

Rubens, Peter (Pieter) Paul, 
127 ff.; contrasted with 
Botticelli, 127; influence 
of, on Velasquez, 140 

Rugendas, G. P., 116 

Ruskin, John, 155, 161 

Russian painting, i69f. 

Ruysdael, Jacob van, 135 

Ruysdael, Salomon van, 135 

Ryepin, Ilya, 169 

St. Bernard of Cluny, 98 n. 
St. Dominic, order of, 97 
St. Francis, church of, in 

Assisi, 97 ; order of, 97 ; 

pictures of life of, 97 
St. Stephen, funeral scene of, 

98 
Salmson, Hugo, 172 
San Lorenzo, cathedral of, in 

Genoa. 95 
Sanchez Coello, A., 139 
San-setsu, i8i 
Santa Croce, church of, in 

Florence, 97 
Sargent, John Singer, 151, 

1671 
Scandinavian painting, 171 ff. 
Schadow, Wilhelm von, 120 
Schongauer, M., 113 
Scorel, Jan, 131 
Secessionists, iiS 
Segantini, Giovanni. 109 
Sesshiu, 180 f. 
Shchedrin, S., 170 
Shijo school, 182 



Shiu-bun, 180 

Siena, 96 

Signorelli, loi 

Silva, de. See Velasquez 

Sinding, Otto, 173 

SkovgSrd, J., 176 ff. 

SkovgSrd, P. K., 175 

Skredsvig, C, 173 f. 

Smibert, John, 162 

Snyders, Frans, 129 

Sonne, J. V., 175 

So-tatsu, 181 

Spanish painting, 139 ff.; of 
seventeenth centun-, 140! ; 
of eighteenth century, 
141 f.; of nineteenth cen- 
tury, 142 

" Sprawl of legs," derisive 
term applied to some pic- 
tures by Correggio, 104 

Stephan, Meister, 112 

Stimmtmgm pictures, 157 

Stuart, G. Charles, 163 

Subject and technique, im- 
portance of, 117 f. 

Sully, Thomas, 165 

Swedish painting, 171 f. 

Syerov, V., 169 

SymboUsm, danger of, in art, 
93 

Tan-yu, iSi 

Tarbell, Edmund, 167 

Teniers, David, the Younger, 
129 

Terburg, Gerard, 134 

Thaulow, Fritz, 173 

Theodorich of Prague, no 

Three dimensions, loi 

Tidemand, A„ 173 

Tiepolo, G. B., 107 

Timanthes, 92 

Tintoretto, J., 105 

Titian, 102, 104 

Tokugawa period of Japa- 
nese painting, 179 

Tolstoy, Count F., i6g 

Tosa school, 180, 181 

Tour, M. Q. de la, 145 

Toyotomi period of Japa- 
nese painting, 179 

Troyon, C, 1 52 

Trumbull, J., 164 

Turner, J. M. W'., 157 f. 

Ukiyo-ye. i8r 

Unusual conditions in paint- 
ings by Correggio, 104 ; 
by Rembrandt, 133 

Van Dyck, Sir Anthony, 128, 
•55 



1 86 



OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PAINTING 



Van Marcke, fimile, 152 
Vargas, Luis de, 139 
Vasari, G., 94, 95, 106 
Vase paintings, 92 
Velasquez, Diego de Silva y, 
140; proper spelling, 140 n. 
Venetsianov, A., 169 
Vereshchagin, V., 169 f. 
Verhagen, P. J., 129 
Vermehren, F., 175 
Vernet, Horace, 149 



Veronese, P., 105 
Vien, J. M., 148 
Vigee-Lebrun, Mme. £., 150 
Vinci, Leonardo da, 103, 1 14, 

180 
Vouet, Simon, 143 

Wall paintings, 93 
Wanderjahre of German art- 
ists, 1 1 1 
Watteau, A,, 144 f. 



Watts, G. F., 160 
Wentzel, G., 174 
Werenskiold, E., 173 
Werner, A. von, 1 23 
West, Benjamin, 163 
Weyden, Rogiervan der, 125 
Whistler, J. McN., 91, 168 
Wilhelm, Meister, no 
Wilkie, David, 158 
Wilson, Richard, 157 
Winckelmann, J. J., 116 



Woodbury, Charles H., 168 

Wordsworth, remark of, con- 
cerning Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, 168 

Wouverman, P., 135 

Wurmser, N., no 

Wyant, A. H., 166 

Yamato school, 180 

Zeuxis, 92 
Zorn, A., 172 



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